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        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 142,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
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                        {
                            "id": 142,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/fc407e42-3262-4e00-9d43-ed1943929ec0/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ae6341dc-ca85-4c06-b186-57e804a66a88",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/8f62cc5c-75bd-448e-acab-776fab7184f5"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/1194af60-b60a-49ae-8762-cf8567fd21fd",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "fc407e42-3262-4e00-9d43-ed1943929ec0",
                            "name": "Meta Haag-van Pels in Hamburg",
                            "name_nl": "Meta Haag-van Pels in Hamburg",
                            "name_en": "Meta Haag-van Pels in Hamburg",
                            "content": "<p>Meta van Pels married Herbert Haag from Hamburg on <strong>17 February 1928</strong> in her home town of Osnabr&uuml;ck.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Haag was a brother of Anni Haag, who married Meta&#39;s brother Max David van Pels. After the marriage Meta lived with her husband in Hamburg, until their departure to Brazil in late&nbsp;<strong>1936 </strong>or early&nbsp;<strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nieders&auml;chsischen Landesarchiv, afdeling Osnabr&uuml;ck, Standesamt Osnabr&uuml;ck, Rep 492, nr. 707: huwelijksakten 1928, nr. 81.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch</em>, jrg. 149 (1936), deel II, Hamburg: Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch-Verlag, 1936, p. 845 (onder firma Peine &amp; Wolff). In de uitgave van 1937 komen Herbert Haag en de firma Peine &amp; Wolff niet meer voor.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Meta van Pels trouwde op <strong>17 februari 1928</strong> in haar woonplaats Osnabr&uuml;ck met Herbert Haag uit Hamburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Haag was een broer van Anni Haag, die trouwde met Meta&#39;s broer Max David van Pels. Na het huwelijk woonde Meta met haar man in Hamburg, tot hun vertrek naar Brazili&euml; <strong>eind 1936</strong> of <strong>begin 1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nieders&auml;chsischen Landesarchiv, afdeling Osnabr&uuml;ck, Standesamt Osnabr&uuml;ck, Rep 492, nr. 707: huwelijksakten 1928, nr. 81.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch</em>, jrg. 149, 1936, deel II, Hamburg: Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch-Verlag, 1936, p. 845 (onder firma Peine &amp; Wolff). In de uitgave van 1937 komen Herbert Haag en de firma Peine &amp; Wolff niet meer voor.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Meta van Pels married Herbert Haag from Hamburg on <strong>17 February 1928</strong> in her home town of Osnabr&uuml;ck.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Haag was a brother of Anni Haag, who married Meta&#39;s brother Max David van Pels. After the marriage Meta lived with her husband in Hamburg, until their departure to Brazil in late&nbsp;<strong>1936 </strong>or early&nbsp;<strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nieders&auml;chsischen Landesarchiv, afdeling Osnabr&uuml;ck, Standesamt Osnabr&uuml;ck, Rep 492, nr. 707: huwelijksakten 1928, nr. 81.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch</em>, jrg. 149 (1936), deel II, Hamburg: Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch-Verlag, 1936, p. 845 (onder firma Peine &amp; Wolff). In de uitgave van 1937 komen Herbert Haag en de firma Peine &amp; Wolff niet meer voor.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1928-01-01",
                            "date_end": "1936-12-31",
                            "summary": "Meta van Pels was a younger sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                            "summary_nl": "Meta van Pels was een jongere zus van Hermann van Pels.",
                            "summary_en": "Meta van Pels was a younger sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
                        }
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                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/1194af60-b60a-49ae-8762-cf8567fd21fd/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Hamburg",
                    "name_nl": "Hamburg",
                    "name_en": "Hamburg",
                    "uuid": "1194af60-b60a-49ae-8762-cf8567fd21fd",
                    "content": "<p>From <strong>24 July </strong>to <strong>3 August 1943</strong>, the British air force carried out several intensive bombing raids on Hamburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hhrg6\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Given these circumstances, it is logical that the city of Hamburg was mentioned in the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lbet7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hhrg6\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie onder meer: &quot;De luchtaanval op Hamburg&quot;, <em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em> 26 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lbet7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 3 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>Vanaf <strong>24 juli </strong>tot <strong>3 augustus 1943</strong> voerde&nbsp;de Engelse luchtmacht diverse intensieve bombardementen uit&nbsp;op Hamburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hhrg6\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het is gezien deze omstandigheden verklaarbaar dat de stad Hamburg in het Achterhuis ter sprake kwam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lbet7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hhrg6\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie onder meer: &quot;De luchtaanval op Hamburg&quot;, <em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em> 26 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lbet7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 3 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p>From <strong>24 July </strong>to <strong>3 August 1943</strong>, the British air force carried out several intensive bombing raids on Hamburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hhrg6\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Given these circumstances, it is logical that the city of Hamburg was mentioned in the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lbet7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hhrg6\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie onder meer: &quot;De luchtaanval op Hamburg&quot;, <em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em> 26 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lbet7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 3 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (9.985242 53.549156)",
                    "summary": "Main German port in northern Germany: the Elbe River connects Hamburg to the North Sea.",
                    "summary_nl": "Belangrijkste Duitse havenstad in het noorden van Duitsland: de rivier de Elbe verbindt Hamburg met de Noordzee.",
                    "summary_en": "Main German port in northern Germany: the Elbe River connects Hamburg to the North Sea.",
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                    "street": "",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Hamburg",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Duitsland",
                    "location_events": [
                        142
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/fc407e42-3262-4e00-9d43-ed1943929ec0/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "fc407e42-3262-4e00-9d43-ed1943929ec0",
                "name": "Meta Haag-van Pels in Hamburg",
                "name_nl": "Meta Haag-van Pels in Hamburg",
                "name_en": "Meta Haag-van Pels in Hamburg",
                "content": "<p>Meta van Pels married Herbert Haag from Hamburg on <strong>17 February 1928</strong> in her home town of Osnabr&uuml;ck.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Haag was a brother of Anni Haag, who married Meta&#39;s brother Max David van Pels. After the marriage Meta lived with her husband in Hamburg, until their departure to Brazil in late&nbsp;<strong>1936 </strong>or early&nbsp;<strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nieders&auml;chsischen Landesarchiv, afdeling Osnabr&uuml;ck, Standesamt Osnabr&uuml;ck, Rep 492, nr. 707: huwelijksakten 1928, nr. 81.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch</em>, jrg. 149 (1936), deel II, Hamburg: Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch-Verlag, 1936, p. 845 (onder firma Peine &amp; Wolff). In de uitgave van 1937 komen Herbert Haag en de firma Peine &amp; Wolff niet meer voor.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Meta van Pels trouwde op <strong>17 februari 1928</strong> in haar woonplaats Osnabr&uuml;ck met Herbert Haag uit Hamburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Haag was een broer van Anni Haag, die trouwde met Meta&#39;s broer Max David van Pels. Na het huwelijk woonde Meta met haar man in Hamburg, tot hun vertrek naar Brazili&euml; <strong>eind 1936</strong> of <strong>begin 1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nieders&auml;chsischen Landesarchiv, afdeling Osnabr&uuml;ck, Standesamt Osnabr&uuml;ck, Rep 492, nr. 707: huwelijksakten 1928, nr. 81.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch</em>, jrg. 149, 1936, deel II, Hamburg: Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch-Verlag, 1936, p. 845 (onder firma Peine &amp; Wolff). In de uitgave van 1937 komen Herbert Haag en de firma Peine &amp; Wolff niet meer voor.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Meta van Pels married Herbert Haag from Hamburg on <strong>17 February 1928</strong> in her home town of Osnabr&uuml;ck.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Haag was a brother of Anni Haag, who married Meta&#39;s brother Max David van Pels. After the marriage Meta lived with her husband in Hamburg, until their departure to Brazil in late&nbsp;<strong>1936 </strong>or early&nbsp;<strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zzc5k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nieders&auml;chsischen Landesarchiv, afdeling Osnabr&uuml;ck, Standesamt Osnabr&uuml;ck, Rep 492, nr. 707: huwelijksakten 1928, nr. 81.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nmdkr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch</em>, jrg. 149 (1936), deel II, Hamburg: Hamburger Adre&szlig;buch-Verlag, 1936, p. 845 (onder firma Peine &amp; Wolff). In de uitgave van 1937 komen Herbert Haag en de firma Peine &amp; Wolff niet meer voor.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1928-01-01",
                "date_end": "1936-12-31",
                "summary": "Meta van Pels was a younger sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                "summary_nl": "Meta van Pels was een jongere zus van Hermann van Pels.",
                "summary_en": "Meta van Pels was a younger sister of Hermann van Pels.",
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            "instance": {
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                "location": {
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                    "latitude": "52.36853",
                    "longitude": "4.88128",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 279,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/d86fae9b-9972-47e4-a2d0-09c32813e274/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/60372a46-0754-4cde-8460-8c2a436b879d",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f8e8c36c-5f55-43c9-910a-d68eb6a1077f"
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                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/55a83554-90c5-4ef7-9df4-132c1af25453",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/b6db1cbb-c3f9-46e8-a36d-5bf6dd27fecf",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/4a16da66-e209-440c-9ca7-4ac535552649",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/28ca0b7b-d6a8-44c6-a54a-657863742d8f"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/caa75771-165a-46ed-a848-c3a9df9eb52c",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d86fae9b-9972-47e4-a2d0-09c32813e274",
                            "name": "Formation of N.V. Sangostop",
                            "name_nl": "Oprichting van N.V. Sangostop",
                            "name_en": "Formation of N.V. Sangostop",
                            "content": "<p>The objective of the company founded by Benno Brahn was &quot;the manufacture of haemostatic agents and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in those agents and articles, and in their raw materials.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman and with Thelopharm. Sangostop&#39;s&nbsp;records show several transactions with&nbsp;Opekta. Opekta&#39;s competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among its customers.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Doelstelling van het bedrijf door Benno Brahn opgerichte bedrijf was &#39;<em>het fabriceren van bloedstelpende middelen en andere chemische en farmaceutische artikelen, de handel in die middelen en artikelen en in de grondstoffen daarvan</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was gelieerd aan Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman en aan Thelopharm.&nbsp;Uit de boekhouding van Sangostop blijken diverse transacties met Opekta.&nbsp;Ook Opekta-concurrent Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie en Pomosin Import behoorden&nbsp;tot de afnemers.&nbsp;​</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>The objective of the company founded by Benno Brahn was &quot;the manufacture of haemostatic agents and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in those agents and articles, and in their raw materials.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman and with Thelopharm. Sangostop&#39;s&nbsp;records show several transactions with&nbsp;Opekta. Opekta&#39;s competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among its customers.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1934-03-10",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "​Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
                            "summary_nl": "​Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n​",
                            "summary_en": "​Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
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                    "subjects": [
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                            "id": 396124419,
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                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                            "name": "Businesses",
                            "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                            "name_en": "Businesses",
                            "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                            "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "same_as": [
                                "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                            ],
                            "parent": null,
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                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/caa75771-165a-46ed-a848-c3a9df9eb52c/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Thelopharm, N.V.",
                    "name_nl": "Thelopharm, N.V.",
                    "name_en": "Thelopharm, N.V.",
                    "uuid": "caa75771-165a-46ed-a848-c3a9df9eb52c",
                    "content": "<p><strong>Addresss</strong>:&nbsp;Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0grke\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop<sup data-footnote-id=\"snsll\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and the brothers Max and Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Max Brahn was director of Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> On <strong>20 March 1936</strong>, an annual meeting took place in the building of the Hollandsche Bank Unie, immediately following that of Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was also affiliated with Brocades Stheeman. It engaged in the manufacturing and trading of pharmaceutical and chemical products. Max Brahn became a commissioner and vice-chairman of the Supervisory Board of Thelopharm in <strong>November 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1943</strong> the registered capital amounted to one hundred thousand guilders, of which twenty-four thousand had been issued.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>1945</strong>, Thelopharm owned a Canadian patent on an insulin application invented by Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0grke\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 271.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snsll\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zakenrelatie van Otto Frank. Otto Frank heeft Brahns telefoonnummer in zijn agenda&#39;s genoteerd van <strong>1937</strong> en <strong>1946</strong> t/m <strong>1952</strong>.&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. codes OFA_001 en 003 t/m 009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart M. Brahn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>N.E. Onnes Rost wordt voorzitter. &ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden</em>, 19 oktober 1943, p. 6.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Canadian Intellectual Property Office, <a href=\"http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html</a> (geraadpleegd 14 juli 2017).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>:&nbsp;Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0grke\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Thelopharm was een farmaceutisch bedrijf gelieerd aan Sangostop<sup data-footnote-id=\"snsll\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> en aan de broers Max en Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Max Brahn was directeur van Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Op <strong>20 maart 1936 </strong>vond er een jaarvergadering plaats in het gebouw van de Hollandsche Bank Unie, direct volgend op die van Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De firma was ook gelieerd aan Brocades Stheeman. Ze deed de vervaardiging van en handel in farmaceutische en chemische producten. Max Brahn werd in <strong>november</strong> <strong>1939 </strong>commissaris en vicevoorzitter van de Raad van Commissarissen van Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1943 </strong>bedroeg het maatschappelijk kapitaal honderdduizend gulden, waarvan vierentwintigduizend geplaatst was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Thelopharm was in <strong>1945 </strong>eigenaar van een Canadees patent op een door Benno Brahn uitgevonden insulinetoepassing.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0grke\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 271.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snsll\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zakenrelatie van Otto Frank. Otto Frank heeft Brahns telefoonnummer in zijn agenda&#39;s genoteerd van <strong>1937</strong> en <strong>1946</strong> t/m <strong>1952</strong>.&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. codes OFA_001 en 003 t/m 009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart M. Brahn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>N.E. Onnes Rost wordt voorzitter. &ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden</em>, 19 oktober 1943, p. 6.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Canadian Intellectual Property Office,<a href=\"http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html</a> (geraadpleegd 14 juli 2017).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p><strong>Addresss</strong>:&nbsp;Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0grke\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop<sup data-footnote-id=\"snsll\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and the brothers Max and Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Max Brahn was director of Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> On <strong>20 March 1936</strong>, an annual meeting took place in the building of the Hollandsche Bank Unie, immediately following that of Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was also affiliated with Brocades Stheeman. It engaged in the manufacturing and trading of pharmaceutical and chemical products. Max Brahn became a commissioner and vice-chairman of the Supervisory Board of Thelopharm in <strong>November 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1943</strong> the registered capital amounted to one hundred thousand guilders, of which twenty-four thousand had been issued.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>1945</strong>, Thelopharm owned a Canadian patent on an insulin application invented by Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0grke\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 271.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snsll\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zakenrelatie van Otto Frank. Otto Frank heeft Brahns telefoonnummer in zijn agenda&#39;s genoteerd van <strong>1937</strong> en <strong>1946</strong> t/m <strong>1952</strong>.&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. codes OFA_001 en 003 t/m 009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart M. Brahn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>N.E. Onnes Rost wordt voorzitter. &ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden</em>, 19 oktober 1943, p. 6.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Canadian Intellectual Property Office, <a href=\"http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html</a> (geraadpleegd 14 juli 2017).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88128 52.36853)",
                    "summary": "Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop. Opekta did business with Sangostop.",
                    "summary_nl": "Thelopharm was een farmaceutisch bedrijf gelieerd aan Sangostop. Opekta deed zaken met Sangostop.",
                    "summary_en": "Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop. Opekta did business with Sangostop.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "",
                    "location_events": [
                        279
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/d86fae9b-9972-47e4-a2d0-09c32813e274/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "d86fae9b-9972-47e4-a2d0-09c32813e274",
                "name": "Formation of N.V. Sangostop",
                "name_nl": "Oprichting van N.V. Sangostop",
                "name_en": "Formation of N.V. Sangostop",
                "content": "<p>The objective of the company founded by Benno Brahn was &quot;the manufacture of haemostatic agents and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in those agents and articles, and in their raw materials.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman and with Thelopharm. Sangostop&#39;s&nbsp;records show several transactions with&nbsp;Opekta. Opekta&#39;s competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among its customers.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Doelstelling van het bedrijf door Benno Brahn opgerichte bedrijf was &#39;<em>het fabriceren van bloedstelpende middelen en andere chemische en farmaceutische artikelen, de handel in die middelen en artikelen en in de grondstoffen daarvan</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was gelieerd aan Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman en aan Thelopharm.&nbsp;Uit de boekhouding van Sangostop blijken diverse transacties met Opekta.&nbsp;Ook Opekta-concurrent Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie en Pomosin Import behoorden&nbsp;tot de afnemers.&nbsp;​</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>The objective of the company founded by Benno Brahn was &quot;the manufacture of haemostatic agents and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in those agents and articles, and in their raw materials.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman and with Thelopharm. Sangostop&#39;s&nbsp;records show several transactions with&nbsp;Opekta. Opekta&#39;s competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among its customers.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": "1934-03-10",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "​Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
                "summary_nl": "​Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n​",
                "summary_en": "​Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124430,
                    396124435
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2231,
                    2219,
                    2097,
                    2434
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 143,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 154,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "-23.98092",
                    "longitude": "-46.352005",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 143,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/bf17fb0a-2912-4c70-9f22-eb028ff0004c/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/59a72c2a-c340-45bc-8ef5-d0a634dfb416"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ae6341dc-ca85-4c06-b186-57e804a66a88",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/8f62cc5c-75bd-448e-acab-776fab7184f5"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/b6b6c4af-743d-4a49-8876-43b583dcfc25",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "bf17fb0a-2912-4c70-9f22-eb028ff0004c",
                            "name": "Meta Haag-van Pels arrives in São Paulo",
                            "name_nl": "Meta Haag-van Pels komt aan in São Paulo",
                            "name_en": "Meta Haag-van Pels arrives in São Paulo",
                            "content": "",
                            "content_nl": "",
                            "content_en": "",
                            "date": "1936-02-01",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "Meta Haag-van Pels was a sister of Hermann van Pels. Little is known about her move to São Paulo. The arrival date is a rough estimate.",
                            "summary_nl": "Meta Haag-van Pels was een zus van Hermann van Pels. Over haar vertrek naar São Paulo is weinig bekend. De aankomstdatum is een benadering.",
                            "summary_en": "Meta Haag-van Pels was a sister of Hermann van Pels. Little is known about her move to São Paulo. The arrival date is a rough estimate.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124407,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/59a72c2a-c340-45bc-8ef5-d0a634dfb416/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "59a72c2a-c340-45bc-8ef5-d0a634dfb416",
                            "name": "Emigration from Europe",
                            "name_nl": "Emigratie uit Europa",
                            "name_en": "Emigration from Europe",
                            "description": "<p>The ultimate destination of many refugees was the United States; there were also those who left for South Africa, Palestine and Latin America. But emigration could not be taken for granted. Those who wanted to leave entered a bureaucratic mill of countless forms for exit permits, transit permits, entry visas, court declarations and sureties. The queues waiting at aid organisations, consulates, embassies and travel agencies were endless. Rules were constantly changing and emigration countries were making high financial demands. As anti-Jewish measures and threats of war increased, panic to get away grew. In the end, only a relatively small group managed to flee the persecution of Jews in Europe.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Frank, Van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer families also made attempts to get away from Europe. Otto Frank tried to set up a business in England as early as <strong>1937</strong> and applied for a visa at the American consulate in Rotterdam in <strong>1938</strong>. Both attempts came to nothing. When World War II broke out in <strong>1939</strong>, it became even more difficult to flee. After the German invasion in <strong>1940</strong>, the Frank family tried to go to the United States again in <strong>1941</strong>. They were helped by American friends and Julius and Walter Holl&auml;nder, Edith&#39;s brothers, who had already managed to flee to the United States. This was all to be&nbsp;in vain.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Van Pels&nbsp;family was not lucky either. Despite their Dutch citizenship, they did not feel safe in the Netherlands. In <strong>1939</strong>, they applied for visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam. They ended up on a waiting list that was already so long that their chances were slim. Their attempt to move on failed, although some relatives of Hermann van Pels and Auguste R&ouml;ttgen did manage to emigrate to North America, South America and other overseas destinations.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s immigration card states that he wanted to go to Australia, but he also tried to go to Aruba. He also applied for emigration to Chile. But he too failed to get away from the Netherlands.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 November 1941</strong>, all German Jews living abroad lost their nationality and thus became stateless. As a result, emigration became impossible.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Het uiteindelijke reisdoel van veel vluchtelingen was de Verenigde Staten, er waren er ook die naar Zuid-Afrika, Palestina en Latijns-Amerika&nbsp; vertrokken.&nbsp;Maar emigratie was niet vanzelfsprekend. Wie weg wilde kwam in een bureaucratische molen terecht van ontelbare formulieren voor uitreisvergunningen, doorreisvergunningen, inreisvisa, gerechtelijke verklaringen en borgstellingen. De rijen wachtenden bij hulporganisaties, consulaten, ambassades en reisbureaus waren eindeloos. Regels veranderden voortdurend en emigratielanden stelden hoge financi&euml;le eisen. Naarmate anti-Joodse maatregelen en oorlogsdreiging toenamen, groeide&nbsp;de paniek om weg te komen.&nbsp;Uiteindelijk heeft maar een relatief kleine groep de Jodenvervolging in Europa weten te ontvluchten.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ook de families Frank, Van Pels en Fritz Pfeffer hebben pogingen ondernomen uit Europa weg te komen. Otto Frank probeerde al&nbsp;vanaf <strong>1937</strong> geprobeerd een zaak op te zetten in Engeland en deed&nbsp;in <strong>1938</strong> een visumaanvraag gedaan bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam. Beide pogingen liepen op niets uit. Toen in&nbsp;<strong>1939</strong> de Tweede Wereldoorlog uitbrak, werd&nbsp;het nog moelijker om te vluchten. Na de Duitse inval in <strong>1940</strong> probeerde&nbsp;de familie Frank in <strong>1941</strong> opnieuw naar de Verenigde Staten te gaan. Ze worden daarbij geholpen door Amerikaanse vrienden en Julius en Walter Holl&auml;nder, de broers van Edith, die er al in zijn geslaagd naar de Verenigde Staten te vluchten. Tevergeefs.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het gezin van Pels had ook geen geluk.&nbsp;Ondanks hun Nederlanderschap voelden&nbsp;zij zich niet veilig in Nederland. In <strong>1939</strong> deden zij een visumaanvraag bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam. Zij kwamen op een wachtlijst te staan die al zo&nbsp;lang was dat hun kansen gering waren. Hun poging om verder te trekken mislukte, al zijn&nbsp;er enkele familieleden van Hermann van Pels en Auguste R&ouml;ttgen er wel in geslaagd naar Noord-, Zuid-Amerika of een andere bestemming overzee te emigreren.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op de vreemdelingenkaart van Fritz Pfeffer staat dat hij naar Australi&euml; wilde, maar hij probeerde&nbsp;ook naar Aruba te gaan. Verder deed&nbsp;hij een emigratieaanvraag voor Chili. Maar het lukte ook&nbsp;hem niet weg te komen uit Nederland.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>25 november 1941</strong> verloren alle in het buitenland wonende Duitse Joden hun nationaliteit en werden daarmee stateloos. Emigratie werd&nbsp;daarmee onmogelijk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The ultimate destination of many refugees was the United States; there were also those who left for South Africa, Palestine and Latin America. But emigration could not be taken for granted. Those who wanted to leave entered a bureaucratic mill of countless forms for exit permits, transit permits, entry visas, court declarations and sureties. The queues waiting at aid organisations, consulates, embassies and travel agencies were endless. Rules were constantly changing and emigration countries were making high financial demands. As anti-Jewish measures and threats of war increased, panic to get away grew. In the end, only a relatively small group managed to flee the persecution of Jews in Europe.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Frank, Van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer families also made attempts to get away from Europe. Otto Frank tried to set up a business in England as early as <strong>1937</strong> and applied for a visa at the American consulate in Rotterdam in <strong>1938</strong>. Both attempts came to nothing. When World War II broke out in <strong>1939</strong>, it became even more difficult to flee. After the German invasion in <strong>1940</strong>, the Frank family tried to go to the United States again in <strong>1941</strong>. They were helped by American friends and Julius and Walter Holl&auml;nder, Edith&#39;s brothers, who had already managed to flee to the United States. This was all to be&nbsp;in vain.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Van Pels&nbsp;family was not lucky either. Despite their Dutch citizenship, they did not feel safe in the Netherlands. In <strong>1939</strong>, they applied for visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam. They ended up on a waiting list that was already so long that their chances were slim. Their attempt to move on failed, although some relatives of Hermann van Pels and Auguste R&ouml;ttgen did manage to emigrate to North America, South America and other overseas destinations.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s immigration card states that he wanted to go to Australia, but he also tried to go to Aruba. He also applied for emigration to Chile. But he too failed to get away from the Netherlands.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 November 1941</strong>, all German Jews living abroad lost their nationality and thus became stateless. As a result, emigration became impossible.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
                            "summary": "Between 1933 and 1941, about 280,000 Jews fled Nazi Germany and 130,000 fled Hitler-annexed Austria. Many sought refuge in neighbouring countries. For many, however, this was just a stopover on the way to safer places.",
                            "summary_nl": "Tussen 1933 en 1941 vluchtten ongeveer 280.000 Joden uit nazi-Duitsland en 130.000 uit het door Hitler geannexeerde Oostenrijk. Velen zochten hun toevlucht in de omringende landen. Voor velen was dit echter slechts een tussenstop op weg naar veiliger oorden.",
                            "summary_en": "Between 1933 and 1941, about 280,000 Jews fled Nazi Germany and 130,000 fled Hitler-annexed Austria. Many sought refuge in neighbouring countries. For many, however, this was just a stopover on the way to safer places.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": null,
                            "files": [
                                835
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                    ],
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                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/0eb7f3ea-0714-412a-a863-bcd821d5da23",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/27548fcb-0101-4287-bb54-8199ce1ed0cc",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2a5c7562-2b9e-41ab-98db-c56055144c03",
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                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c631f396-52e9-486d-b1a1-1d971d8def39"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/b6b6c4af-743d-4a49-8876-43b583dcfc25/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "São Paulo",
                    "name_nl": "São Paulo",
                    "name_en": "São Paulo",
                    "uuid": "b6b6c4af-743d-4a49-8876-43b583dcfc25",
                    "content": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "content_en": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (-46.352005 -23.98092)",
                    "summary": "City in Brazil where Meta Haag-van Pels arrives.",
                    "summary_nl": "Plaats in Brazilie waar Meta Haag-van Pels aankomt.",
                    "summary_en": "City in Brazil where Meta Haag-van Pels arrives.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "São Paulo",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Brazilië",
                    "location_events": [
                        143
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/bf17fb0a-2912-4c70-9f22-eb028ff0004c/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "bf17fb0a-2912-4c70-9f22-eb028ff0004c",
                "name": "Meta Haag-van Pels arrives in São Paulo",
                "name_nl": "Meta Haag-van Pels komt aan in São Paulo",
                "name_en": "Meta Haag-van Pels arrives in São Paulo",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "date": "1936-02-01",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "Meta Haag-van Pels was a sister of Hermann van Pels. Little is known about her move to São Paulo. The arrival date is a rough estimate.",
                "summary_nl": "Meta Haag-van Pels was een zus van Hermann van Pels. Over haar vertrek naar São Paulo is weinig bekend. De aankomstdatum is een benadering.",
                "summary_en": "Meta Haag-van Pels was a sister of Hermann van Pels. Little is known about her move to São Paulo. The arrival date is a rough estimate.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124407
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2489,
                    2107
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 102,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 129,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.360727",
                    "longitude": "4.879872",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 102,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/2acbbc0d-9757-43ad-af27-8d27e20212f3/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/62928bcc-7011-4ca1-abbe-7f829de1baac"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ff015b88-0c4e-4c37-9e03-faf409e6906e",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7a401952-1cc2-4945-9937-38184cde0e15"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db15398a-d845-4147-9ceb-1530e7e9a4e4",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "2acbbc0d-9757-43ad-af27-8d27e20212f3",
                            "name": "Max van Pels moves to the Netherlands",
                            "name_nl": "Max van Pels naar Nederland",
                            "name_en": "Max van Pels moves to the Netherlands",
                            "content": "<p>In <strong>early 193</strong>8, Max van Pels disposed of his business interests and moved to Amsterdam with his wife. Because of their Dutch nationality, they were able to settle there without any particular difficulties. Their final destination was North America.</p>",
                            "content_nl": "<p><strong>Begin 1938</strong> deed Max van Pels zijn zakelijke belangen van de hand en vertrok met zijn echtgenote naar Amsterdam. Vanwege hun Nederlandse nationaliteit konden zij zich daar zonder bijzondere moeilijkheden vestigen. Hun uiteindelijke reisdoel was Noord-Amerika.</p>",
                            "content_en": "<p>In <strong>early 193</strong>8, Max van Pels disposed of his business interests and moved to Amsterdam with his wife. Because of their Dutch nationality, they were able to settle there without any particular difficulties. Their final destination was North America.</p>",
                            "date": "1938-03-29",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "Max van Pels was a brother of Hermann van Pels.",
                            "summary_nl": "Max van Pels was een broer van Hermann van Pels.",
                            "summary_en": "Max van Pels was a brother of Hermann van Pels.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
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                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/e8477cf1-0664-404d-a851-fe6a97e01e47",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/7d0da592-ac93-4786-b1c3-932a0fd9dcf5",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2ff53ce1-d866-4190-a138-16c32a9eca43"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/db15398a-d845-4147-9ceb-1530e7e9a4e4/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Home of Max and Anni van Pels-Haag",
                    "name_nl": "Woning Max en Anni van Pels-Haag",
                    "name_en": "Home of Max and Anni van Pels-Haag",
                    "uuid": "db15398a-d845-4147-9ceb-1530e7e9a4e4",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
                    "content_en": "",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.879872 52.360727)",
                    "summary": "On their way to the United States, Max and Anni temporarily stayed here, in Amsterdam. After this, they lived at Jan van Eijckstraat 28 hs, Amsterdam.",
                    "summary_nl": "Max en Anni verbleven op weg naar de Verenigde Staten tijdelijk hier, in Amsterdam. Hierna woonden ze nog op Jan van Eijckstraat 28 hs, Amsterdam.",
                    "summary_en": "On their way to the United States, Max and Anni temporarily stayed here, in Amsterdam. After this, they lived at Jan van Eijckstraat 28 hs, Amsterdam.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Vossiusstraat 26 hs",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "",
                    "location_events": [
                        102
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/2acbbc0d-9757-43ad-af27-8d27e20212f3/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "2acbbc0d-9757-43ad-af27-8d27e20212f3",
                "name": "Max van Pels moves to the Netherlands",
                "name_nl": "Max van Pels naar Nederland",
                "name_en": "Max van Pels moves to the Netherlands",
                "content": "<p>In <strong>early 193</strong>8, Max van Pels disposed of his business interests and moved to Amsterdam with his wife. Because of their Dutch nationality, they were able to settle there without any particular difficulties. Their final destination was North America.</p>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Begin 1938</strong> deed Max van Pels zijn zakelijke belangen van de hand en vertrok met zijn echtgenote naar Amsterdam. Vanwege hun Nederlandse nationaliteit konden zij zich daar zonder bijzondere moeilijkheden vestigen. Hun uiteindelijke reisdoel was Noord-Amerika.</p>",
                "content_en": "<p>In <strong>early 193</strong>8, Max van Pels disposed of his business interests and moved to Amsterdam with his wife. Because of their Dutch nationality, they were able to settle there without any particular difficulties. Their final destination was North America.</p>",
                "date": "1938-03-29",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "Max van Pels was a brother of Hermann van Pels.",
                "summary_nl": "Max van Pels was een broer van Hermann van Pels.",
                "summary_en": "Max van Pels was a brother of Hermann van Pels.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124405
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                "persons": [
                    2080,
                    2073
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                "files": []
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            "score": 0.0
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            "instance": {
                "id": 100,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
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                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.369535",
                    "longitude": "4.579472",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 100,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/4397bfde-3eb0-4177-b84b-a8ce859856d6/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/9f136fe9-87fc-481d-b94b-b69a41654c68",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/62928bcc-7011-4ca1-abbe-7f829de1baac",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
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                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/278daae6-2268-4348-ae06-29886b8ba786"
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                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/4837c7f7-8098-4daf-8fb4-3408adb041fd",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "4397bfde-3eb0-4177-b84b-a8ce859856d6",
                            "name": "Ida van Pels registers in Aerdenhout",
                            "name_nl": "Ida van Pels ingeschreven in Aerdenhout",
                            "name_en": "Ida van Pels registers in Aerdenhout",
                            "content": "<p>A few weeks after the November pogroms, she left Osnabr&uuml;ck and settled in Aerdenhout, Bloemendaal municipality.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> There she lived with Julius Schloss and his wife.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Schloss was a board member of the Bijenkorf department store and previously also of the German department store chain Tietz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> After about a year, she moved in with her sister Henny in Amsterdam, before emigrating to Chile a few weeks later.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238, inv. nr. 626: archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Diens Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422: gezinskaart J. Schloss.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Julian Castle Stanford (Julius Schloss),&nbsp;<em>Reflections. The diary of a German-Jew in hiding,&nbsp;</em>z.p.: Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1965, p. 1, 2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Enkele weken na de Novemberpogroms vertrok zij uit Osnabr&uuml;ck en vestigde zich in Aerdenhout, gemeente Bloemendaal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Daar woonde zij bij Julius Schloss&nbsp;en zijn echtgenote.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>Schloss was directielid van de Bijenkorf en voorheen ook van de Duitse warenhuisketen Tietz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij had, net als diverse anderen, de directie van Tietz al snel na de machtsovername van Hitler moeten verlaten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z683c\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na ongeveer een jaar trok Ida in bij haar zus Henny in Amsterdam, alvorens enkele weken later naar Chili te emigreren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238, inv. nr. 626: archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422: gezinskaart J. Schloss.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Julian Castle Stanford (Julius Schloss),&nbsp;<em>Reflections. The diary of a German-Jew in hiding,&nbsp;</em>z.p.: Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1965, p. 1, 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z683c\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Leonhard Tietz A.-G.&quot;,&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf</em>, 6 april 1933, ochteneditie, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>A few weeks after the November pogroms, she left Osnabr&uuml;ck and settled in Aerdenhout, Bloemendaal municipality.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> There she lived with Julius Schloss and his wife.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Schloss was a board member of the Bijenkorf department store and previously also of the German department store chain Tietz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> After about a year, she moved in with her sister Henny in Amsterdam, before emigrating to Chile a few weeks later.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238, inv. nr. 626: archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Diens Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422: gezinskaart J. Schloss.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Julian Castle Stanford (Julius Schloss),&nbsp;<em>Reflections. The diary of a German-Jew in hiding,&nbsp;</em>z.p.: Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1965, p. 1, 2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1938-12-15",
                            "date_end": "1939-11-09",
                            "summary": "Ida Henriette van Pels is an older sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                            "summary_nl": "Ida Henriette van Pels is een oudere zus van Hermann van Pels.",
                            "summary_en": "Ida Henriette van Pels is an older sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
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                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/4837c7f7-8098-4daf-8fb4-3408adb041fd/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Westerduinweg, Aerdenhout",
                    "name_nl": "Westerduinweg, Aerdenhout",
                    "name_en": "Westerduinweg, Aerdenhout",
                    "uuid": "4837c7f7-8098-4daf-8fb4-3408adb041fd",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
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                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.579472 52.369535)",
                    "summary": "This was the home address of Julius Schloss, former director of the German department store chain Tietz.",
                    "summary_nl": "Dit was het woonadres van Julius Schloss, ex-directielid van de Duitse warenhuisketen Tietz.",
                    "summary_en": "This was the home address of Julius Schloss, former director of the German department store chain Tietz.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Westerduinweg 6",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Aerdenhout, gemeente Bloemendaal",
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                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        100
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/4397bfde-3eb0-4177-b84b-a8ce859856d6/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "4397bfde-3eb0-4177-b84b-a8ce859856d6",
                "name": "Ida van Pels registers in Aerdenhout",
                "name_nl": "Ida van Pels ingeschreven in Aerdenhout",
                "name_en": "Ida van Pels registers in Aerdenhout",
                "content": "<p>A few weeks after the November pogroms, she left Osnabr&uuml;ck and settled in Aerdenhout, Bloemendaal municipality.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> There she lived with Julius Schloss and his wife.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Schloss was a board member of the Bijenkorf department store and previously also of the German department store chain Tietz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> After about a year, she moved in with her sister Henny in Amsterdam, before emigrating to Chile a few weeks later.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238, inv. nr. 626: archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Diens Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422: gezinskaart J. Schloss.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Julian Castle Stanford (Julius Schloss),&nbsp;<em>Reflections. The diary of a German-Jew in hiding,&nbsp;</em>z.p.: Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1965, p. 1, 2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Enkele weken na de Novemberpogroms vertrok zij uit Osnabr&uuml;ck en vestigde zich in Aerdenhout, gemeente Bloemendaal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Daar woonde zij bij Julius Schloss&nbsp;en zijn echtgenote.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>Schloss was directielid van de Bijenkorf en voorheen ook van de Duitse warenhuisketen Tietz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij had, net als diverse anderen, de directie van Tietz al snel na de machtsovername van Hitler moeten verlaten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z683c\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na ongeveer een jaar trok Ida in bij haar zus Henny in Amsterdam, alvorens enkele weken later naar Chili te emigreren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238, inv. nr. 626: archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422: gezinskaart J. Schloss.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Julian Castle Stanford (Julius Schloss),&nbsp;<em>Reflections. The diary of a German-Jew in hiding,&nbsp;</em>z.p.: Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1965, p. 1, 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z683c\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Leonhard Tietz A.-G.&quot;,&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf</em>, 6 april 1933, ochteneditie, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>A few weeks after the November pogroms, she left Osnabr&uuml;ck and settled in Aerdenhout, Bloemendaal municipality.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> There she lived with Julius Schloss and his wife.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Schloss was a board member of the Bijenkorf department store and previously also of the German department store chain Tietz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> After about a year, she moved in with her sister Henny in Amsterdam, before emigrating to Chile a few weeks later.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqgml\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238, inv. nr. 626: archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9z9hy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Diens Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422: gezinskaart J. Schloss.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rhmvh\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Julian Castle Stanford (Julius Schloss),&nbsp;<em>Reflections. The diary of a German-Jew in hiding,&nbsp;</em>z.p.: Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, 1965, p. 1, 2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1938-12-15",
                "date_end": "1939-11-09",
                "summary": "Ida Henriette van Pels is an older sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                "summary_nl": "Ida Henriette van Pels is een oudere zus van Hermann van Pels.",
                "summary_en": "Ida Henriette van Pels is an older sister of Hermann van Pels.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124660,
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        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 274,
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                    "latitude": "50.856374",
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                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 274,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/6a946324-bcb0-4f19-9332-61276acd0bc2/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d212d31a-6c0c-471c-b08d-4a81a800f214"
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                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7f401256-5ce0-43cd-a15a-94336d90290d"
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                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c730f47b-7508-4ea2-978e-331073f46ee4",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "6a946324-bcb0-4f19-9332-61276acd0bc2",
                            "name": "Charlotte Kaletta visits Brussels",
                            "name_nl": "Charlotte Kaletta bezoekt Brussel",
                            "name_en": "Charlotte Kaletta visits Brussels",
                            "content": "<p>After divorcing Vera Bythiner, Fritz Pfeffer got into a relationship with the Catholic Charlotte Kaletta. Because of the <strong>1935</strong> Nuremberg laws, which prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews,&nbsp;they could not marry. Since Dutch law followed German law with respect&nbsp;to mixed marriages, German citizens who were not allowed to marry Jews could not do so in the Netherlands either,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;but they could in Belgium.&nbsp;Like so many others, Fritz and Charlotte wanted to give it a try. And so, Charlotte Kaletta spent some time in that city at the <strong>end of June 1939</strong>. In her absence, Pfeffer wrote her three letters that have been preserved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Since Pfeffer&#39;s passport had expired in <strong>January 1939</strong> and the German consulate in Amsterdam refused to renew it,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;he was unable to cross the Belgian border and the plan came to nothing.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"knup0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Justitie: Rijksvreemdelingendienst en Taakvoorgangers, toegang 2.09.45, inv. nr. 1031: visumaanvraag F. Pfeffer, 13 januari 1939</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Nanda van der Zee, <em>De kamergenoot van Anne Frank</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2001, p. 82-86.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Na de&nbsp;scheiding van Vera Bythiner kreegt Fritz Pfeffer een relatie met katholieke Charlotte Kaletta. Vanwege de wetten van Neurenberg van <strong>1935</strong>, die huwelijken tussen Joden en niet-Joden verboden, was het voor hen onmogelijk om te trouwen.&nbsp;Aangezien het Nederlandse recht ten aanzien van gemengde huwelijken de Duitse wet volgde, konden Duitse staatsburgers voor wie het verboden was met Joden trouwen, dat ook in Nederland niet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In Belgi&euml; kon dat wel.&nbsp;Al zovele anderen wilden ook Fritz en Charlotte het in Belgi&euml; proberen. Daarom verbleef Charlotte Kaletta <strong>eind juni 1939</strong>&nbsp;enige tijd in die stad. In haar afwezigheid&nbsp;schreef Pfeffer haar een drietal brieven die bewaard zijn gebleven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Aangezien&nbsp;Pfeffers paspoort in <strong>januari 1939</strong>&nbsp;was verlopen en het Duitse consulaat in Amsterdam weigerde dat te verlengen,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> was het voor hem niet mogelijk de grens met&nbsp;Belgi&euml; over te gaan en kwam er van het hele plan niets terecht..</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"knup0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Justitie: Rijksvreemdelingendienst en Taakvoorgangers, toegang 2.09.45, inv. nr. 1031: visumaanvraag F. Pfeffer, 13 januari 1939</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Nanda van der Zee, <em>De kamergenoot van Anne Frank</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2001, p. 82-86.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>After divorcing Vera Bythiner, Fritz Pfeffer got into a relationship with the Catholic Charlotte Kaletta. Because of the <strong>1935</strong> Nuremberg laws, which prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews,&nbsp;they could not marry. Since Dutch law followed German law with respect&nbsp;to mixed marriages, German citizens who were not allowed to marry Jews could not do so in the Netherlands either,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;but they could in Belgium.&nbsp;Like so many others, Fritz and Charlotte wanted to give it a try. And so, Charlotte Kaletta spent some time in that city at the <strong>end of June 1939</strong>. In her absence, Pfeffer wrote her three letters that have been preserved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Since Pfeffer&#39;s passport had expired in <strong>January 1939</strong> and the German consulate in Amsterdam refused to renew it,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;he was unable to cross the Belgian border and the plan came to nothing.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"knup0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Justitie: Rijksvreemdelingendienst en Taakvoorgangers, toegang 2.09.45, inv. nr. 1031: visumaanvraag F. Pfeffer, 13 januari 1939</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Nanda van der Zee, <em>De kamergenoot van Anne Frank</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2001, p. 82-86.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1939-06-21",
                            "date_end": "1939-06-25",
                            "summary": "In an attempt to still be able to marry Fritz Pfeffer, Charlotte Kaletta left for Brussels at the end of June 1939. But since Pfeffer, as an stateless person, was not allowed into Belgium, it came to nothing.",
                            "summary_nl": "In een poging om toch met Fritz Pfeffer te kunnen trouwen, vertrok Charlotte Kaletta eind juni 1939 naar Brussel. Maar omdat Pfeffer als stateloze de grens met België niet overkwam, leverde dat niets op.",
                            "summary_en": "In an attempt to still be able to marry Fritz Pfeffer, Charlotte Kaletta left for Brussels at the end of June 1939. But since Pfeffer, as an stateless person, was not allowed into Belgium, it came to nothing.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
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                            "parent": 396124413,
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                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2c4e9ad5-bb38-4440-ae2f-7b3fc3fba34a",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/697cb023-79af-4e61-864a-49adce1e8f82",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/e8477cf1-0664-404d-a851-fe6a97e01e47",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/7d0da592-ac93-4786-b1c3-932a0fd9dcf5",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2ff53ce1-d866-4190-a138-16c32a9eca43"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/c730f47b-7508-4ea2-978e-331073f46ee4/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Hotel Siru, Brussel",
                    "name_nl": "Hotel Siru, Brussel",
                    "name_en": "Hotel Siru, Brussel",
                    "uuid": "c730f47b-7508-4ea2-978e-331073f46ee4",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
                    "content_en": "",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.358358 50.856374)",
                    "summary": "Hotel, opened in 1932, located in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, a neighbourhood within walking distance from the center of Brussels.",
                    "summary_nl": "In 1932 geopend hotel gelegen in Sint-Joost-ten-Node, een wijk op loopafstand van het centrum van Brussel.",
                    "summary_en": "Hotel, opened in 1932, located in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, a neighbourhood within walking distance from the center of Brussels.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "2 Rue des Croisades",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Brussel",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "België",
                    "location_events": [
                        274
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/6a946324-bcb0-4f19-9332-61276acd0bc2/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "6a946324-bcb0-4f19-9332-61276acd0bc2",
                "name": "Charlotte Kaletta visits Brussels",
                "name_nl": "Charlotte Kaletta bezoekt Brussel",
                "name_en": "Charlotte Kaletta visits Brussels",
                "content": "<p>After divorcing Vera Bythiner, Fritz Pfeffer got into a relationship with the Catholic Charlotte Kaletta. Because of the <strong>1935</strong> Nuremberg laws, which prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews,&nbsp;they could not marry. Since Dutch law followed German law with respect&nbsp;to mixed marriages, German citizens who were not allowed to marry Jews could not do so in the Netherlands either,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;but they could in Belgium.&nbsp;Like so many others, Fritz and Charlotte wanted to give it a try. And so, Charlotte Kaletta spent some time in that city at the <strong>end of June 1939</strong>. In her absence, Pfeffer wrote her three letters that have been preserved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Since Pfeffer&#39;s passport had expired in <strong>January 1939</strong> and the German consulate in Amsterdam refused to renew it,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;he was unable to cross the Belgian border and the plan came to nothing.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"knup0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Justitie: Rijksvreemdelingendienst en Taakvoorgangers, toegang 2.09.45, inv. nr. 1031: visumaanvraag F. Pfeffer, 13 januari 1939</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Nanda van der Zee, <em>De kamergenoot van Anne Frank</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2001, p. 82-86.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Na de&nbsp;scheiding van Vera Bythiner kreegt Fritz Pfeffer een relatie met katholieke Charlotte Kaletta. Vanwege de wetten van Neurenberg van <strong>1935</strong>, die huwelijken tussen Joden en niet-Joden verboden, was het voor hen onmogelijk om te trouwen.&nbsp;Aangezien het Nederlandse recht ten aanzien van gemengde huwelijken de Duitse wet volgde, konden Duitse staatsburgers voor wie het verboden was met Joden trouwen, dat ook in Nederland niet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In Belgi&euml; kon dat wel.&nbsp;Al zovele anderen wilden ook Fritz en Charlotte het in Belgi&euml; proberen. Daarom verbleef Charlotte Kaletta <strong>eind juni 1939</strong>&nbsp;enige tijd in die stad. In haar afwezigheid&nbsp;schreef Pfeffer haar een drietal brieven die bewaard zijn gebleven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Aangezien&nbsp;Pfeffers paspoort in <strong>januari 1939</strong>&nbsp;was verlopen en het Duitse consulaat in Amsterdam weigerde dat te verlengen,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> was het voor hem niet mogelijk de grens met&nbsp;Belgi&euml; over te gaan en kwam er van het hele plan niets terecht..</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"knup0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Justitie: Rijksvreemdelingendienst en Taakvoorgangers, toegang 2.09.45, inv. nr. 1031: visumaanvraag F. Pfeffer, 13 januari 1939</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Nanda van der Zee, <em>De kamergenoot van Anne Frank</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2001, p. 82-86.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>After divorcing Vera Bythiner, Fritz Pfeffer got into a relationship with the Catholic Charlotte Kaletta. Because of the <strong>1935</strong> Nuremberg laws, which prohibited marriages between Jews and non-Jews,&nbsp;they could not marry. Since Dutch law followed German law with respect&nbsp;to mixed marriages, German citizens who were not allowed to marry Jews could not do so in the Netherlands either,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;but they could in Belgium.&nbsp;Like so many others, Fritz and Charlotte wanted to give it a try. And so, Charlotte Kaletta spent some time in that city at the <strong>end of June 1939</strong>. In her absence, Pfeffer wrote her three letters that have been preserved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Since Pfeffer&#39;s passport had expired in <strong>January 1939</strong> and the German consulate in Amsterdam refused to renew it,<sup data-footnote-id=\"knup0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;he was unable to cross the Belgian border and the plan came to nothing.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"knup0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Ministerie van Justitie: Rijksvreemdelingendienst en Taakvoorgangers, toegang 2.09.45, inv. nr. 1031: visumaanvraag F. Pfeffer, 13 januari 1939</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tzd8d\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Nanda van der Zee, <em>De kamergenoot van Anne Frank</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2001, p. 82-86.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1939-06-21",
                "date_end": "1939-06-25",
                "summary": "In an attempt to still be able to marry Fritz Pfeffer, Charlotte Kaletta left for Brussels at the end of June 1939. But since Pfeffer, as an stateless person, was not allowed into Belgium, it came to nothing.",
                "summary_nl": "In een poging om toch met Fritz Pfeffer te kunnen trouwen, vertrok Charlotte Kaletta eind juni 1939 naar Brussel. Maar omdat Pfeffer als stateloze de grens met België niet overkwam, leverde dat niets op.",
                "summary_en": "In an attempt to still be able to marry Fritz Pfeffer, Charlotte Kaletta left for Brussels at the end of June 1939. But since Pfeffer, as an stateless person, was not allowed into Belgium, it came to nothing.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124525
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2055
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 300,
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1030,
                    "uuid": "e3de02f3-2f19-438e-a125-e55e0c833657",
                    "name": "Briefhoofd hotel Schiller",
                    "title": "Briefhoofd hotel Schiller",
                    "alt": "Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/010194001013.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "Briefhoofd van Hotel Schiller.",
                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                },
                "location": {
                    "id": 110,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.375382",
                    "longitude": "4.884107",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 300,
                            "main_image": {
                                "id": 1030,
                                "uuid": "e3de02f3-2f19-438e-a125-e55e0c833657",
                                "name": "Briefhoofd hotel Schiller",
                                "title": "Briefhoofd hotel Schiller",
                                "alt": "Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                                "url": "",
                                "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/010194001013.jpg",
                                "filetype": "image",
                                "description": "Briefhoofd van Hotel Schiller.",
                                "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                                "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                            },
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/be0bb154-8874-4670-a856-1a51909a7b74/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82"
                            ],
                            "persons": [],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "be0bb154-8874-4670-a856-1a51909a7b74",
                            "name": "Wine stock stolen from Hotel Schiller",
                            "name_nl": "Wijnvoorraad van hotel Schiller gestolen",
                            "name_en": "Wine stock stolen from Hotel Schiller",
                            "content": "<p>On the night of <strong>11 to 12 January 1943</strong>, unknown persons broke the cellar lock and made off with 24 cases of wine. Six hundred bottles in all, which, according to the owner, represented a total value of nine thousand guilders. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller reported the theft to the Marnixstraat police station on the afternoon of <strong>12 January 1943</strong>. The &#39;atelier&#39; was also notified, meaning that the criminal investigation department started looking for fingerprints and other traces at the scene.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is not known to what extent the criminal investigation extended to the surrounding area.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>In de nacht van <strong>11 op 12 januari 1943</strong> braken onbekenden het kelderslot open en verdwenen met&nbsp;24 kisten wijn. Bij elkaar&nbsp;ging het om zeshonderd flessen, die volgens de eigenaar een totale waarde van negenduizend gulden vertegenwoordigden. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller deed er in de middag van <strong>12 januari</strong> op bureau Marnixstraat aangifte van. Ook werd het &#39;atelier&#39; ingelicht, wat betekent dat de recherche er naar vingerafdrukken en andere sporen ging zoeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In hoeverre het rechercheonderzoek zich tot de omgeving uitstrekte is niet bekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>On the night of <strong>11 to 12 January 1943</strong>, unknown persons broke the cellar lock and made off with 24 cases of wine. Six hundred bottles in all, which, according to the owner, represented a total value of nine thousand guilders. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller reported the theft to the Marnixstraat police station on the afternoon of <strong>12 January 1943</strong>. The &#39;atelier&#39; was also notified, meaning that the criminal investigation department started looking for fingerprints and other traces at the scene.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is not known to what extent the criminal investigation extended to the surrounding area.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1943-01-11",
                            "date_end": "1943-01-12",
                            "summary": "Large quantities of wine were stolen from the basement of Hotel Schiller on Prinsengracht 261, right next to the Secret Annex.",
                            "summary_nl": "Uit de kelder van Prinsengracht 261, direct naast het Achterhuis, werd een grote wijnvoorraad van hotel Schiller gestolen.",
                            "summary_en": "Large quantities of wine were stolen from the basement of Hotel Schiller on Prinsengracht 261, right next to the Secret Annex.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 281,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/aff97e8a-4130-4482-aab1-6f0b7cbbeaa4/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/36f1f8d1-cb6d-4f52-86b6-5c356c441af5"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ece3fba8-5b1e-4d3e-984e-8d190e2148ea"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "aff97e8a-4130-4482-aab1-6f0b7cbbeaa4",
                            "name": "Burglary at the Elhoek frim",
                            "name_nl": "Inbraak bij de firma Elhoek",
                            "name_en": "Burglary at the Elhoek frim",
                            "content": "<p>One of the neighboring buildings next to the Secret Annex was home to the upholsterer&#39;s store Elhoek. In <strong>November 1941</strong>, money had already been stolen from the electric meter at Elhoek. On the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943</strong>, money and a typewriter were stolen from the business.</p>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>In de een van de buurpanden naast het Achterhuis was&nbsp;stoffeerderzaak Elhoek gevestigd.&nbsp;In <strong>november 1941</strong> was er bij Elhoek al eens geld uit de elektrameter gestolen. In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943&nbsp;</strong>werd&nbsp;er geld en een schrijfmachine uit het bedrijf gestolen.</p>",
                            "content_en": "<p>One of the neighboring buildings next to the Secret Annex was home to the upholsterer&#39;s store Elhoek. In <strong>November 1941</strong>, money had already been stolen from the electric meter at Elhoek. On the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943</strong>, money and a typewriter were stolen from the business.</p>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1943-04-07",
                            "date_end": "1943-04-08",
                            "summary": "Burglars stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the business.",
                            "summary_nl": "Insluipers ontvreemdden zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine uit het bedrijf.",
                            "summary_en": "Burglars stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the business.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 196,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                            "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                            "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                            "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                            "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                            "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
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                            "parent": 396124388,
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                            "published": true,
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                            "name": "Businesses",
                            "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                            "name_en": "Businesses",
                            "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                            "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                    "name": "Elhoek",
                    "name_nl": "Elhoek, Firma",
                    "name_en": "Elhoek",
                    "uuid": "6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                    "content": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Prinsengracht 261, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was located in the neighbouring building at Prinsengracht 263. Elhoek was also a leather goods manufacturer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uy155\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The name was a combination of the names of business partners Van Elburg and Hoekstra. The workshops were on the second and third floors. When the weather was nice, the staff sometimes ate on the roof at lunchtime. They sometimes heard voices and therefore knew that there were people in the Secret Annex. However, they did not realize that these were people in hiding and they thought that the part of the building belonged to the Keg Tea and Coffee company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hendrik Johan van Elburg, one of the business partners,&nbsp;reported that intruders had stolen an amount of six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the company during the night of <strong>7-8 April&nbsp;1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Bevolkingsregister, woningkaarten, inv. nr. 283: Woningkaart Prinsengracht 261. Referred to by Anne as <em>furniture-making shop</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uy155\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder, <em>Lijst met namen en adressen der bij het Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder ingeschreven (&hellip;)</em>, Doetinchem: Misset, 1941, p. 89.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Pels, H.: Mededeling H. Pels, mei 1995.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013: Rapport bureau Warmoesstraat, 8-9 april 1943, 17.18 uur.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>: Prinsengracht 261, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De firma was gevestid in het&nbsp;buurpand van Prinsengracht 263. Elhoek was ook lederwarenfabrikant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uy155\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> De naam was een samentrekking van de namen Van Elburg en Hoekstra. De werkplaatsen waren op de tweede en derde verdieping. Het personeel at bij mooi weer tussen de middag wel eens in de dakgoot. Ze hoorden soms stemmen en wisten daardoor dat er mensen in het Achterhuis waren. Ze realiseerden zich echter niet dat het hier om onderduikers ging en ze dachten dat het deel van het pand van de firma Keg Thee en Koffie was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Firmant Hendrik Johan van Elburg meldde dat insluipers in de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> een bedrag van&nbsp;zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine uit het bedrijf hadden gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Bevolkingsregister, woningkaarten, inv. nr. 283: Woningkaart Prinsengracht 261. Wordt door Anne aangeduid als: <em>meubelmakerij</em>. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 11 juli 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometehus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uy155\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder, <em>Lijst met namen en adressen der bij het Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder ingeschreven (&hellip;)</em>, Doetinchem: Misset, 1941, p. 89.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Pels, H.: Mededeling H. Pels, mei 1995.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013: Rapport bureau Warmoesstraat, 8-9 april 1943, 17.18 uur.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Prinsengracht 261, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was located in the neighbouring building at Prinsengracht 263. Elhoek was also a leather goods manufacturer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uy155\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The name was a combination of the names of business partners Van Elburg and Hoekstra. The workshops were on the second and third floors. When the weather was nice, the staff sometimes ate on the roof at lunchtime. They sometimes heard voices and therefore knew that there were people in the Secret Annex. However, they did not realize that these were people in hiding and they thought that the part of the building belonged to the Keg Tea and Coffee company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hendrik Johan van Elburg, one of the business partners,&nbsp;reported that intruders had stolen an amount of six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the company during the night of <strong>7-8 April&nbsp;1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Bevolkingsregister, woningkaarten, inv. nr. 283: Woningkaart Prinsengracht 261. Referred to by Anne as <em>furniture-making shop</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uy155\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder, <em>Lijst met namen en adressen der bij het Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder ingeschreven (&hellip;)</em>, Doetinchem: Misset, 1941, p. 89.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Pels, H.: Mededeling H. Pels, mei 1995.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013: Rapport bureau Warmoesstraat, 8-9 april 1943, 17.18 uur.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.884107 52.375382)",
                    "summary": "Furniture upholstery firm 'Elhoek' was located at Prinsengracht 261, next to Otto Frank's premises at Prinsengracht 263.",
                    "summary_nl": "Meubelstoffeerderij Elhoek was gevestigd naast het bedrijfspand van Otto Frank.\r\n​",
                    "summary_en": "Furniture upholstery firm 'Elhoek' was located at Prinsengracht 261, next to Otto Frank's premises at Prinsengracht 263.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Prinsengracht 261",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        300,
                        281
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/be0bb154-8874-4670-a856-1a51909a7b74/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "be0bb154-8874-4670-a856-1a51909a7b74",
                "name": "Wine stock stolen from Hotel Schiller",
                "name_nl": "Wijnvoorraad van hotel Schiller gestolen",
                "name_en": "Wine stock stolen from Hotel Schiller",
                "content": "<p>On the night of <strong>11 to 12 January 1943</strong>, unknown persons broke the cellar lock and made off with 24 cases of wine. Six hundred bottles in all, which, according to the owner, represented a total value of nine thousand guilders. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller reported the theft to the Marnixstraat police station on the afternoon of <strong>12 January 1943</strong>. The &#39;atelier&#39; was also notified, meaning that the criminal investigation department started looking for fingerprints and other traces at the scene.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is not known to what extent the criminal investigation extended to the surrounding area.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>In de nacht van <strong>11 op 12 januari 1943</strong> braken onbekenden het kelderslot open en verdwenen met&nbsp;24 kisten wijn. Bij elkaar&nbsp;ging het om zeshonderd flessen, die volgens de eigenaar een totale waarde van negenduizend gulden vertegenwoordigden. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller deed er in de middag van <strong>12 januari</strong> op bureau Marnixstraat aangifte van. Ook werd het &#39;atelier&#39; ingelicht, wat betekent dat de recherche er naar vingerafdrukken en andere sporen ging zoeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In hoeverre het rechercheonderzoek zich tot de omgeving uitstrekte is niet bekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>On the night of <strong>11 to 12 January 1943</strong>, unknown persons broke the cellar lock and made off with 24 cases of wine. Six hundred bottles in all, which, according to the owner, represented a total value of nine thousand guilders. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller reported the theft to the Marnixstraat police station on the afternoon of <strong>12 January 1943</strong>. The &#39;atelier&#39; was also notified, meaning that the criminal investigation department started looking for fingerprints and other traces at the scene.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is not known to what extent the criminal investigation extended to the surrounding area.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1943-01-11",
                "date_end": "1943-01-12",
                "summary": "Large quantities of wine were stolen from the basement of Hotel Schiller on Prinsengracht 261, right next to the Secret Annex.",
                "summary_nl": "Uit de kelder van Prinsengracht 261, direct naast het Achterhuis, werd een grote wijnvoorraad van hotel Schiller gestolen.",
                "summary_en": "Large quantities of wine were stolen from the basement of Hotel Schiller on Prinsengracht 261, right next to the Secret Annex.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    196
                ],
                "persons": [],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 275,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 233,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.387585",
                    "longitude": "4.880692",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 275,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/3c23b216-9276-456b-b53d-370173d568f8"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c5b99cc8-5554-49f4-921d-337712791ef6",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ea58ebad-5722-44f5-baa9-6501dbff84ef"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0",
                            "name": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                            "name_nl": "Een Amerikaanse bommenwerper stort neer in de Spaarndammerbuurt",
                            "name_en": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                            "content": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Na bommen te hebben afgegooid boven Berlijn&nbsp;was het vliegtuig weer op weg naar de thuisbasis in Engeland toen het werd geraakt door Duits luchtafweergeschut.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de omgeving van Bremen gaf piloot Edward Stull de opdracht aan vijf bemanningsleden om te springen, terwijl hij en co-piloot Samuel Showalter doorvlogen. Boven Schellingswoude werd het vliegtuig opnieuw beschoten, waarna beide piloten uit het vliegtuig sprongen. Het vliegtuig kwam neer op een school in de Westzaanstraat en gedeeltelijk voor de pastorie van de katholieke kerk in de Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank schrijft over deze gebeurtenis in in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A en B, 23 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1944-03-22",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                            "summary_nl": "Terugvliegend van een missie in Duitsland werd een Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress geraakt door Duits luchtafweer en stortte neer in de Spaarndammerstraat.",
                            "summary_en": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 196,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                            "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                            "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                            "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                            "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                            "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124388,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "related_locations": [
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a699d98a-eab0-4e27-a4a1-f2c76df56892",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6e7854d3-c834-44c4-9129-c742ff899d22",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene",
                    "name_nl": "Pastorie Maria Magdalenakerk",
                    "name_en": "Presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene",
                    "uuid": "19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
                    "content_en": "",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.880692 52.387585)",
                    "summary": "The presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene was hit by parts of a bomber that had been shot.",
                    "summary_nl": "De pastorie van de Maria Magdalenakerk werd getroffen door een deel van een neergestorte bommenwerper.",
                    "summary_en": "The presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene was hit by parts of a bomber that had been shot.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Spaarndammerstraat 9",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        275
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0",
                "name": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                "name_nl": "Een Amerikaanse bommenwerper stort neer in de Spaarndammerbuurt",
                "name_en": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                "content": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Na bommen te hebben afgegooid boven Berlijn&nbsp;was het vliegtuig weer op weg naar de thuisbasis in Engeland toen het werd geraakt door Duits luchtafweergeschut.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de omgeving van Bremen gaf piloot Edward Stull de opdracht aan vijf bemanningsleden om te springen, terwijl hij en co-piloot Samuel Showalter doorvlogen. Boven Schellingswoude werd het vliegtuig opnieuw beschoten, waarna beide piloten uit het vliegtuig sprongen. Het vliegtuig kwam neer op een school in de Westzaanstraat en gedeeltelijk voor de pastorie van de katholieke kerk in de Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank schrijft over deze gebeurtenis in in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A en B, 23 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": "1944-03-22",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                "summary_nl": "Terugvliegend van een missie in Duitsland werd een Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress geraakt door Duits luchtafweer en stortte neer in de Spaarndammerstraat.",
                "summary_en": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    194
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2103,
                    2132
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 133,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 147,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "51.665765",
                    "longitude": "5.258659",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 133,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/ee1d26ef-58c1-438c-894c-c82b8aa32990/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f565de08-feb8-4e12-802d-b3f22ff193f4"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/b3b40b42-ea4e-412a-bc36-f0e7dbf5c7cc"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/86b0f37c-86b2-4b6d-962b-c104eaf13966",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "ee1d26ef-58c1-438c-894c-c82b8aa32990",
                            "name": "Trude Leeser imprisoned in Vught concentration camp",
                            "name_nl": "Trude Leeser is gevangen in Concentratiekamp Vught",
                            "name_en": "Trude Leeser imprisoned in Vught concentration camp",
                            "content": "<p>She worked there as a machine stitcher and was part of&nbsp;the <em>Philips-Kommando</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On <strong>3 June 1944</strong>, the approximately five hundred Jewish prisoners from this Kommando, including Trude Leeser, were sent to Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She survived this camp and several others, and was released in <strong>1945</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2002).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Arolsen Archives - International Center on Nazi Persecution, Bad Arolsen, Document ID: 130328407 (Trude LEESER)</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Ze werkte er als machinestikster en deed dienst bij het zogenaamde Philips-Kommando.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Op <strong>3 juni 1944</strong> gingen de ongeveer vijhonderd Joodse gevangenenuit dit Kommando, onder wie ook Trude Leeser, naar Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Zij heeft dit kamp en ook nog een aantal andere overleefd,&nbsp;en kwam in <strong>1945</strong> vrij.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584</a> (geraadpleegd 14 september 2002).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Arolsen Archives - International Center on Nazi Persecution, Bad Arolsen, Document ID: 130328407 (Trude LEESER).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>She worked there as a machine stitcher and was part of&nbsp;the <em>Philips-Kommando</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On <strong>3 June 1944</strong>, the approximately five hundred Jewish prisoners from this Kommando, including Trude Leeser, were sent to Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She survived this camp and several others, and was released in <strong>1945</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2002).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Arolsen Archives - International Center on Nazi Persecution, Bad Arolsen, Document ID: 130328407 (Trude LEESER)</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1943-02-10",
                            "date_end": "1944-06-03",
                            "summary": "Trude Leeser was niece of Hermann van Pels and was imprisoned in Vught from early 1943.",
                            "summary_nl": "Trude Leeser was nichtje van Hermann van Pels en zat vanaf begin 1943 in Vught gevangen.",
                            "summary_en": "Trude Leeser was niece of Hermann van Pels and was imprisoned in Vught from early 1943.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 135,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/dc6bfa88-b7bd-4405-bc13-6d9d3b6c24b5/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f565de08-feb8-4e12-802d-b3f22ff193f4"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/8e5c41dc-692f-4e46-86d4-ccc63b2ddacd"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/86b0f37c-86b2-4b6d-962b-c104eaf13966",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "dc6bfa88-b7bd-4405-bc13-6d9d3b6c24b5",
                            "name": "Henny van Pels imprisoned in Vught concentration camp",
                            "name_nl": "Henny van Pels gevangen in Concentratiekamp Vught",
                            "name_en": "Henny van Pels imprisoned in Vught concentration camp",
                            "content": "<p>After eight months in Vught, she was transferred to Westerbork on 11 September 1943.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ca190\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was only there fore three days;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cdtix\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;six days later she was murdered in Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ezze\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ca190\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/385723\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/385723</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cdtix\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/130338592\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/130338592</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ezze\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Burgerlijke Stand, toegang 5009, inv. nr. 7396: A-register 85, 76v, nr. 450.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Na acht maanden Vught volgde op <strong>11 september 1943</strong> haar overbrenging naar Westerbork.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ca190\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Daar bleef ze maar drie dagen;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cdtix\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;zes dagen later werd ze in Auschwitz vermoord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ezze\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ca190\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/385723\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/385723</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cdtix\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/130338592\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/130338592</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ezze\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Burgerlijke Stand, toegang 5009, inv. nr. 7396: A-register 85, 76v, nr. 450.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>After eight months in Vught, she was transferred to Westerbork on 11 September 1943.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ca190\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was only there fore three days;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cdtix\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;six days later she was murdered in Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ezze\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ca190\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/385723\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/385723</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cdtix\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/130338592\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/130338592</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ezze\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Burgerlijke Stand, toegang 5009, inv. nr. 7396: A-register 85, 76v, nr. 450.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1943-02-24",
                            "date_end": "1943-09-11",
                            "summary": "Henny van Pels was a sister of Hermann van Pels. In Vught, she worked as a furrier. On 11 September 1943, she was transferred to camp Westerbork. From there, she was deported to Auschwitz concentration camp on 14 September 1943, where she was killed shortly after arrival.",
                            "summary_nl": "Henny van Pels was een zus van Hermann van Pels. In Vught werkte zij als bontwerkster. Op 11 september 1943 is ze naar kamp Westerbork overgebracht. Daarvandaan is ze op 14 september 1943 naar concentratiekamp Auschwitz gedeporteerd, waar ze kort na aankomst is vermoord.",
                            "summary_en": "Henny van Pels was a sister of Hermann van Pels. In Vught, she worked as a furrier. On 11 September 1943, she was transferred to camp Westerbork. From there, she was deported to Auschwitz concentration camp on 14 September 1943, where she was killed shortly after arrival.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124393,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/2f953762-15f3-4feb-b405-3e6663a0db05/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "2f953762-15f3-4feb-b405-3e6663a0db05",
                            "name": "Concentration camps",
                            "name_nl": "Concentratiekampen",
                            "name_en": "Concentration camps",
                            "description": "<p>There were about 1,000 concentration and sub-camps and seven extermination camps. They were designed for the murder of millions of people, the elimination of political opponents, exploitation through forced labour, human medical experiments and the internment of prisoners of war. The camp system was an essential part of the National Socialist regime of injustice, from which large branches of German industry directly or indirectly benefitted.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people from the Secret Annex all ended up in various concentration and extermination camps:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul style=\"margin-left:40px\">\r\n\t<li>Anne Frank: Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen</li>\r\n\t<li>Margot Frank:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen</li>\r\n\t<li>Edith Frank:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau</li>\r\n\t<li>Otto Frank: Westerbork, Auschwitz-I</li>\r\n\t<li>Peter van Pels: Westerbork,&nbsp;Auschwitz-I, Mauthausen, Melk</li>\r\n\t<li>Hermann van Pels:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-I</li>\r\n\t<li>Auguste van Pels:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen, Raguhn</li>\r\n\t<li>Fritz Pfeffer:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-I, Neuengamme</li>\r\n</ul>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Er waren ongeveer 1.000 concentratie- en subkampen en zeven vernietigingskampen. Ze waren bedoeld voor de moord op miljoenen mensen, de eliminatie van politieke tegenstanders, de uitbuiting door dwangarbeid, menselijke medische experimenten en de internering van krijgsgevangenen. Het kampsysteem vormde een essentieel onderdeel van het nationaal-socialistische regime van onrecht, waarvan grote takken van de Duitse industrie direct of indirect profiteerden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers uit het Achterhuis belandden allemaal&nbsp;in verschillende concentratie- en vernietigingskampen:&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<ul style=\"margin-left:40px\">\r\n\t<li>Anne Frank: Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen</li>\r\n\t<li>Margot Frank:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen</li>\r\n\t<li>Edith Frank:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau</li>\r\n\t<li>Otto Frank: Westerbork, Auschwitz-I</li>\r\n\t<li>Peter van Pels: Westerbork,&nbsp;Auschwitz-I, Mauthausen, Melk</li>\r\n\t<li>Hermann van Pels:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-I</li>\r\n\t<li>Auguste van Pels:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen, Raguhn</li>\r\n\t<li>Fritz Pfeffer:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-I, Neuengamme</li>\r\n</ul>",
                            "description_en": "<p>There were about 1,000 concentration and sub-camps and seven extermination camps. They were designed for the murder of millions of people, the elimination of political opponents, exploitation through forced labour, human medical experiments and the internment of prisoners of war. The camp system was an essential part of the National Socialist regime of injustice, from which large branches of German industry directly or indirectly benefitted.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people from the Secret Annex all ended up in various concentration and extermination camps:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul style=\"margin-left:40px\">\r\n\t<li>Anne Frank: Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen</li>\r\n\t<li>Margot Frank:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen</li>\r\n\t<li>Edith Frank:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau</li>\r\n\t<li>Otto Frank: Westerbork, Auschwitz-I</li>\r\n\t<li>Peter van Pels: Westerbork,&nbsp;Auschwitz-I, Mauthausen, Melk</li>\r\n\t<li>Hermann van Pels:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-I</li>\r\n\t<li>Auguste van Pels:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen Belsen, Raguhn</li>\r\n\t<li>Fritz Pfeffer:&nbsp;Westerbork, Auschwitz-I, Neuengamme</li>\r\n</ul>",
                            "summary": "Concentration camps is the collective term for internment facilities, usually in the form of huts, used to (forcibly) imprison people. Before and during World War II, concentration camps were used to imprison or kill persecuted people. They were also used for forced labour.",
                            "summary_nl": "Concentratiekampen is het verzamelbegrip voor de gevangenenkampen, meestal in de vorm van barakken, die worden gebruikt om mensen (gedwongen) te verzamelen. Voor en tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog werden concentratiekampen gebruikt om vervolgden op te sluiten of te vermoorden. Ook werden ze gebruikt voor de tewerkstelling van gevangenen.",
                            "summary_en": "Concentration camps is the collective term for internment facilities, usually in the form of huts, used to (forcibly) imprison people. Before and during World War II, concentration camps were used to imprison or kill persecuted people. They were also used for forced labour.",
                            "same_as": [
                                "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2017"
                            ],
                            "parent": null,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124661,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d47a0e7d-c105-4da3-82fa-3212475a577c/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d47a0e7d-c105-4da3-82fa-3212475a577c",
                            "name": "Holocaust",
                            "name_nl": "Holocaust",
                            "name_en": "Holocaust",
                            "description": "<p>&nbsp;Most of the killings took place in death camps in gas chambers and in mass executions by Einsatzgruppen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j1qs3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;As a result, between 5.1 and 6 million Jews were killed, including 102.000 to 104.000 Dutch Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sz0sf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In Eastern Europe, Jews were largely murdered in mass executions, while Western European Jews were largely transported via transit camps to extermination camps in Eastern Europe to be gassed.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j1qs3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor samenvattende overzichtsartikelen, zie: Koen Smilde, Wat is de Holocaust?, <a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/wat-is-de-holocaust/\">https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/wat-is-de-holocaust/</a> (geraadpleegd 22 maart 2023); Kevin Prenger, De Holocaust &ndash; Systematische Jodenvervolging door de nazi&rsquo;s, <a href=\"https://historiek.net/holocaust-betekenis-samenvatting-jodenvervolging/135570/\">https://historiek.net/holocaust-betekenis-samenvatting-jodenvervolging/135570/</a> (geraadpleegd 22 maart 2023).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sz0sf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie o.a.: Jacques Presser, <em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965; Nanda van der Zee, <em>Om erger te voorkomen. De voorbereiding en uitvoering van de vernietiging van het Nederlandse Jodendom tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1997;&nbsp;Bob Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden. De nazi-vervolging van de Joden in Nederland</em>, Amsterdam: Bakker, 1998;&nbsp; Pim Griffioen &amp; Ron Zeller, <em>Jodenvervolging in Nederland, Frankrijk en Belgi&euml; 1940-1945.&nbsp;Overeenkomsten, verschillen, oorzaken</em>, Amsterdam: Boom, 2011;&nbsp;Carry van Lakerveld &amp; Victor Levie, <em>&#39;Ze doen ons niets&#39;. Vervolging en deportatie van de Joden in Nederland 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Boom, 2016;&nbsp;Katja Happe, <em>Veel valse hoop. De Jodenvervolging in Nederland 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2018;&nbsp;Conny Kristel, Boudewijn Smits &amp; Frank van Vree (red.), <em>Jodenvervolging in Nederland 1940-1945 : Wat Loe de Jong schreef over de Sjoa in &#39;Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog&#39;</em>, Laren: Verbum, 2018</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>&nbsp;De moorden vonden grotendeels plaats in vernietigingskampen in gaskamers en bij massa-executies door Einsatzgruppen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vazq1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Hierdoor kwamen tussen de 5,1&nbsp;en 6 miljoen Joden om het leven, waarvan 102.000 tot 104.000 Nederlandse Joden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x5n7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In Oost-Europa werden de Joden grotendeels vermoord tijdens massa-executies, terwijl de West-Europese Joden grotendeels via doorgangskampen werden getransporteerd naar vernietigingskampen in Oost-Europa om daar te worden vergast.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vazq1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor samenvattende overzichtsartikelen, zie: Koen Smilde, Wat is de Holocaust?, <a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/wat-is-de-holocaust/\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/wat-is-de-holocaust/</a> (geraadpleegd 22 maart 2023); Kevin Prenger, De Holocaust &ndash; Systematische Jodenvervolging door de nazi&rsquo;s, <a href=\"https://historiek.net/holocaust-betekenis-samenvatting-jodenvervolging/135570/\" target=\"_blank\">https://historiek.net/holocaust-betekenis-samenvatting-jodenvervolging/135570/</a> (geraadpleegd 22 maart 2023).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x5n7r\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie o.a.: Jacques Presser, <em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965; Nanda van der Zee, <em>Om erger te voorkomen. De voorbereiding en uitvoering van de vernietiging van het Nederlandse Jodendom tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1997;&nbsp;Bob Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden. De nazi-vervolging van de Joden in Nederland</em>, Amsterdam: Bakker, 1998;&nbsp; Pim Griffioen &amp; Ron Zeller, <em>Jodenvervolging in Nederland, Frankrijk en Belgi&euml; 1940-1945.&nbsp;Overeenkomsten, verschillen, oorzaken</em>, Amsterdam: Boom, 2011;&nbsp;Carry van Lakerveld &amp; Victor Levie, <em>&#39;Ze doen ons niets&#39;. Vervolging en deportatie van de Joden in Nederland 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Boom, 2016;&nbsp;Katja Happe, <em>Veel valse hoop. De Jodenvervolging in Nederland 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2018;&nbsp;Conny Kristel, Boudewijn Smits &amp; Frank van Vree (red.), <em>Jodenvervolging in Nederland 1940-1945 : Wat Loe de Jong schreef over de Sjoa in &#39;Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog&#39;</em>, Laren: Verbum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>&nbsp;Most of the killings took place in death camps in gas chambers and in mass executions by Einsatzgruppen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j1qs3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;As a result, between 5.1 and 6 million Jews were killed, including 102.000 to 104.000 Dutch Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sz0sf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In Eastern Europe, Jews were largely murdered in mass executions, while Western European Jews were largely transported via transit camps to extermination camps in Eastern Europe to be gassed.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j1qs3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor samenvattende overzichtsartikelen, zie: Koen Smilde, Wat is de Holocaust?, <a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/wat-is-de-holocaust/\">https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/wat-is-de-holocaust/</a> (geraadpleegd 22 maart 2023); Kevin Prenger, De Holocaust &ndash; Systematische Jodenvervolging door de nazi&rsquo;s, <a href=\"https://historiek.net/holocaust-betekenis-samenvatting-jodenvervolging/135570/\">https://historiek.net/holocaust-betekenis-samenvatting-jodenvervolging/135570/</a> (geraadpleegd 22 maart 2023).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sz0sf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie o.a.: Jacques Presser, <em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965; Nanda van der Zee, <em>Om erger te voorkomen. De voorbereiding en uitvoering van de vernietiging van het Nederlandse Jodendom tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1997;&nbsp;Bob Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden. De nazi-vervolging van de Joden in Nederland</em>, Amsterdam: Bakker, 1998;&nbsp; Pim Griffioen &amp; Ron Zeller, <em>Jodenvervolging in Nederland, Frankrijk en Belgi&euml; 1940-1945.&nbsp;Overeenkomsten, verschillen, oorzaken</em>, Amsterdam: Boom, 2011;&nbsp;Carry van Lakerveld &amp; Victor Levie, <em>&#39;Ze doen ons niets&#39;. Vervolging en deportatie van de Joden in Nederland 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Boom, 2016;&nbsp;Katja Happe, <em>Veel valse hoop. De Jodenvervolging in Nederland 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2018;&nbsp;Conny Kristel, Boudewijn Smits &amp; Frank van Vree (red.), <em>Jodenvervolging in Nederland 1940-1945 : Wat Loe de Jong schreef over de Sjoa in &#39;Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog&#39;</em>, Laren: Verbum, 2018</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The Holocaust, also called Shoah or Shoa, was the systematic persecution and genocide of Jews by the Nazis and their allies before and during World War II.",
                            "summary_nl": "De Holocaust, ook wel Shoah, Shoa of Sjoa genoemd, was de systematische Jodenvervolging en genocide door de nazi's en hun bondgenoten voor en tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.",
                            "summary_en": "The Holocaust, also called Shoah or Shoa, was the systematic persecution and genocide of Jews by the Nazis and their allies before and during World War II.",
                            "same_as": [
                                "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2005"
                            ],
                            "parent": 396124591,
                            "files": []
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                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/3e426d6a-4607-4dd4-a82b-68edb209f8b6",
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                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/86b0f37c-86b2-4b6d-962b-c104eaf13966/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Camp Vught",
                    "name_nl": "Kamp Vught",
                    "name_en": "Camp Vught",
                    "uuid": "86b0f37c-86b2-4b6d-962b-c104eaf13966",
                    "content": "<p>Camp Vught (German official name: <em>Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch</em>) was located in the North Brabant town of Vught near the recreational lake the IJzeren Man. It functioned as a concentration camp for over a year and a half.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k4rl0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k4rl0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie de website van Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught:&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.nmkampvught.nl/\">https://www.nmkampvught.nl/</a>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>Kamp Vught (officieel Duits: <em>Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch</em>) bevond zich in de Noord-Brabantse plaats Vught nabij de recreatieplas de IJzeren Man. Het heeft ruim anderhalf jaar als concentratiekamp gefunctioneerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hd4zw\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hd4zw\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie de website van Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught:&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.nmkampvught.nl/\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.nmkampvught.nl/</a>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p>Camp Vught (German official name: <em>Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch</em>) was located in the North Brabant town of Vught near the recreational lake the IJzeren Man. It functioned as a concentration camp for over a year and a half.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k4rl0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k4rl0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie de website van Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught:&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.nmkampvught.nl/\">https://www.nmkampvught.nl/</a>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (5.258659 51.665765)",
                    "summary": "Camp Vught was one of three German concentration camps in the Netherlands during World War II.",
                    "summary_nl": "Kamp Vught was een van de drie Duitse concentratiekampen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.",
                    "summary_en": "Camp Vught was one of three German concentration camps in the Netherlands during World War II.",
                    "same_as": [
                        "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/kampen/4884"
                    ],
                    "street": "Lunettenlaan 600",
                    "zipcode": "5263 NT",
                    "city": "Vught",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        133,
                        135
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/ee1d26ef-58c1-438c-894c-c82b8aa32990/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "ee1d26ef-58c1-438c-894c-c82b8aa32990",
                "name": "Trude Leeser imprisoned in Vught concentration camp",
                "name_nl": "Trude Leeser is gevangen in Concentratiekamp Vught",
                "name_en": "Trude Leeser imprisoned in Vught concentration camp",
                "content": "<p>She worked there as a machine stitcher and was part of&nbsp;the <em>Philips-Kommando</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On <strong>3 June 1944</strong>, the approximately five hundred Jewish prisoners from this Kommando, including Trude Leeser, were sent to Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She survived this camp and several others, and was released in <strong>1945</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2002).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Arolsen Archives - International Center on Nazi Persecution, Bad Arolsen, Document ID: 130328407 (Trude LEESER)</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Ze werkte er als machinestikster en deed dienst bij het zogenaamde Philips-Kommando.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Op <strong>3 juni 1944</strong> gingen de ongeveer vijhonderd Joodse gevangenenuit dit Kommando, onder wie ook Trude Leeser, naar Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Zij heeft dit kamp en ook nog een aantal andere overleefd,&nbsp;en kwam in <strong>1945</strong> vrij.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584\" target=\"_blank\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584</a> (geraadpleegd 14 september 2002).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Arolsen Archives - International Center on Nazi Persecution, Bad Arolsen, Document ID: 130328407 (Trude LEESER).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>She worked there as a machine stitcher and was part of&nbsp;the <em>Philips-Kommando</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On <strong>3 June 1944</strong>, the approximately five hundred Jewish prisoners from this Kommando, including Trude Leeser, were sent to Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She survived this camp and several others, and was released in <strong>1945</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5qtu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><a href=\"https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584\">https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/document/380584</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2002).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qr7ew\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Arolsen Archives - International Center on Nazi Persecution, Bad Arolsen, Document ID: 130328407 (Trude LEESER)</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1943-02-10",
                "date_end": "1944-06-03",
                "summary": "Trude Leeser was niece of Hermann van Pels and was imprisoned in Vught from early 1943.",
                "summary_nl": "Trude Leeser was nichtje van Hermann van Pels en zat vanaf begin 1943 in Vught gevangen.",
                "summary_en": "Trude Leeser was niece of Hermann van Pels and was imprisoned in Vught from early 1943.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124391
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2246
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
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        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 259,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 181,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.36444",
                    "longitude": "4.88088",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 259,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/b909d39b-1d74-4239-b2da-b9e2a27b513e/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/287e2f8b-9a45-4ce4-b3b7-59cc1f6cdfb4"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/09aa391b-0dd2-406e-992d-66032b552cb4"
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                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/ff7fd641-f420-40b1-8ce2-d5fedcbf7a41",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "b909d39b-1d74-4239-b2da-b9e2a27b513e",
                            "name": "Dutch premiere of the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                            "name_nl": "Nederlandse première van het toneelstuk 'Het dagboek van Anne Frank'",
                            "name_en": "Dutch premiere of the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                            "content": "<p>The originally American play <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> was also performed in many other countries, including the Netherlands. It premiered on <strong>27 November 1956</strong> in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. The play made a big impression in Germany, where more than two million people came to see it. The audience was often silent for minutes afterwards. The play contributed greatly to the diary&#39;s fame in Germany and many other countries.</p>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Het oorsponkelijk Amerikaanse toneelstuk <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> werd&nbsp;ook in tal van andere landen opgevoerd, waaronder Nederland. De premi&egrave;re vond&nbsp;plaats op <strong>27 november 1956</strong> in bijzijn van koningin Juliana en prins Bernhard. In Duitsland maakte het stuk grote indruk, meer dan twee miljoen mensen kwamen&nbsp;kijken. Vaak was&nbsp;het na afloop minutenlang stil. Het toneelstuk droeg&nbsp;in Duitsland en in tal van andere landen&nbsp;in grote mate bij aan de bekendheid van het dagboek.</p>",
                            "content_en": "<p>The originally American play <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> was also performed in many other countries, including the Netherlands. It premiered on <strong>27 November 1956</strong> in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. The play made a big impression in Germany, where more than two million people came to see it. The audience was often silent for minutes afterwards. The play contributed greatly to the diary&#39;s fame in Germany and many other countries.</p>",
                            "date": "1956-11-27",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "The premiere of 'The Diary of Anne Frank' took place in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard.",
                            "summary_nl": "De première van 'Het dagboek van Anne Frank' vindt plaats in bijzijn van koningin Juliana en prins Bernhard.",
                            "summary_en": "The premiere of 'The Diary of Anne Frank' took place in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124622,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/287e2f8b-9a45-4ce4-b3b7-59cc1f6cdfb4/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "287e2f8b-9a45-4ce4-b3b7-59cc1f6cdfb4",
                            "name": "Otto Frank and the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                            "name_nl": "Otto Frank en het toneelstuk 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                            "name_en": "Otto Frank and the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                            "description": "<p>In the contract with publisher Contact<strong> (1946</strong>), Otto Frank had explicitly arranged that he would retain the translation and film rights to the diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3x6ih\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> After Meyer Levin&#39;s stage adaptation was rejected, writer couple Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett were commissioned to write it&nbsp;<strong>in late 1953</strong>. Their play <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> premiered on Broadway on <strong>5 October 1955</strong>, after try-outs in Philadelphia. The play, produced by Kermit Bloomgarden and directed by Carson Kanin, received the Pulitzer Prize, among other awards, and was translated into many languages and performed in many countries.<em> </em></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Meyer Levin</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Meyer Levin read the French edition of the diary and sought contact with Otto Frank through the publisher (Calman-L&eacute;vy).<sup data-footnote-id=\"h9vdn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> He was moved by the diary and saw it as his task to translate it into English. He helped Otto Frank find an English and American publisher and was convinced from the start of the diary&#39;s potential for film and stage adaptation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"190yv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Levin put Otto Frank in touch with the diary&#39;s English publisher, Vallentine Mitchell.<sup data-footnote-id=\"an7fj\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> He approached several people from the theatre and film world and made a passionate appeal to Otto Frank to let him write the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9zwl\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><strong> In early September 1952,</strong> Otto Frank agreed, but with the caveat that Meyer Levin&#39;s suggested producer, Cheryl Crawford, would judge the quality of the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a2c3h\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Otto Frank felt he could not do this himself because he was too emotionally involved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gfs7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>By mid-September 1952,</strong> Meyer Levin&#39;s stage adaptation was ready.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uq3po\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> But Cheryl Crawford rejected it<strong> (October 1952</strong>). Meyer Levin did not accept this&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"o1sbv\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> and asked Kermit Bloomgarden to be&nbsp;producer. But Bloomgarden also rejected the play. Bloomgarden had also turned to Otto Frank in <strong>August 1952</strong>, asking to produce the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8elwv\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> To get out of the impasse, Otto Frank, Cheryl Crawford and Meyer Levin struck a deal. Levin was given one month (until <strong>21 December 1952</strong>) to submit his play to 14 producers. If there was no interest, he would withdraw the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> When subsequently all fourteen producers rejected the play, Meyer Levin did not keep his end of the bargain and made every effort to still get his stage adaptation performed. The Otto Frank Archive holds extensive correspondence and documentation on the conflict between Meyer Levin and Otto Frank, in which Meyer Levin repeatedly tried to mobilise public opinion and the Jewish community in favour of his stage adaptation of the diary by engaging the press. <sup data-footnote-id=\"ygmqn\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Cheryl Crawford stepped down as producer in <strong>April 1953</strong>, Otto Frank signed a contract with Kermit Bloomgarden on <strong>2 October 1953</strong>. Crawford resigned because she had had enough of the difficulties with Meyer Levin and because she had run into financial difficulties producing another play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"px498\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> For a new stage adaptation, the choice fell on married couple Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett. They signed the contract on <strong>23 February 1954</strong>. Carson McCullers, who had already been approached by Cheryl Crawford in <strong>November 1952</strong>, had initially agreed to write the play, but she had to withdraw in April <strong>1953</strong> due to health reasons.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z1mvj\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>From <strong>January 1955</strong>, Meyer Levin filed lawsuits against Otto Frank, Cheryl Crawford and Kermit Bloomgarden accusing them of fraud, breach of contract and plagiarism.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jxv94\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> The charges were eventually upheld only in terms of plagiarism. The trial was settled on appeal in a settlement: Otto Frank paid Meyer Levin $50,000, and the latter then waived his adaptations of the diary.<strong> (26 October 1959</strong>).<sup data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> After this ruling, Meyer Levin continued to publicly voice his displeasure. When he did stage his play in Israel in <strong>1966</strong>, tensions again ran high.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mh3bm\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> In his <strong>1973</strong> book <em>The Obsession</em>, he gave his own take on the whole affair.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vm5jj\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The $50,000 settlement amount awarded to Meyer Levin was seized upon by &#39;diary deniers&#39; in the <strong>1980s</strong> to label the diary of Anne Frank as a forgery, written by Meyer Levin at the behest of Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The Hacketts began their stage adaptation on <strong>15 December 1953</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ag9a\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> On <strong>27 December 1953</strong>, the Hacketts first sought contact with Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Thereafter, an intensive correspondence ensued in which Otto Frank gave them comments and advice and answered all their questions. This is how Otto Frank put the Hacketts in touch with Ernst Meyer and his family, who lived in America. These were good friends of his, who could tell the writers a lot about the Frank family, the other people in hiding and Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> For the Jewish-religious aspects of the diary, the Hacketts were in contact with liberal rabbi Max Nussbaum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Nussbaum was the husband of Ruth Nussbaum-Offenstadt, mother of Hannah Toby and previously married to Fritz Toby. A famous photo of Anne and her friends in the sandpit<strong> (1937</strong>) was taken in their garden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The fourth version of the play script was the first version Otto Frank got to read in <strong>June 1954</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ggc3w\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> Otto Frank found the result disappointing:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;(&hellip;) I am not moved. (&hellip;) Whereas with the Levin play I felt that the psychological development and the characters were good, but that I could not judge the dramatic value, my first impression of the Hackett version is to be excellent routine work, but not giving the spirit of the book. (&hellip;) Perhaps it is anyhow a base which, with many changes could be worked out to a higher standard. (&hellip;) I cannot say that the script is against the spirit of Anne but it is not working up to the high spirit of Anne and in its present form would never convey the message which the book contains. You can imagine that I feel very miserable about the situation.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"r3q65\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Concerned, he wrote a letter to the Hacketts criticising that the play did not reflect the depth of Anne&#39;s character nor the message of the book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m6yix\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> For the development of Anne&#39;s character, he recommended an article by remedial educationalist Jean Schick-Grossmann for which she had spoken extensively with Otto Frank, Johannes Kleiman and Miep Gies.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ysy9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In New York, the Hacketts worked on the fourth, fifth and sixth versions of the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r0849\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> These versions pleased Otto much better:<em> &#39;I admire the way you caught the spirit of the book.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"vjmot\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> He thought the inserted scenes fitted in superbly. He also had sympathy for the &#39;bread stealing&#39; scene (Hermann van Pels steals a loaf of bread). Although he wondered whether there would be any legal consequences, as a brother of Hermann van Pels was still alive in the United States. He attached to the letter a list of<em> &#39;observations&nbsp;and suggestions</em>&#39;.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the seventh version of the script, the Hacketts came to Amsterdam where, on <strong>6 December 1954</strong>, they met Otto Frank for the first time. They visited the Secret Annex, the 6th Montessori school, Merwedeplein 37-II and an ice cream parlour where<em> &#39;Jews were allowed&#39;</em> the following day. <sup data-footnote-id=\"e526o\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> There was a meeting with Lou de Jong, who checked the script, and an extensive photo-reportage of and in the Secret Annex&nbsp;was made by photographer Maria Austria. Based on this visit, the play was revised again: the eighth version.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Around this time, the Secret Annex&nbsp;was photographed extensively and in detail by Maria Austria for two days.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l0xpx\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> Otto Frank noted in his diary on <strong>8 December 1954</strong>: Ph<em>otos.</em> - <em>Austria</em>. On <strong>11 December 1954</strong>: <em>Photos with Haket [sic] + Kanin.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"2s6l7\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>As it was now too late in the season, the producer postponed the play until <strong>autumn 1955</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank answered an extensive list of questions from Joseph Schildkraut, who was to play the role of Otto Frank in the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zrzcq\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> Furthermore, he was kept closely informed about the casting, sets, invitations to the premiere, etc.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k7oi7\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The first rehearsal was on <strong>22 August 1955</strong>. Try-outs began in Philadelphia on <strong>15 September 1955</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ncady\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup>&nbsp;There were rave reviews, and film companies also showed interest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjg9n\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup> During the try-outs, the &#39;bread stealing&#39; scene was moved from morning to night for dramatic effect.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9jsz4\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>It was followed by its New York premiere on <strong>5 October 1955</strong>. Otto Frank never wanted to attend a stage or film screening of the diary. Just before the premiere, he wished the actors well and let them know: &#39;<em>You will all realize that for me his play is a part of my life, and the idea that my wife and children as well as I will be presented on the stage is a painful one to me. Therefore it is impossible for me to come and see it.&#39;&nbsp;</em> Otto Frank had already wished success&nbsp;to the Hacketts on <strong>9 September 1954</strong>, leaving it up to them whether to show the letter to the players in Philadelphia or in New York. <sup data-footnote-id=\"qangh\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3x6ih\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_090: Contract Uitgeverij Contact en Otto Frank aan Contact, 1 augustus 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h9vdn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Correspondentie van Meyer Levin met Otto Frank, 19 september 1950 e.v.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"190yv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 10 maart 1951 (&#39;I hope that if you receive any film or stage enquiries, you may direct them to me as I would very much want the opportunity to work on such an adaptation, for I am sure that it will come, and it must be done tenderly, and with utmost fidelity&#39;.).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"an7fj\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie AFS, AFC. reg. code OFA_132.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9zwl\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 16 juni 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a2c3h\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met Cheryl Crawford, 9 juli 1952 en 6 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gfs7r\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 6 november 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uq3po\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 18 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o1sbv\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 30 oktober 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8elwv\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Telegram Kermit Bloomgarten aan Otto Frank, augustus 1952; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Otto Frank aan Edwin Eytan, 13 april 1960; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Otto Frank aan Bernard Heller, zonder datum.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Meyer Mermin aan Otto Frank, 6 december 1952; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 23 december 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ygmqn\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met Meyer Levin en AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met zijn Amerikaanse advocaat Meyer Mermin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"px498\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Correspondentie van Meyer Mermin met Otto Frank.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z1mvj\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Contract Otto Frank met de Hacketts, 23 februari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jxv94\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 164: Aanklacht Meyer Levin vs. Otto Frank en Cheryl Crawford, 5 januari 1955; AFS, AFC, reg. code 164: Aanklacht Meyer Levin vs Otto Frank en Kermit Bloomgarden, 26 februari 1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mh3bm\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telegram van advocaat Edward Costikiyan aan Otto Frank met voorstel Levin en het theater te wijzen op de rechtenschending, d.d. 1 december 1966.&nbsp;Otto Frank laat op 3 december weten dat hij daarmee akkoord gaat. AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code OFA_171, telegrammen tussen Costiyakin en Otto Frank, december 1966.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vm5jj\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Meyer Levin, <em>The Obsession</em>, New York, NY: Simon &amp; Schuster, 1973. Zie verder: Lawrence Graver, <em>An obesssion with Anne Frank: Meyer Levin and the Diary</em>, Berkeley, CA: Universoty of California Press, 1995; Ralph Melnick, <em>The stolen legacy of Anne Frank: Meyer Levin, Lillian Hellmann, and the staging of the Diary</em>, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ag9a\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 7, Miscellaneous: A Diary of the Diary.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0763b\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 2 februari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ggc3w\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De eerste ruwe versie is klaar op 21 januari 1954, de tweede versie op 26 februari, de derde versie op 22 april en de vierde versie op 21 mei 1954 en wordt uitgetypt en toegestuurd aan de producent, de agente van de Hacketts en aan Otto Frank. WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r3q65\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Otto Frank aan Meyer Mermin, 2 juni 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m6yix\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 14 juni 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ysy9b\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 6 juli 1954; WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961: Jean Schick Grossmann, Anne Frank. The Story within her story (ongepubliceerd, 1954).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r0849\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De zesde versie is de tweede versie die Otto Frank onder ogen krijgt (oktober 1954). De vijfde versie is af op 19 augustus. Op 11 september 1954 wordt begonnen aan de aanpassingen voor zesde versie die op 4 oktober klaar is en kan worden uitgetypt, Zie noot 23.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vjmot\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-195: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 5 november 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e526o\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Center for Theatre Research (WCTR), Madison,WI, Goodrich and Hackett papers, box 7: A Diary of the Diary. Met de ijssalon is zeer waarschijnlijk Oase bedoeld.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l0xpx\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WCTR, Goodrich and Hackett papers, box 7: A diary of the Diary, notitie 10 december 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2s6l7\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_011: Agenda Otto Frank 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zrzcq\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_202: Otto Frank aan Joseph Schildkraut, 4 mei 1955.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k7oi7\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ncady\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Hackett Korrespondenz 1954-1960, onge&iuml;nventariseerd archief, doos 51.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjg9n\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie bijvoorbeeld brief 3 oktober 1955: WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 3 oktober..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9jsz4\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Hackett Korrespondenz, doos 51: Meyer Levin Div. (S. Mermin).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qangh\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodric/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, corresepondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan de Hacketts, 9 september 1955.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>In het contract met uitgeverij Contact (<strong>1946</strong>) had&nbsp;Otto Frank expliciet geregeld dat hij de vertaal- en filmrechten van het dagboek zou behouden.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:846,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1067,&quot;abs_y&quot;:428}\" data-footnote-id=\"3x6ih\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Nadat Meyer Levins toneelbewerking was&nbsp;afgewezen, kreeg&nbsp;het schrijversechtpaar Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett <strong>eind 1953</strong> de opdracht. Hun toneelstuk <em>Het dagboek van Anne Frank</em>&nbsp;ging,&nbsp;na try-outs in Philadelphia,&nbsp;op Broadway in premi&egrave;re op <strong>5 oktober 1955</strong>.&nbsp;Het stuk, geproduceerd door Kermit Bloomgarden en geregisseerd door Carson Kanin, kreeg&nbsp;onder andere de Pulitzerprijs en werd&nbsp;in veel talen vertaald en in veel landen opgevoerd.<em> </em></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Meyer Levin</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Meyer Levin las&nbsp;de Franse editie van het dagboek en zocht&nbsp;via de&nbsp;uitgever (Calman-L&eacute;vy) contact met Otto Frank.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:676,&quot;y&quot;:174,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:897,&quot;abs_y&quot;:580}\" data-footnote-id=\"h9vdn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij was geraakt door het dagboek en zag&nbsp;het als zijn taak&nbsp;het in het Engels te vertalen. Hij hiep&nbsp;Otto Frank bij het vinden van een Engelse en Amerikaanse uitgever en was&nbsp;van meet af aan overtuigd van de mogelijkheden van het dagboek voor verfilming en toneelbewerking.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:195,&quot;y&quot;:219,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:416,&quot;abs_y&quot;:625}\" data-footnote-id=\"190yv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Levin bracht&nbsp;Otto Frank in contact met de Engelse uitgever van het dagboek, Vallentine Mitchell.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:764,&quot;y&quot;:219,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:985,&quot;abs_y&quot;:625}\" data-footnote-id=\"an7fj\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij benaderde&nbsp;diverse mensen uit de toneel- en filmwereld en deed&nbsp;een hartstochtelijk beroep op Otto Frank om hem het toneelstuk te laten schrijven.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:604,&quot;y&quot;:243,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:825,&quot;abs_y&quot;:649}\" data-footnote-id=\"e9zwl\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><strong>&nbsp;Begin september 1952</strong> stemde&nbsp;Otto Frank toe, maar wel onder voorbehoud dat de door Meyer Levin voorgestelde producente, Cheryl Crawford de kwaliteit van het stuk zou beoordelen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:646,&quot;y&quot;:267,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:867,&quot;abs_y&quot;:673}\" data-footnote-id=\"a2c3h\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank vond&nbsp;dat hij dit zelf niet kon, omdat hij er gevoelsmatig te veel bij betrokken was.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:151,&quot;y&quot;:291,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:372,&quot;abs_y&quot;:697}\" data-footnote-id=\"gfs7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Half september 1952</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;Meyer Levins toneelbewerking klaar.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:387,&quot;y&quot;:328,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:608,&quot;abs_y&quot;:734}\" data-footnote-id=\"uq3po\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;Maar Cheryl Crawford wees&nbsp;het af (<strong>oktober 1952</strong>). Meyer Levin legde zich hier niet bij neer<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:928,&quot;y&quot;:328,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1149,&quot;abs_y&quot;:734}\" data-footnote-id=\"o1sbv\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;en vroeg&nbsp;Kermit Bloomgarden als producent. Maar ook Bloomgarden wees&nbsp;het stuk af. Bloomgarden had zich ook al in <strong>augustus 1952</strong> tot Otto Frank gericht met het verzoek het toneelstuk te mogen produceren.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:132,&quot;y&quot;:373,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:353,&quot;abs_y&quot;:779}\" data-footnote-id=\"8elwv\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Om uit de impasse te komen, sloten&nbsp;Otto Frank, Cheryl Crawford en Meyer Levin een overeenkomst. Levin kreeg&nbsp;een maand de tijd (tot <strong>21 december 1952</strong>) om zijn stuk aan veertien producenten voor te leggen. Als er&nbsp;geen interesse was, zou hij het stuk terugtrekken.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:654,&quot;y&quot;:397,&quot;w&quot;:17,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:875,&quot;abs_y&quot;:803}\" data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen&nbsp;vervolgens alle veertien producenten het stuk afwezen, hield&nbsp;Meyer Levin zich niet aan de afspraak en stelde&nbsp;hij alles in het werk zijn toneelbewerking alsnog opgevoerd te krijgen. In het Otto Frank Archief bevindt zich uitgebreide correspondentie en documentatie over het conflict tussen Meyer Levin en Otto Frank, waarbij Meyer Levin herhaaldelijk de publieke opinie en de Joodse gemeenschap probeerde&nbsp;te mobiliseren ten gunste van zijn toneelbewerking van het dagboek door de pers in te schakelen. <sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:570,&quot;y&quot;:462,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:791,&quot;abs_y&quot;:868}\" data-footnote-id=\"ygmqn\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen&nbsp;Cheryl Crawford zich in&nbsp;<strong>april 1953</strong> terugtrok&nbsp;als producente, sloot&nbsp;Otto Frank op <strong>2 oktober 1953</strong> een contract met Kermit Bloomgarden. Crawford zag&nbsp;er vanaf omdat ze genoeg had van de moeilijkheden met Meyer Levin en omdat ze in financi&euml;le moeilijkheden was gekomen door de productie van een ander toneelstuk.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:886,&quot;y&quot;:520,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1107,&quot;abs_y&quot;:926}\" data-footnote-id=\"px498\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Voor een nieuwe toneelbewerking viel&nbsp;de keuze op het echtpaar Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett. Zij tekenden het contract op <strong>23 februari 1954</strong>. Carson McCullers, die al <strong>november 1952</strong> door Cheryl Crawford werd&nbsp;benaderd, had&nbsp;eerst toegezegd het toneelstuk te schrijven, maar zij moest zich in <strong>april 1953</strong> vanwege gezondheidsredenen terug trekken.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:943,&quot;y&quot;:565,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1164,&quot;abs_y&quot;:971}\" data-footnote-id=\"z1mvj\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanaf <strong>januari 1955</strong> voerde&nbsp;Meyer Levin rechtszaken tegen Otto Frank, Cheryl Crawford en Kermit Bloomgarden waarin hij hen beschuldigde&nbsp;van fraude, contractbreuk en plagiaat.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:20,&quot;y&quot;:623,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:241,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1029}\" data-footnote-id=\"jxv94\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;De aanklacht werd&nbsp;uiteindelijk alleen toegewezen wat betreft plagiaat.&nbsp;Het proces werd&nbsp;in hoger beroep beslecht in een schikking: Otto Frank betaalde&nbsp;Meyer Levin 50.000 dollar die daarbij afstand deed&nbsp;van zijn bewerkingen van het dagboek. (<strong>26 oktober 1959</strong>).<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:501,&quot;y&quot;:647,&quot;w&quot;:17,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:722,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1053}\" data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;Na deze uitspraak bleef&nbsp;Meyer Levin in het openbaar zijn ongenoegen uiten. Toen&nbsp;hij zijn toneelstuk in <strong>1966</strong> toch in Isra&euml;l op de planken bracht, liepen de spanningen weer hoog op.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:544,&quot;y&quot;:671,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:765,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1077}\" data-footnote-id=\"mh3bm\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;In zijn boek <em>The Obsession</em> uit <strong>1973</strong> gaf&nbsp;hij zijn eigen visie op de hele affaire.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:1007,&quot;y&quot;:671,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1228,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1077}\" data-footnote-id=\"i57db\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het aan Meyer Levin toegekende schikkingsbedrag van 50.000 dollar werd&nbsp;in de <strong>jaren &rsquo;80</strong> aangegrepen door &#39;dagboekontkenners&#39;&nbsp;om het dagboek van Anne Frank te bestempelen als een vervalsing, door Meyer Levin geschreven in opdracht van Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De Hacketts begonnen met hun toneelbewerking op <strong>15 december 1953</strong>.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:438,&quot;y&quot;:819,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:659,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1225}\" data-footnote-id=\"3ag9a\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op <strong>27 december 1953</strong> zochten&nbsp;de Hacketts voor het eerst contact met Otto Frank.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:937,&quot;y&quot;:819,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1158,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1225}\" data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup>&nbsp;Daarna ontstond er&nbsp;een intensieve briefwisseling waarbij Otto Frank hen commentaar en advies gaf&nbsp;en al hun vragen beantwoordde. Zo bracht&nbsp;Otto Frank de Hacketts in contact met de in Amerika woonachtige&nbsp;Ernst Meyer en zijn gezin. Dit waren&nbsp;goede vrienden van hem, die de schrijvers veel over de familie Frank, de andere onderduikers en Amsterdam konden&nbsp;vertellen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:1039,&quot;y&quot;:863,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1260,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1269}\" data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup>Voor de joods-religieuze aspecten uit het dagboek hadden de Hacketts contact met de liberale rabbijn Max Nussbaum.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:702,&quot;y&quot;:887,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:923,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1293}\" data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup>&nbsp;Nussbaum was&nbsp;de echtgenoot van Ruth Nussbaum-Offenstadt, moeder van Hannah Toby en eerder getrouwd met Fritz Toby. Een bekende foto van Anne en haar vriendinnen in de zandbak (<strong>1937</strong>) werd&nbsp;bij hen in de tuin gemaakt.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De vierde versie van het toneelscript&nbsp; was de eerste versie die Otto Frank in <strong>juni 1954</strong> onder ogen kreeg.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:624,&quot;y&quot;:945,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:845,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1351}\" data-footnote-id=\"ggc3w\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank vond&nbsp;het resultaat teleurstellend:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;{&hellip;) I am not moved. (&hellip;) Whereas with the Levin play I felt that the psychological development and the characters were good, but that I could not judge the dramatic value, my first impression of the Hackett version is to be excellent routine work, but not giving the spirit of the book. (&hellip;) Perhaps it is anyhow a base which, with many changes could be worked out to a higher standard. (&hellip;) I cannot say that the script is against the spirit of Anne but it is not working up to the high spirit of Anne and in its present form would never convey the message which the book contains. You can imagine that I feel very miserable about the situation.&#39;<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:142,&quot;y&quot;:1067,&quot;w&quot;:20,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:363,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1473}\" data-footnote-id=\"r3q65\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Bezwaard schreef hij een brief aan de Hacketts met zijn kritiek dat het toneelstuk de diepgang van Annes karakter noch de boodschap van het boek weergaf.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:923,&quot;y&quot;:1106,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1144,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1512}\" data-footnote-id=\"m6yix\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup>&nbsp;Voor de ontwikkeling van Annes karakter beval hij een artikel aan van orthopedagoge Jean Schick-Grossmann waarvoor zij uitgebreid met Otto Frank, Johannes Kleiman en Miep Gies had&nbsp;gesproken.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:109,&quot;y&quot;:1151,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:330,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1557}\" data-footnote-id=\"ysy9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In New York werkten de Hacketts aan de vierde,&nbsp;vijfde en zesde versie van het stuk.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:502,&quot;y&quot;:1188,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:723,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1594}\" data-footnote-id=\"r0849\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup>&nbsp;Deze versies bevielen&nbsp;Otto veel beter: &#39;<em>I admire the way you caught the spirit of the book.&#39;</em><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:1039,&quot;y&quot;:1188,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1260,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1594}\" data-footnote-id=\"vjmot\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup>Hij vond&nbsp;de ingevoegde sc&egrave;nes uitstekend in het geheel passen. Ook voor de &#39;broodsteel&#39;-scene (Hermann van Pels steelt een brood) had&nbsp;hij&nbsp;begrip. Hoewel hij zich afvroeg&nbsp;of er juridische consequenties waren, omdat er nog een broer van Hermann van Pels in de Verenigde Staten in leven was. Bij de brief voegde&nbsp;hij een lijst met &#39;<em>observations&#39;and suggestions</em>&#39; .</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na de zevende&nbsp;bewerking van het script, kwamen&nbsp;de Hacketts naar Amsterdam waar ze, op <strong>6 december 1954</strong>, voor het eerst Otto Frank ontmoetten.&nbsp;Ze bezochten&nbsp;de dag erop het Achterhuis, de 6e Montessorischool, Merwedeplein 37-II en een ijssalon waar &#39;<em>Jews were allowed&#39;</em>. <sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:590,&quot;y&quot;:1308,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:811,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1714}\" data-footnote-id=\"e526o\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er was&nbsp;een ontmoeting met Lou de Jong die het script controleerde&nbsp;en er werd&nbsp;een uitgebreide fotoreportage van en in het Achterhuis gemaakt door fotografe Maria Austria. Op grond van dit bezoek werd&nbsp;het toneelstuk nogmaals herzien: de achtste versie.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Rond deze tijd werd&nbsp;het Achterhuis gedurende twee dagen uitvoerig en in detail door Maria Austria gefotografeerd.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:677,&quot;y&quot;:1387,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:898,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1793}\" data-footnote-id=\"l0xpx\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank noteerde&nbsp;in zijn agenda op&nbsp;<strong>8 december 1954</strong>:&nbsp;<em>Fotos. - Austria</em>. Op&nbsp;<strong>11 december 1954</strong>:&nbsp;<em>Fotos met Haket [sic] + Kanin.</em><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:464,&quot;y&quot;:1411,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:685,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1817}\" data-footnote-id=\"2s6l7\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Omdat het inmiddels&nbsp;te laat in het seizoen was, stelde&nbsp;de producent het toneelstuk uit tot <strong>najaar 1955</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank beantwoorde&nbsp;een uitgebreide vragenlijst van Joseph&nbsp;Schildkraut, die de rol van Otto Frank in het toneelstuk zou&nbsp;gaan spelen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:804,&quot;y&quot;:1482,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1025,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1888}\" data-footnote-id=\"zrzcq\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> Verder liet&nbsp;hij zich nauwgezet op de hoogte houden over de casting, decors, uitnodigingen voor de premi&egrave;re etc.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:455,&quot;y&quot;:1506,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:676,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1912}\" data-footnote-id=\"k7oi7\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>22 augustus 1955</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;de eerste repetitie. De try-outs begonnen in Philadelphia op <strong>15 september 1955</strong>.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:645,&quot;y&quot;:1543,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:866,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1949}\" data-footnote-id=\"ncady\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup>&nbsp;De recensies waren lovend en ook filmmaatschappijen toonden&nbsp;interesse.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:126,&quot;y&quot;:1567,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:347,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1973}\" data-footnote-id=\"mjg9n\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup>&nbsp;Tijdens de try-outs werd&nbsp;de &lsquo;broodsteel&rsquo;-scene verplaatst van de ochtend naar de nacht vanwege het dramatische effect.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:839,&quot;y&quot;:1567,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1060,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1973}\" data-footnote-id=\"9jsz4\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>5 oktober 1955</strong> volgde de premi&egrave;re in New York.&nbsp;Otto Frank wilde nooit een toneel- of filmvoorstelling van het dagboek bijwonen.&nbsp;Vlak voor de premi&egrave;re wenstte hij de spelers succes en liet&nbsp;hen weten: &#39;&nbsp;<em>You will all realize that for me his play is a part of my life, and the idea that my wife and children as well as I will be presented on the stage is a painful one to me. Therefore it is impossible for me to come and see it.&#39;&nbsp;</em> Otto Frank had zijn succeswensen al op <strong>9 september1954</strong> gestuurd aan de Hacketts en liet het aan hen over of ze&nbsp;de brief in Philadelphia of in New York aan de spelers wilden laten zien. <sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:416,&quot;y&quot;:1666,&quot;w&quot;:18,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:637,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2072}\" data-footnote-id=\"qangh\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:20,&quot;y&quot;:1701,&quot;w&quot;:1041,&quot;h&quot;:1202,&quot;abs_x&quot;:241,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2107}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:35,&quot;y&quot;:1718,&quot;w&quot;:1011,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:256,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2124}\">\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3x6ih\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_090: Contract Uitgeverij Contact en Otto Frank aan Contact, 1 augustus 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h9vdn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Correspondentie van Meyer Levin met Otto Frank, 19 september 1950 e.v.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"190yv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 10 maart 1951 (&#39;I hope that if you receive any film or stage enquiries, you may direct them to me as I would very much want the opportunity to work on such an adaptation, for I am sure that it will come, and it must be done tenderly, and with utmost fidelity&#39;.).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"an7fj\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie AFS, AFC. reg. code OFA_132.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9zwl\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 16 juni 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a2c3h\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met Cheryl Crawford, 9 juli 1952 en 6 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gfs7r\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 6 november 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uq3po\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 18 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o1sbv\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 30 oktober 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8elwv\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Telegram Kermit Bloomgarten aan Otto Frank, augustus 1952; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Otto Frank aan Edwin Eytan, 13 april 1960; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Otto Frank aan Bernard Heller, zonder datum.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Meyer Mermin aan Otto Frank, 6 december 1952; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 23 december 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ygmqn\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met Meyer Levin en AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met zijn Amerikaanse advocaat Meyer Mermin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"px498\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Correspondentie van Meyer Mermin met Otto Frank.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z1mvj\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Contract Otto Frank met de Hacketts, 23 februari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jxv94\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 164: Aanklacht Meyer Levin vs. Otto Frank en Cheryl Crawford, 5 januari 1955; AFS, AFC, reg. code 164: Aanklacht Meyer Levin vs Otto Frank en Kermit Bloomgarden, 26 februari 1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mh3bm\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telegram van advocaat Edward Costikiyan aan Otto Frank met voorstel Levin en het theater te wijzen op de rechtenschending, d.d. 1 december 1966.&nbsp;Otto Frank laat op 3 december weten dat hij daarmee akkoord gaat. AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code OFA_171, telegrammen tussen Costiyakin en Otto Frank, december 1966.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i57db\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Meyer Levin, <em>The Obsession</em>, New York, NY: Simon &amp; Schuster, 1973. Zie verder: Lawrence Graver, <em>An obesssion with Anne Frank: Meyer Levin and the Diary</em>, Berkeley, CA: Universoty of California Press, 1995; Ralph Melnick, <em>The stolen legacy of Anne Frank: Meyer Levin, Lillian Hellmann, and the staging of the Diary</em>, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ag9a\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 7, Miscellaneous: A Diary of the diary.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0763b\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 2 februari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ggc3w\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De eerste ruwe versie is klaar op 21 januari 1954, de tweede versie op 26 februari, de derde versie op 22 april en de vierde versie op 21 mei 1954 en wordt uitgetypt en toegestuurd aan de producent, de agente van de Hacketts en aan Otto Frank. WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r3q65\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Otto Frank aan Meyer Mermin, 2 juni 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m6yix\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 14 juni 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ysy9b\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 6 juli 1954; WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961: Jean Schick Grossmann, Anne Frank. The Story within her story (ongepubliceerd, 1954).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r0849\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De zesde versie is de tweede versie die Otto Frank onder ogen krijgt (oktober 1954). De vijfde versie is af op 19 augustus. Op 11 september 1954 wordt begonnen aan de aanpassingen voor zesde versie die op 4 oktober klaar is en kan worden uitgetypt, Zie noot 23.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vjmot\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 5 november 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e526o\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Center for Theatre Research (WCTR), Madison,WI, Goodrich and Hackett papers, box 7: A Diary of the Diary. Met de ijssalon is zeer waarschijnlijk Oase bedoeld.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l0xpx\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WCTR, Goodrich and Hackett papers, box 7: A diary of the Diary, notitie 10 december 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2s6l7\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_011: Agenda Otto Frank 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zrzcq\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_202: Otto Frank aan Joseph Schildkraut, 4 mei 1955.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k7oi7\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ncady\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Hackett Korrespondenz 1954-1960, onge&iuml;nventariseerd archief, doos 51.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjg9n\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie bijvoorbeeld brief 3 oktober 1955: WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 3 oktober..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9jsz4\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Hackett Korrespondenz, doos 51: Meyer Levin Div. (S. Mermin).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qangh\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodric/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan de Hacketts, 9 september 1955.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>In the contract with publisher Contact<strong> (1946</strong>), Otto Frank had explicitly arranged that he would retain the translation and film rights to the diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3x6ih\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> After Meyer Levin&#39;s stage adaptation was rejected, writer couple Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett were commissioned to write it&nbsp;<strong>in late 1953</strong>. Their play <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> premiered on Broadway on <strong>5 October 1955</strong>, after try-outs in Philadelphia. The play, produced by Kermit Bloomgarden and directed by Carson Kanin, received the Pulitzer Prize, among other awards, and was translated into many languages and performed in many countries.<em> </em></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Meyer Levin</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Meyer Levin read the French edition of the diary and sought contact with Otto Frank through the publisher (Calman-L&eacute;vy).<sup data-footnote-id=\"h9vdn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> He was moved by the diary and saw it as his task to translate it into English. He helped Otto Frank find an English and American publisher and was convinced from the start of the diary&#39;s potential for film and stage adaptation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"190yv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Levin put Otto Frank in touch with the diary&#39;s English publisher, Vallentine Mitchell.<sup data-footnote-id=\"an7fj\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> He approached several people from the theatre and film world and made a passionate appeal to Otto Frank to let him write the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9zwl\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><strong> In early September 1952,</strong> Otto Frank agreed, but with the caveat that Meyer Levin&#39;s suggested producer, Cheryl Crawford, would judge the quality of the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a2c3h\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Otto Frank felt he could not do this himself because he was too emotionally involved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gfs7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>By mid-September 1952,</strong> Meyer Levin&#39;s stage adaptation was ready.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uq3po\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> But Cheryl Crawford rejected it<strong> (October 1952</strong>). Meyer Levin did not accept this&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"o1sbv\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> and asked Kermit Bloomgarden to be&nbsp;producer. But Bloomgarden also rejected the play. Bloomgarden had also turned to Otto Frank in <strong>August 1952</strong>, asking to produce the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8elwv\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> To get out of the impasse, Otto Frank, Cheryl Crawford and Meyer Levin struck a deal. Levin was given one month (until <strong>21 December 1952</strong>) to submit his play to 14 producers. If there was no interest, he would withdraw the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> When subsequently all fourteen producers rejected the play, Meyer Levin did not keep his end of the bargain and made every effort to still get his stage adaptation performed. The Otto Frank Archive holds extensive correspondence and documentation on the conflict between Meyer Levin and Otto Frank, in which Meyer Levin repeatedly tried to mobilise public opinion and the Jewish community in favour of his stage adaptation of the diary by engaging the press. <sup data-footnote-id=\"ygmqn\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Cheryl Crawford stepped down as producer in <strong>April 1953</strong>, Otto Frank signed a contract with Kermit Bloomgarden on <strong>2 October 1953</strong>. Crawford resigned because she had had enough of the difficulties with Meyer Levin and because she had run into financial difficulties producing another play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"px498\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> For a new stage adaptation, the choice fell on married couple Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett. They signed the contract on <strong>23 February 1954</strong>. Carson McCullers, who had already been approached by Cheryl Crawford in <strong>November 1952</strong>, had initially agreed to write the play, but she had to withdraw in April <strong>1953</strong> due to health reasons.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z1mvj\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>From <strong>January 1955</strong>, Meyer Levin filed lawsuits against Otto Frank, Cheryl Crawford and Kermit Bloomgarden accusing them of fraud, breach of contract and plagiarism.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jxv94\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> The charges were eventually upheld only in terms of plagiarism. The trial was settled on appeal in a settlement: Otto Frank paid Meyer Levin $50,000, and the latter then waived his adaptations of the diary.<strong> (26 October 1959</strong>).<sup data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> After this ruling, Meyer Levin continued to publicly voice his displeasure. When he did stage his play in Israel in <strong>1966</strong>, tensions again ran high.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mh3bm\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> In his <strong>1973</strong> book <em>The Obsession</em>, he gave his own take on the whole affair.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vm5jj\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The $50,000 settlement amount awarded to Meyer Levin was seized upon by &#39;diary deniers&#39; in the <strong>1980s</strong> to label the diary of Anne Frank as a forgery, written by Meyer Levin at the behest of Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The Hacketts began their stage adaptation on <strong>15 December 1953</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ag9a\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> On <strong>27 December 1953</strong>, the Hacketts first sought contact with Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Thereafter, an intensive correspondence ensued in which Otto Frank gave them comments and advice and answered all their questions. This is how Otto Frank put the Hacketts in touch with Ernst Meyer and his family, who lived in America. These were good friends of his, who could tell the writers a lot about the Frank family, the other people in hiding and Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> For the Jewish-religious aspects of the diary, the Hacketts were in contact with liberal rabbi Max Nussbaum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0763b\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Nussbaum was the husband of Ruth Nussbaum-Offenstadt, mother of Hannah Toby and previously married to Fritz Toby. A famous photo of Anne and her friends in the sandpit<strong> (1937</strong>) was taken in their garden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The fourth version of the play script was the first version Otto Frank got to read in <strong>June 1954</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ggc3w\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> Otto Frank found the result disappointing:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;(&hellip;) I am not moved. (&hellip;) Whereas with the Levin play I felt that the psychological development and the characters were good, but that I could not judge the dramatic value, my first impression of the Hackett version is to be excellent routine work, but not giving the spirit of the book. (&hellip;) Perhaps it is anyhow a base which, with many changes could be worked out to a higher standard. (&hellip;) I cannot say that the script is against the spirit of Anne but it is not working up to the high spirit of Anne and in its present form would never convey the message which the book contains. You can imagine that I feel very miserable about the situation.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"r3q65\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Concerned, he wrote a letter to the Hacketts criticising that the play did not reflect the depth of Anne&#39;s character nor the message of the book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m6yix\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> For the development of Anne&#39;s character, he recommended an article by remedial educationalist Jean Schick-Grossmann for which she had spoken extensively with Otto Frank, Johannes Kleiman and Miep Gies.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ysy9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In New York, the Hacketts worked on the fourth, fifth and sixth versions of the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r0849\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> These versions pleased Otto much better:<em> &#39;I admire the way you caught the spirit of the book.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"vjmot\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> He thought the inserted scenes fitted in superbly. He also had sympathy for the &#39;bread stealing&#39; scene (Hermann van Pels steals a loaf of bread). Although he wondered whether there would be any legal consequences, as a brother of Hermann van Pels was still alive in the United States. He attached to the letter a list of<em> &#39;observations&nbsp;and suggestions</em>&#39;.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the seventh version of the script, the Hacketts came to Amsterdam where, on <strong>6 December 1954</strong>, they met Otto Frank for the first time. They visited the Secret Annex, the 6th Montessori school, Merwedeplein 37-II and an ice cream parlour where<em> &#39;Jews were allowed&#39;</em> the following day. <sup data-footnote-id=\"e526o\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> There was a meeting with Lou de Jong, who checked the script, and an extensive photo-reportage of and in the Secret Annex&nbsp;was made by photographer Maria Austria. Based on this visit, the play was revised again: the eighth version.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Around this time, the Secret Annex&nbsp;was photographed extensively and in detail by Maria Austria for two days.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l0xpx\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> Otto Frank noted in his diary on <strong>8 December 1954</strong>: Ph<em>otos.</em> - <em>Austria</em>. On <strong>11 December 1954</strong>: <em>Photos with Haket [sic] + Kanin.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"2s6l7\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>As it was now too late in the season, the producer postponed the play until <strong>autumn 1955</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank answered an extensive list of questions from Joseph Schildkraut, who was to play the role of Otto Frank in the play.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zrzcq\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> Furthermore, he was kept closely informed about the casting, sets, invitations to the premiere, etc.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k7oi7\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The first rehearsal was on <strong>22 August 1955</strong>. Try-outs began in Philadelphia on <strong>15 September 1955</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ncady\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup>&nbsp;There were rave reviews, and film companies also showed interest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjg9n\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup> During the try-outs, the &#39;bread stealing&#39; scene was moved from morning to night for dramatic effect.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9jsz4\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>It was followed by its New York premiere on <strong>5 October 1955</strong>. Otto Frank never wanted to attend a stage or film screening of the diary. Just before the premiere, he wished the actors well and let them know: &#39;<em>You will all realize that for me his play is a part of my life, and the idea that my wife and children as well as I will be presented on the stage is a painful one to me. Therefore it is impossible for me to come and see it.&#39;&nbsp;</em> Otto Frank had already wished success&nbsp;to the Hacketts on <strong>9 September 1954</strong>, leaving it up to them whether to show the letter to the players in Philadelphia or in New York. <sup data-footnote-id=\"qangh\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3x6ih\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_090: Contract Uitgeverij Contact en Otto Frank aan Contact, 1 augustus 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h9vdn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Correspondentie van Meyer Levin met Otto Frank, 19 september 1950 e.v.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"190yv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 10 maart 1951 (&#39;I hope that if you receive any film or stage enquiries, you may direct them to me as I would very much want the opportunity to work on such an adaptation, for I am sure that it will come, and it must be done tenderly, and with utmost fidelity&#39;.).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"an7fj\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie AFS, AFC. reg. code OFA_132.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9zwl\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 16 juni 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a2c3h\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met Cheryl Crawford, 9 juli 1952 en 6 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gfs7r\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 6 november 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uq3po\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 18 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o1sbv\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 30 oktober 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8elwv\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Telegram Kermit Bloomgarten aan Otto Frank, augustus 1952; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Otto Frank aan Edwin Eytan, 13 april 1960; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172: Otto Frank aan Bernard Heller, zonder datum.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y66jd\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Meyer Mermin aan Otto Frank, 6 december 1952; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Meyer Levin aan Otto Frank, 23 december 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ygmqn\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_159: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met Meyer Levin en AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Correspondentie van Otto Frank met zijn Amerikaanse advocaat Meyer Mermin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"px498\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Correspondentie van Meyer Mermin met Otto Frank.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z1mvj\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_172; AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Contract Otto Frank met de Hacketts, 23 februari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jxv94\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 164: Aanklacht Meyer Levin vs. Otto Frank en Cheryl Crawford, 5 januari 1955; AFS, AFC, reg. code 164: Aanklacht Meyer Levin vs Otto Frank en Kermit Bloomgarden, 26 februari 1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mh3bm\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telegram van advocaat Edward Costikiyan aan Otto Frank met voorstel Levin en het theater te wijzen op de rechtenschending, d.d. 1 december 1966.&nbsp;Otto Frank laat op 3 december weten dat hij daarmee akkoord gaat. AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code OFA_171, telegrammen tussen Costiyakin en Otto Frank, december 1966.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vm5jj\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Meyer Levin, <em>The Obsession</em>, New York, NY: Simon &amp; Schuster, 1973. Zie verder: Lawrence Graver, <em>An obesssion with Anne Frank: Meyer Levin and the Diary</em>, Berkeley, CA: Universoty of California Press, 1995; Ralph Melnick, <em>The stolen legacy of Anne Frank: Meyer Levin, Lillian Hellmann, and the staging of the Diary</em>, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ag9a\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 7, Miscellaneous: A Diary of the Diary.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0763b\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 2 februari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ggc3w\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De eerste ruwe versie is klaar op 21 januari 1954, de tweede versie op 26 februari, de derde versie op 22 april en de vierde versie op 21 mei 1954 en wordt uitgetypt en toegestuurd aan de producent, de agente van de Hacketts en aan Otto Frank. WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r3q65\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_171: Otto Frank aan Meyer Mermin, 2 juni 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m6yix\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 14 juni 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ysy9b\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 6 juli 1954; WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961: Jean Schick Grossmann, Anne Frank. The Story within her story (ongepubliceerd, 1954).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r0849\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De zesde versie is de tweede versie die Otto Frank onder ogen krijgt (oktober 1954). De vijfde versie is af op 19 augustus. Op 11 september 1954 wordt begonnen aan de aanpassingen voor zesde versie die op 4 oktober klaar is en kan worden uitgetypt, Zie noot 23.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vjmot\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, correspondence 1952-195: Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 5 november 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e526o\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Center for Theatre Research (WCTR), Madison,WI, Goodrich and Hackett papers, box 7: A Diary of the Diary. Met de ijssalon is zeer waarschijnlijk Oase bedoeld.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l0xpx\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WCTR, Goodrich and Hackett papers, box 7: A diary of the Diary, notitie 10 december 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2s6l7\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_011: Agenda Otto Frank 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zrzcq\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_202: Otto Frank aan Joseph Schildkraut, 4 mei 1955.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k7oi7\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ncady\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Hackett Korrespondenz 1954-1960, onge&iuml;nventariseerd archief, doos 51.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjg9n\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie bijvoorbeeld brief 3 oktober 1955: WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 3 oktober..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9jsz4\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Hackett Korrespondenz, doos 51: Meyer Levin Div. (S. Mermin).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qangh\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodric/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no. 2, corresepondence 1952-1956: Otto Frank aan de Hacketts, 9 september 1955.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The American stage version of the Diary of Anne Frank premiered in 1955.",
                            "summary_nl": "In 1955 verscheen de Amerikaanse toneelversie van het dagboek van Anne Frank op de planken.",
                            "summary_en": "The American stage version of the Diary of Anne Frank premiered in 1955.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124643,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "related_locations": [
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/ac1c8f4c-113a-4db2-818c-22ccb1532137"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/ff7fd641-f420-40b1-8ce2-d5fedcbf7a41/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Nieuwe De la Mar Theater",
                    "name_nl": "Nieuwe De la Mar Theater",
                    "name_en": "Nieuwe De la Mar Theater",
                    "uuid": "ff7fd641-f420-40b1-8ce2-d5fedcbf7a41",
                    "content": "<p>After Theater De la Mar ran into financial difficulties in <strong>1950</strong>, Wim Sonneveld took over the management of the theater. The name was changed to the Nieuwe De la Mar theater and Wim Sonneveld remained involved with the DeLaMar theater until his death in <strong>1974</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d89vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d89vo\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLaMar\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLaMar</a> (geraadpeegd 27 november 2023).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>Nadat Theater De la Mar in <strong>1950</strong> in geldnood kwam nam Wim Sonneveld de leiding van het theater op zich. De naam werd gewijzigd in het Nieuwe De la Mar theater en Wim Sonneveld bleef tot zijn dood in <strong>1974</strong> betrokken bij het DeLaMar theater.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vka\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"74vka\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLaMar\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLaMar</a> (geraadpeegd 27 november 2023).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p>After Theater De la Mar ran into financial difficulties in <strong>1950</strong>, Wim Sonneveld took over the management of the theater. The name was changed to the Nieuwe De la Mar theater and Wim Sonneveld remained involved with the DeLaMar theater until his death in <strong>1974</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d89vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d89vo\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLaMar\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLaMar</a> (geraadpeegd 27 november 2023).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88088 52.36444)",
                    "summary": "The Nieuwe De la Mar Theatre at Amsterdam's Leidseplein hosted the Dutch premiere of the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'.",
                    "summary_nl": "In het Nieuwe De la Mar Theater aan het Amsterdamse Leidseplein vond de Nederlandse première van het toneelstuk 'Het dagboek van Anne  Frank'  plaats.",
                    "summary_en": "The Nieuwe De la Mar Theatre at Amsterdam's Leidseplein hosted the Dutch premiere of the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Marnixstraat 402",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        259
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/b909d39b-1d74-4239-b2da-b9e2a27b513e/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "b909d39b-1d74-4239-b2da-b9e2a27b513e",
                "name": "Dutch premiere of the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                "name_nl": "Nederlandse première van het toneelstuk 'Het dagboek van Anne Frank'",
                "name_en": "Dutch premiere of the play 'The Diary of Anne Frank'",
                "content": "<p>The originally American play <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> was also performed in many other countries, including the Netherlands. It premiered on <strong>27 November 1956</strong> in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. The play made a big impression in Germany, where more than two million people came to see it. The audience was often silent for minutes afterwards. The play contributed greatly to the diary&#39;s fame in Germany and many other countries.</p>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Het oorsponkelijk Amerikaanse toneelstuk <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> werd&nbsp;ook in tal van andere landen opgevoerd, waaronder Nederland. De premi&egrave;re vond&nbsp;plaats op <strong>27 november 1956</strong> in bijzijn van koningin Juliana en prins Bernhard. In Duitsland maakte het stuk grote indruk, meer dan twee miljoen mensen kwamen&nbsp;kijken. Vaak was&nbsp;het na afloop minutenlang stil. Het toneelstuk droeg&nbsp;in Duitsland en in tal van andere landen&nbsp;in grote mate bij aan de bekendheid van het dagboek.</p>",
                "content_en": "<p>The originally American play <em>The Diary of Anne Frank</em> was also performed in many other countries, including the Netherlands. It premiered on <strong>27 November 1956</strong> in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. The play made a big impression in Germany, where more than two million people came to see it. The audience was often silent for minutes afterwards. The play contributed greatly to the diary&#39;s fame in Germany and many other countries.</p>",
                "date": "1956-11-27",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "The premiere of 'The Diary of Anne Frank' took place in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard.",
                "summary_nl": "De première van 'Het dagboek van Anne Frank' vindt plaats in bijzijn van koningin Juliana en prins Bernhard.",
                "summary_en": "The premiere of 'The Diary of Anne Frank' took place in the presence of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124622
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2408
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 0.0
        }
    ]
}