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                    {
                        "id": 396124583,
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/4453e0fd-6791-44d5-ba9b-34ca31414650/",
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                        "uuid": "4453e0fd-6791-44d5-ba9b-34ca31414650",
                        "name": "Leisure activities, Anne Frank",
                        "name_nl": "Vrijetijdsbesteding Anne Frank",
                        "name_en": "Leisure activities, Anne Frank",
                        "description": "<h1><strong>Sports</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>According to several accounts, Anne was not very strong physically; her limbs dislocated easily.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Nevertheless, she took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practised several other sports.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The gymnastics club was probably led by Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the winter of <strong>1938-1939</strong>, Anne learned to ice skate. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote to her grandmother that she was going ice skating at the artificial ice rink at the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> And on <strong>13 January 1941,</strong> she wrote:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;I spend every free minute at the ice rink. Until now, I still had my old skates that Margot used to wear, those skates have to be screwed on with a little key, and at the ice rink, all my friends had real Figure Skates, which have to be attached to your shoes with nails, and then they don&#39;t come off. I wanted so terribly to have such skates too, and after long nagging, I got them too.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>A <strong>1941</strong> photo shows Anne with other children ice skating in Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anton Witsel received this photo from the father of the frontmost girl in the picture Ansje de Leeuw. According to the caption of the photo, Ansje lived in the United States.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 March 1941,</strong> Anne wrote to her grandmother: <em>&quot;I wish I could start ice skating again, but for that I have to be patient for a while, until the war is over (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Table tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>June 1942, </strong>Anne writes<strong>:</strong> &quot;<em>Five of us girls have formed a club. It&#39;s called The Little Dipper Minus Two. (...)&nbsp; It&#39;s a ping-pong club</em>&quot; .<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes the following about her hobbies: &quot;<em>Dear Kitty, You asked me what my hobbies and interests are and I&#39;d like to answer, but I&#39;d better warn you, I have lots of them, so don&#39;t be surprised</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Writing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In addition to her surviving diaries, stories and letters, Anne also wrote poems in the poetry albums of her friends, including: Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi and Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne loved to read. She got <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden (&#39;Dutch Sagas and Legends&#39;)</em> from the ping-pong club for her thirteenth birthday, but by mistake they gave her volume 2. She then swapped <em>Camera Obscura</em> for volume 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> These books had been written by Josef Cohen. Volume 2 is in the museum collection of the Anne Frank House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Volume 1 was given by Anne shortly before going into hiding to neighbour Toosje Kupers, who still owns it. At the front, Anne&#39;s handwriting bears the dedication<em> &#39;In Memory of Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Family trees</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank told his daughters about family history and individual relatives while in hiding. Anne made family trees based on these.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne also wrote about this in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> These family trees have not been preserved.&nbsp;The family trees Anne had drawn on large sheets of paper have also not been found.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne also made family trees of several European royal houses: &quot;<em>of the French, German, Spanish, English, Austrian, Russian, Norwegian and Dutch royal families. I&#39;ve made great progress with many of them, because for a long time I&#39;ve been taking notes while reading biographies or history books&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;She drew a lot of information for this from Charles V&#39;s biography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;When a vase of flowers fell over shortly afterwards, water poured over her family trees. However, the damage proved limited in the end. Notes on Maria de Medici&#39;, Charles V, William of Orange and Marie Antoinette had to be dried in the attic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>History</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was given many history books by her father. She could not wait to go to the Public Library to continue reading. She also felt strongly about art history. She writes about it: &quot;<em>I&#39;d like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;She shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The things a schoolgirl has to do in the course of a single day! Take me, for example. First I translated a passage on Nelson&#39;s last battle from Dutch into English. Then I read more about the Great Northern War (1700-1721) involving Peter the Great, Charles XII, Augustus the Strong, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania and Denmark, plus the usual dates.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne read the biography of Galileo to the end because it had to go back to the library. She had started it the previous day. Part 2 came the next week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Greek and Roman mythology</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes three days after her 13th birthday: &quot;<em>I will still get Myths of Greece and Rome, paid for with my own money&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> She also writes: <em>(...)&nbsp;I have various books on this subject too. I can name the nine Muses and the seven loves of Zeus. I have the wives of Heracles, etc., etc., down pat&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne also shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got a black cat, named Moortje, about the autumn of 1941.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 11 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944 and 8 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 27 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<h1><strong>Sport</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens verschillende getuigenissen was Anne lichamelijk niet erg sterk; haar ledematen raakten snel uit de kom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Toch zat ze op ritmische gymnastiek en beoefende&nbsp;ze verschillende andere sporten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Het gymnastiekclubje werd waarschijnlijk geleid door Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Schaatsen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In de winter van 1938-1939 leerde&nbsp;Anne schaatsen. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Op <strong>13 december 1940</strong> schreef&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma dat ze gaat schaatsen op de Kunstijsbaan in de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> &nbsp;En op <strong>13 januari 1941</strong> schrijft ze:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Ik ben elk vrij minuutje op de Kunstijsbaan. Ik had tot nu toe nog altijd mijn oude schaatsen die Margot vroeger gedragen heeft, die schaatsen moeten met een sleuteltje aangeschroefd worden, en op de Kunstijsbaan hadden al mijn vriendinnetjes echte Kunstschaatsen, die met spijkers aan je schoenen vastgemaakt moeten worden, en dan gaan ze er niet meer af. Ik wou zo vreselijk graag ook zulke schaatsen hebben, en na lang zeuren, heb ik ze ook gekregen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Een foto uit <strong>1941</strong> toont Anne met andere kinderen op de schaats in het Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Deze foto kreeg&nbsp;Anton Witsel van de vader van het voorste meisje op de foto Ansje de Leeuw. Volgens het bijschrift van de foto woonde&nbsp;Ansje in de Verenigde Staten.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>22 maart 1941</strong> schreef&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma: <em>Ik wou dat ik alweer met schaatsrijden beginnen kon, maar daarvoor moet ik nog een poosje geduld hebben, tot de oorlog voorbij is (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tafeltennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>juni 1942</strong>&nbsp;schrijft Anne: <em>Wij met ons vijven vormen een club genaamd de kleine Beer, minus 2 afgekort d.k.B.-2. (&hellip;) Het is een ping-pongclub</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Over haar hobbies&nbsp;schrijft Anne het volgende: <em>Lieve Kitty, je hebt me gevraagd, wat mijn hobby&#39;s en interessen zijn en daarop wil ik je antwoorden, maar ik waarschuw je, schrik niet, want het zijn er een heleboel.&nbsp;In de eerste plaats: schrijven, maar dat rekent eigenlijk niet als hobby</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Schrijven</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Naast haar overgeleverde dagboeken, verhaaltjes en&nbsp;brieven, heeft&nbsp;Anne ook gedichtjes geschreven in de po&euml;ziealbums van haar vriendinnetjes, o.a:&nbsp;Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi en Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Lezen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne las&nbsp;graag. Ze kreeg&nbsp;van de pingpongclub voor haar dertiende verjaardag <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden</em>, maar per ongeluk gaven ze haar deel 2. Ze ruilde&nbsp;vervolgens de <em>Camera Obscura</em> voor deel 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Deze boeken waren geschreven door Josef Cohen. Deel 2 bevindt zich in de museale collectie van de Anne Frank Stichting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Deel 1 gaf&nbsp;Anne kort voor het onderduiken aan buurmeisje Toosje Kupers, die het nog steeds in bezit heeft. Voorin staat in Annes handschrift de opdracht &#39;<em>Ter Herinnering aan Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Stambomen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank vertelde&nbsp;zijn dochters tijdens de onderduik over de familiegeschiedenis en over individuele familieleden. Anne maakte op basis daarvan stambomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> &nbsp;Anne schrijft hier ook over in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Deze stambomen zijn niet bewaard gebleven: De stambomen die Anne op grote vellen papier had getekend zijn ook niet gevonden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne maakte ook stambomen van diverse Europese vorstenhuizen: <em>Van de Franse, Duitse, Spaanse, Engelse, Oostenrijkse, Russische, Noordse en Nederlandse vorstenfamilies ben ik in alle kranten, boeken en papieren naar stambomen aan &#39;t zoeken. Met vele ben ik al erg ver gevorderd, temeer daar ik allang uit al de biografie&euml;n of geschiedenisboeken, die ik lees, aantekeningen maak</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze haalde&nbsp;hiervoor veel informatie uit de biografie van Karel V.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp; toen er kort daarna een bloemenvaas omviel, stroomde&nbsp;het water over haar stambomen. De schade bleek&nbsp;uiteindelijk echter beperkt. Aantekeningen over Maria de Medici&rsquo;, Karel V, Willem van Oranje en Marie Antoinette moesten op zolder worden gedroogd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Geschiedenis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;van haar vader veel geschiedenisboeken. Ze kon niet wachten tot ze naar de Openbare Bibliotheek kon gaan om daar verder te lezen. Ze voelde&nbsp;ook veel voor kunstgeschiedenis. Ze schrijft daarover: <em>Ik zou graag een jaar naar Parijs en een jaar naar Londen om de taal te leren en kunstgeschiedenis te studeren</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze deelde&nbsp;deze belangstelling met haar vader.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Waar een schoolmeisje in &eacute;&eacute;n dag al niet van hoort, neem mij nu eens. Eerst vertaalde ik van Hollands in Engels een stuk van Nelson&#39;s laatste slag. Daarna nam ik het vervolg van de Noordse oorlog door (1700-1721), van Peter de Grote, Karel XII, Augustus de Sterke, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Voor-Pommeren, Achter-Pommeren en Denemarken + de gebruikelijke jaartallen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne las&nbsp;de biografie van Galile&iuml; uit, omdat het terug moest naar de bibliotheek. Ze was er de vorige dag in begonnen. De volgende week kwam&nbsp;deel 2.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Griekse en Romeinse mythologie</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schrijft drie dagen na haar dertiende verjaardag: <em>Nu krijg ik nog Mythen van Griekenland en Rome van mijn eigen geld</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Ook schrijft ze: <em>(...)&nbsp;hier heb ik verscheidene boeken over. De 9 muzen of 7 liefjes van Zeus kan ik je zo opnoemen. De vrouwen van Heracles enz. enz. ken ik op m&#39;n duimpje.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ook deze belangstelling deelde&nbsp;Anne met haar vader.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;ongeveer in het najaar van 1941&nbsp;een zwarte poes, die de naam Moortje kreeg.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 11 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 20 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944 en 8 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 27 april 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<h1><strong>Sports</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>According to several accounts, Anne was not very strong physically; her limbs dislocated easily.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Nevertheless, she took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practised several other sports.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The gymnastics club was probably led by Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the winter of <strong>1938-1939</strong>, Anne learned to ice skate. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote to her grandmother that she was going ice skating at the artificial ice rink at the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> And on <strong>13 January 1941,</strong> she wrote:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;I spend every free minute at the ice rink. Until now, I still had my old skates that Margot used to wear, those skates have to be screwed on with a little key, and at the ice rink, all my friends had real Figure Skates, which have to be attached to your shoes with nails, and then they don&#39;t come off. I wanted so terribly to have such skates too, and after long nagging, I got them too.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>A <strong>1941</strong> photo shows Anne with other children ice skating in Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anton Witsel received this photo from the father of the frontmost girl in the picture Ansje de Leeuw. According to the caption of the photo, Ansje lived in the United States.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 March 1941,</strong> Anne wrote to her grandmother: <em>&quot;I wish I could start ice skating again, but for that I have to be patient for a while, until the war is over (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Table tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>June 1942, </strong>Anne writes<strong>:</strong> &quot;<em>Five of us girls have formed a club. It&#39;s called The Little Dipper Minus Two. (...)&nbsp; It&#39;s a ping-pong club</em>&quot; .<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes the following about her hobbies: &quot;<em>Dear Kitty, You asked me what my hobbies and interests are and I&#39;d like to answer, but I&#39;d better warn you, I have lots of them, so don&#39;t be surprised</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Writing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In addition to her surviving diaries, stories and letters, Anne also wrote poems in the poetry albums of her friends, including: Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi and Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne loved to read. She got <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden (&#39;Dutch Sagas and Legends&#39;)</em> from the ping-pong club for her thirteenth birthday, but by mistake they gave her volume 2. She then swapped <em>Camera Obscura</em> for volume 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> These books had been written by Josef Cohen. Volume 2 is in the museum collection of the Anne Frank House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Volume 1 was given by Anne shortly before going into hiding to neighbour Toosje Kupers, who still owns it. At the front, Anne&#39;s handwriting bears the dedication<em> &#39;In Memory of Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Family trees</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank told his daughters about family history and individual relatives while in hiding. Anne made family trees based on these.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne also wrote about this in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> These family trees have not been preserved.&nbsp;The family trees Anne had drawn on large sheets of paper have also not been found.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne also made family trees of several European royal houses: &quot;<em>of the French, German, Spanish, English, Austrian, Russian, Norwegian and Dutch royal families. I&#39;ve made great progress with many of them, because for a long time I&#39;ve been taking notes while reading biographies or history books&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;She drew a lot of information for this from Charles V&#39;s biography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;When a vase of flowers fell over shortly afterwards, water poured over her family trees. However, the damage proved limited in the end. Notes on Maria de Medici&#39;, Charles V, William of Orange and Marie Antoinette had to be dried in the attic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>History</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was given many history books by her father. She could not wait to go to the Public Library to continue reading. She also felt strongly about art history. She writes about it: &quot;<em>I&#39;d like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;She shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The things a schoolgirl has to do in the course of a single day! Take me, for example. First I translated a passage on Nelson&#39;s last battle from Dutch into English. Then I read more about the Great Northern War (1700-1721) involving Peter the Great, Charles XII, Augustus the Strong, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania and Denmark, plus the usual dates.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne read the biography of Galileo to the end because it had to go back to the library. She had started it the previous day. Part 2 came the next week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Greek and Roman mythology</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes three days after her 13th birthday: &quot;<em>I will still get Myths of Greece and Rome, paid for with my own money&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> She also writes: <em>(...)&nbsp;I have various books on this subject too. I can name the nine Muses and the seven loves of Zeus. I have the wives of Heracles, etc., etc., down pat&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne also shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got a black cat, named Moortje, about the autumn of 1941.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 11 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944 and 8 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 27 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Anne Frank took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practiced several other sports. Her other hobbies were reading and writing.",
                        "summary_nl": "Anne Frank zat ze op ritmische gymnastiek en beoefende verschillende andere sporten. Andere hobbies van haar waren lezen en schrijven.",
                        "summary_en": "Anne Frank took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practiced several other sports. Her other hobbies were reading and writing.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/00b422b7-7011-4acb-bee7-0af3199cd124/",
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                "name_nl": "Instituut voor Gymnastiek, Rhytmiek en Massage",
                "name_en": "Instituut voor Gymnastiek, Rhytmiek en Massage (Instituut voor Gymnastiek, Rhytmiek en Massage (Institute for remedial gymnastics, rhythmic sports and massage)",
                "uuid": "00b422b7-7011-4acb-bee7-0af3199cd124",
                "content": "<p>Located at Noorder Amstellaan 136&nbsp;in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l360o\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The Institute was under the management of S. de Vries and J. de Vries-Leefsma,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and also provided massage training.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank mistook this institute for a sports club, according to her diary entry of <strong>6 October 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> It is possible that Anne went there because of her joint problems.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d076j\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> However, there are no concrete indications of this.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l360o\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p.1532; <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942 en 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d076j\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 12 January 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Rinat: Iterview met Ab Rinat door Teresien da Silva, 18 oktober 2006.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Gevestigd op de Noorder Amstellaan 136, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l360o\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het Instituut stond onder directie van S. de Vries en J. de Vries-Leefsma,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> en verzorgde ook massage-opleidingen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank zag&nbsp;dit instituut, blijkens haar dagboeknotie van <strong>6 oktober 1942</strong>&nbsp;voor een sportclub aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Mogelijk is Anne hier geweest vanwege&nbsp;haar gewrichtsproblemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d076j\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hier zijn echter geen concrete aanwijzingen voor.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l360o\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p.1532; <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942 en 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d076j\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 12 januari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Rinat: Iterview met Ab Rinat door Teresien da Silva, 18 oktober 2006.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Located at Noorder Amstellaan 136&nbsp;in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l360o\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The Institute was under the management of S. de Vries and J. de Vries-Leefsma,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and also provided massage training.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank mistook this institute for a sports club, according to her diary entry of <strong>6 October 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> It is possible that Anne went there because of her joint problems.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d076j\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> However, there are no concrete indications of this.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l360o\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p.1532; <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942 en 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d076j\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 12 January 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Rinat: Iterview met Ab Rinat door Teresien da Silva, 18 oktober 2006.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.894817 52.347144)",
                "summary": "Institute for remedial gymnastics, sports, massage, etc.",
                "summary_nl": "Instituut voor heilgymnastiek, sport, massage e.d.",
                "summary_en": "Institute for remedial gymnastics, sports, massage, etc.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Noorder Amstellaan 136",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 194,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.34563",
                "longitude": "4.89665",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 219,
                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1147,
                            "uuid": "71fc71c3-a799-4a7c-85f8-fc5be96d0412",
                            "name": "A_Gies_III_018",
                            "title": "Jan en Miep Gies met hun baby Paul, en Otto Frank die dan nog bij hen woont, januari 1951",
                            "alt": "Vervaardiger Eva Schloss. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                            "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/2bd87822-33b8-ab76-1908-9e53ed5f938a.jpg",
                            "path": null,
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "undefined",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                            "copyright": "In copyright (rechten derden)"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/5a117c12-4dfd-49b9-aaba-d04bd8a6ae16/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/0375a892-f851-494d-b6a7-c4f0c054f69f",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/f2004ab1-f62f-43c5-9864-18eea838d81e",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/64af952c-9403-4db9-b2cb-5ba310b33332",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "5a117c12-4dfd-49b9-aaba-d04bd8a6ae16",
                        "name": "Otto Frank moves with Jan and Miep Gies",
                        "name_nl": "Otto Frank verhuist samen met Jan en Miep Gies",
                        "name_en": "Otto Frank moves with Jan and Miep Gies",
                        "content": "<p>According to the Population Register, Otto Frank moved into the house at Jekerstraat 65 II on <strong>12 November 1946</strong>. The main occupant at that time was Ab Cauvern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ewrg4\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> His wife Isa had earlier, on <strong>28 November 1945</strong>, asked Otto in a letter regarding this house: &quot;Will you take a room with us again?&quot;<em>&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"r7sl4\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nJan and Miep Gies also moved with him, according to the population register on <strong>21 November 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ccwdl\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Otto wrote <strong>3 December 1946</strong> to Jetteke Frijda (a former classmate of Margot Frank at the Municipal Lyceum for Girls):<em>&nbsp;&quot;</em>In Jekerstraat we have more space. I live there with the same friends with whom I was also in Hunzestraat.&quot;&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"sjqof\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to the Population Register, Otto lived here until he left for Basel <strong>on 20 August 1952</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ktq6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Miep and Jan wanted to keep the house to swap with a 3-4-room house. However, they did not get a housing permit and the house was requisitioned.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xff5h\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ewrg4\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Otto Frank. &nbsp;Cauvern woonde hier sinds 14 februari 1946. Deze vertrok in januari 1953 naar Hilversum. SAA, Dienst Bevolkigsregister, Persoonskaarten (toegangsnummer 30408): Persoonskaart A. Cauvern. Zijn vrouw Isa Cauvern woonde hier van 14 februari 1946 tot haar overlijden op 27 juni van dat jaar.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r7sl4\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Brief van Isa Cauvern-Monas aan Otto Frank, 28 november 1945. Uit deze brief blijkt dat zij doende is door woningruil naar dit adres te komen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ccwdl\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 160: Woningkaart Jekerstraat 65 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sjqof\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_100: Brief van Otto Frank aan Jetteke Frijda, 3 december 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ktq6a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Otto Frank. Eva Schloss zegt echter 13 november 2008 in een interview dat Otto bij haar vertrek naar London bij Fritzi op Merwedeplein 46 introk. Offici&euml;le gegevens bevestigen dat overigens niet, Otto&#39;s agenda&#39;s evenmin. AFS, Getuigenarchief: Schloss-Geiringer, Eva.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xff5h\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz:Transcriptie interview Dienke Hondius, 1989, p. 5.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Volgens het Bevolkingsregister betrok Otto Frank de&nbsp;woning op&nbsp;Jekerstraat 65 II&nbsp; op <strong>12 november 1946</strong>. Amsterdam: Hoofdbewoner op dat moment was&nbsp;Ab Cauvern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ewrg4\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Diens vrouw Isa vroeg Otto al eerder, op <strong>28 november 1945</strong>, in een brief met betrekking tot deze woning: &#39;<em>Neemt U nog een kamer bij ons?&#39;&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"r7sl4\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nJan en Miep Gies verhuisden ook mee, volgens het bevolkingsregister op <strong>21 november 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ccwdl\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Otto schreef <strong>3 december 1946</strong> aan Jetteke Frijda (een voormalig klasgenootje van Margot Frank op het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes):<em>&nbsp;&#39;In de Jekerstraat hebben wij meer ruimte. Ik woon daar met dezelfde vrienden samen met wie ik ook in de Hunzestraat was</em>.&#39; <sup data-footnote-id=\"sjqof\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens het Bevolkingsregister woonde&nbsp;Otto hier tot hij <strong>20 augustus 1952</strong> naar Bazel vertrok.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ktq6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Miep en Jan wilden de woning behouden om te kunnen ruilen met een 3-4-kamerwoning. Ze kregen echter geen woonvergunning en de woning werd&nbsp;gevorderd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xff5h\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ewrg4\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Otto Frank. &nbsp;Cauvern woonde hier sinds 14 februari 1946. Deze vertrok in januari 1953 naar Hilversum. SAA, Dienst Bevolkigsregister, Persoonskaarten (toegangsnummer 30408): Persoonskaart A. Cauvern. Zijn vrouw Isa Cauvern woonde hier van 14 februari 1946 tot haar overlijden op 27 juni van dat jaar.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r7sl4\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Brief van Isa Cauvern-Monas aan Otto Frank, 28 november 1945. Uit deze brief blijkt dat zij doende is door woningruil naar dit adres te komen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ccwdl\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 160: Woningkaart Jekerstraat 65 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sjqof\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_100: Brief van Otto Frank aan Jetteke Frijda, 3 december 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ktq6a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Otto Frank. Eva Schloss zegt echter 13 november 2008 in een interview dat Otto bij haar vertrek naar London bij Fritzi op Merwedeplein 46 introk. Offici&euml;le gegevens bevestigen dat overigens niet, Otto&#39;s agenda&#39;s evenmin. AFS, Getuigenarchief: Schloss-Geiringer, Eva.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xff5h\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz:Transcriptie interview Dienke Hondius, 1989, p. 5.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>According to the Population Register, Otto Frank moved into the house at Jekerstraat 65 II on <strong>12 November 1946</strong>. The main occupant at that time was Ab Cauvern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ewrg4\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> His wife Isa had earlier, on <strong>28 November 1945</strong>, asked Otto in a letter regarding this house: &quot;Will you take a room with us again?&quot;<em>&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"r7sl4\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nJan and Miep Gies also moved with him, according to the population register on <strong>21 November 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ccwdl\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Otto wrote <strong>3 December 1946</strong> to Jetteke Frijda (a former classmate of Margot Frank at the Municipal Lyceum for Girls):<em>&nbsp;&quot;</em>In Jekerstraat we have more space. I live there with the same friends with whom I was also in Hunzestraat.&quot;&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"sjqof\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to the Population Register, Otto lived here until he left for Basel <strong>on 20 August 1952</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ktq6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Miep and Jan wanted to keep the house to swap with a 3-4-room house. However, they did not get a housing permit and the house was requisitioned.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xff5h\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ewrg4\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Otto Frank. &nbsp;Cauvern woonde hier sinds 14 februari 1946. Deze vertrok in januari 1953 naar Hilversum. SAA, Dienst Bevolkigsregister, Persoonskaarten (toegangsnummer 30408): Persoonskaart A. Cauvern. Zijn vrouw Isa Cauvern woonde hier van 14 februari 1946 tot haar overlijden op 27 juni van dat jaar.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r7sl4\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Brief van Isa Cauvern-Monas aan Otto Frank, 28 november 1945. Uit deze brief blijkt dat zij doende is door woningruil naar dit adres te komen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ccwdl\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 160: Woningkaart Jekerstraat 65 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sjqof\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_100: Brief van Otto Frank aan Jetteke Frijda, 3 december 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ktq6a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Otto Frank. Eva Schloss zegt echter 13 november 2008 in een interview dat Otto bij haar vertrek naar London bij Fritzi op Merwedeplein 46 introk. Offici&euml;le gegevens bevestigen dat overigens niet, Otto&#39;s agenda&#39;s evenmin. AFS, Getuigenarchief: Schloss-Geiringer, Eva.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xff5h\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz:Transcriptie interview Dienke Hondius, 1989, p. 5.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1946-11-12",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Until his departure for Switzerland, Otto Frank lived with Miep and Jan Gies in Jekerstraat 65.",
                        "summary_nl": "Tot aan zijn vertrek naar Zwitserland woont Otto Frank met Miep en Jan Gies in de Jekerstraat.",
                        "summary_en": "Until his departure for Switzerland, Otto Frank lived with Miep and Jan Gies in Jekerstraat 65.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 253,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/41b476b8-4611-4421-88aa-a11425dc6e71/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b1f2828-0f9d-49a0-bf55-869b818e76ab",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/64af952c-9403-4db9-b2cb-5ba310b33332",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "41b476b8-4611-4421-88aa-a11425dc6e71",
                        "name": "Johannes Kleiman works at Firma Frank & Kleiman",
                        "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkzaam bij de Firma Frank & Kleiman",
                        "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman works at Firma Frank & Kleiman",
                        "content": "<p>On <strong>24 September 1948</strong>, Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman established the firm Frank &amp; Kleiman for an indefinite period.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v1q8h\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The company engaged in the exploitation of&nbsp;patents, and participation in similar and other enterprises.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nThe office address at incorporation was Jekerstraat 65, and from <strong>16 September 1952,</strong> Prinsengracht 263.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nTransactions larger than NLG 5,000 required the signatures of both partners. This was also the case for entering into surety bonds; acquiring, disposing of, renting and letting immovable property; taking out money loans and letting out rights in rem.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nOn <strong>16 September 1952,</strong> the name was changed to Handelsonderneming Frank &amp; Kleiman, and the business was wound up with effect from <strong>31 December 1952</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v1q8h\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Alle informatie ontleend aan: Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1350, dossier 70754.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Op <strong>24 september 1948</strong> richtten Otto Frank en Jo Kleiman voor onbepaalde tijd de Firma Frank &amp; Kleiman op.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v1q8h\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het bedrijf deed aan exploitatie van octrooien en patenten, en het deelnemen in soortgelijke en andere ondernemingen.&nbsp;Het kantooradres was bij oprichting Jekerstraat 65, en vanaf <strong>16 september 1952</strong> Prinsengracht 263. Toen werd de naam gewijzigd in Handelsonderneming Frank &amp; Kleiman.&nbsp;Met ingang van <strong>31 december 1952</strong> was de zaak opgeheven.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nVoor transacties groter dan fl. 5.000,- waren de handtekeningen van beide vennoten nodig. Evenals voor het aangaan van borgtochten; het verkrijgen, vervreemden, huren en verhuren van onroerende zaken; het aangaan van geldleningen en verhuur van zakelijke rechten.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v1q8h\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Alle informatie ontleend aan: Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1350, dossier 70754.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>On <strong>24 September 1948</strong>, Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman established the firm Frank &amp; Kleiman for an indefinite period.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v1q8h\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The company engaged in the exploitation of&nbsp;patents, and participation in similar and other enterprises.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nThe office address at incorporation was Jekerstraat 65, and from <strong>16 September 1952,</strong> Prinsengracht 263.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nTransactions larger than NLG 5,000 required the signatures of both partners. This was also the case for entering into surety bonds; acquiring, disposing of, renting and letting immovable property; taking out money loans and letting out rights in rem.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nOn <strong>16 September 1952,</strong> the name was changed to Handelsonderneming Frank &amp; Kleiman, and the business was wound up with effect from <strong>31 December 1952</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v1q8h\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Alle informatie ontleend aan: Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1350, dossier 70754.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1948-09-24",
                        "date_end": "1952-12-31",
                        "summary": "Three years after the war, Otto Frank founded the company \"Firma Frank & Kleiman\" together with Jo Kleiman.",
                        "summary_nl": "Drie jaar na de oorlog richtte Otto Frank samen met Jo Kleiman het bedrijf \"Firma Frank & Kleiman\" op.",
                        "summary_en": "Three years after the war, Otto Frank founded the company \"Firma Frank & Kleiman\" together with Jo Kleiman.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/64af952c-9403-4db9-b2cb-5ba310b33332/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Jekerstraat 65 II",
                "name_nl": "Jekerstraat 65 II",
                "name_en": "Jekerstraat 65 II",
                "uuid": "64af952c-9403-4db9-b2cb-5ba310b33332",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89665 52.34563)",
                "summary": "Home of Ab and Isa Cauvern. Otto Frank also lived at this address from 1946 to 1952, together with Miep and Jan Gies.",
                "summary_nl": "Woning van Ab en Isa Cauvern. Op dit adres woonde ook Otto Frank van 1946 tot 1952, samen Miep en Jan Gies.",
                "summary_en": "Home of Ab and Isa Cauvern. Otto Frank also lived at this address from 1946 to 1952, together with Miep and Jan Gies.",
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                "street": "Jekerstraat 65 II",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
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                "land": "Nederland",
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                    "name": "OSIM00008005764",
                    "title": "Het gebouw van de Joodse invalide, 1939",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
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                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/4476dc09-034e-43c6-a285-42b0c098c05e/",
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                        "name": "Otto Frank and the manuscript of Anne's diary",
                        "name_nl": "Otto Frank en het manuscript van Annes dagboek",
                        "name_en": "Otto Frank and the manuscript of Anne's diary",
                        "description": "<p>The handwritten manuscript of Anne Frank&#39;s diaries on the basis of which Otto Frank compiled the first edition of<em> The Secret Annex</em><strong> (1947</strong>) consists of a red-checkered booklet, two cardboard notebooks and over 200 sheets of copy&nbsp;paper. Otto also included four short stories by Anne in his edition.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5iuyu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>It is customary to refer to these manuscripts successively as <em>diary A1, A2, A3</em> (A-version) and the<em> loose sheets</em> (B-version). <sup data-footnote-id=\"w999b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> <em>Diary A1, A2</em> and <em>A3</em> contain Anne Frank&#39;s original diary entries. On <em>the loose sheets</em> (B version), Anne Frank rewrote her original diary entries with a view to possible publication after the war.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k6qq6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Together with the Tales Book, the Beautiful Phrase Book and a photo album (called the Blank Monster Electro Household Book), these manuscripts form <sup data-footnote-id=\"zepqi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Otto Frank&#39;s legacy to the state of the Netherlands. <sup data-footnote-id=\"b7i4b\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary A1</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank was given this red-checked diary for her thirteenth birthday. It runs from <strong>12 June 1942</strong> to <strong>5 December 1942</strong>. At the back are three more notes in red ink, dated <strong>2 May 1943</strong>. Anne was present when the diary was bought;&nbsp;where is not clear. <em>&#39;I&#39;ll begin from the moment I got you, the moment I saw you lying on the table among my other birthday presents. (I went along when you were bought, but that doesn&#39;t count.)&#39; </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"h6ebj\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;As early as 20 October 1942, Anne indicated that her diary was becoming full. She stuck white sheets in it to &quot;stretch it a bit more&quot; and she was allowed to ask Bep to visit Perry&#39;s and see if there were any diaries in stock there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cr093\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Missing diary entries</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>No diary entries from the period <strong>5 December 1942</strong> to <strong>22 December 1943</strong> have survived. So between <em>diary A1</em> and <em>A2</em>, over a year is missing. However, Anne did include this period when rewriting her diary on the<em> loose</em> sheets (B version). From this it can be concluded that the missing notes did exist. There are also passages in Anne&#39;s narrative that refer to the existence of the missing diary entries.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u70b2\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary A2</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>A cardboard (black) school notebook contains the diary entries from <strong>22 December 1943</strong> to <strong>17 April 1944</strong>. The first diary entry begins as follows: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, Daddy has tracked down another new diary for me and this one of a respectable thickness, as you will see for yourself in good time.​​​​​​​.&#39;</em>​​​​​​​<sup data-footnote-id=\"oisf0\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary A3</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Diary A3 follows on from diary A2: a cardboard (green marbled) school notebook covering the period <strong>17 April to 1 August 1944</strong> (the last diary entry). On <strong>Tuesday 18 April 1944</strong>, Anne writes: <em>&#39;Dear Kitty, Someone&#39;s been a real darling again and has torn up a chemistry exercise book for me to make a new diary, this time the someone was Margot.​​​​​​​&#39;</em>​​​​​​​<sup data-footnote-id=\"22yal\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary B or the &#39;Loose sheets&#39;</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In diary A3, Anne Frank writes on Wednesday <strong>29 March 1944</strong>: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, Bolkesteyn, an MP, was speaking in the Dutch News from London, and he said that they ought to make a collection of diaries and letters after the war. Of course they all made a rush at my diary immediately. Just imagine how interesting it would be if I were to publish a romance of the &#39;Secret Annexe&#39;, the title alone would be enough to make people think it was a detective story.</em>&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zqcxn\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Two months after that call from Education Minister Bolkestein on Radio Orange, on <strong>28 March 1944</strong>, Anne actually began rewriting her original diary. On <strong>Saturday 20 May</strong> <strong>1944</strong>, she notes: &#39;<em>At long last after a great deal of reflection I have started my &#39;Achterhuis&#39;, in my head it is as good as finished, although it won&#39;t go as quickly as that really, if it ever comes off at all.&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"ocy7o\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne did this on loose, light yellow, light blue, pink and white copy&nbsp;sheets called the <em>loose sheets</em>. While Anne was rewriting her diaries, she also continued writing in her running diary (Diary A). The &#39;loose sheets&#39; cover the period from <strong>20 June 1942 to 29 March 1944.</strong><sup data-footnote-id=\"kpdve\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>Anne processed much of Diary A into Diary B in about two months.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>First edition of The Secret Annex</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank used both Anne&#39;s A version and Anne&#39;s B version for the first edition of <em>The Secret Annex&nbsp;</em>in <strong>1947</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"m7zhl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> due to the absence of almost <strong>all of 1943</strong> in the original manuscript.​​​​​​​ He also included four stories: The Best Little Table, A Daily Chore in Our Little Community: Peeling Potatoes!, Freedom in the Annexe,<em>&nbsp;</em>and <em>Wenn die Uhr halb neune schl&auml;gt...</em></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5iuyu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De originele handgeschreven manuscripten bevinden zich in de Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) bij de Anne Frank Stichting (AFS).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w999b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De benamingen dagboek 1, 2, 3 en losse vellen komen uit de wetenschappelijke editie: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD) (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 69-71.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k6qq6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, p. 215.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zepqi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_035: Mooie Zinnenboek; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_034: Verhaaltjesboek; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Blanco Monster Electro Huishoudboek.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b7i4b\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nog een ander geschrift dat Anne heeft nagelaten is het Egypteboek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_029). Dit boek wordt hierboven niet genoemd omdat het niet tijdens de onderduikperiode is geschreven, maar waarschijnlijk in de eerste klas van de middelbare school. Zie ook AFS, Getuigenarchief: Musikant, Klara.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6ebj\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cr093\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Diary Version A, 20 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>. Also see 26 October 1942: &#39;Daddy has asked Mr Kleiman fot a diary and Bep for a potty&#39;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u70b2\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>In het verhaaltje &#39;Pension- of huurgasten&#39; verwijst Anne naar het verlies van haar vulpen in een eerdere dagboeknotitie als ze schrijft: &#39;<em>Stom genoeg ben ik hier opgehouden, zoals bekend heb ik intussen m&lsquo;n vulpen in de kachel gegooid en moet dus met een ander verder schrijven.&#39;&nbsp;</em>Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, &quot;Pension- of huurgasten&quot;, 15 oktober 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.&nbsp;In de B-versie komt dit terug in &#39;Ode aan mijn vulpen. In Memoriam&#39;. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 11 november 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>. In de marge van het verhaaltje &quot;De tandarts&quot; schrijft&nbsp;Anne &#39;<em>In Dec. schreef ik: decificeermiddel!&#39;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank, &quot;De tandarts&quot;, 8 december 1942, in: Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes, en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 17. Bij de bechrijving van de tandartsbehandeling van Auguste van Pels in de B-versie maakt ze deze spelfout niet en schrijft ze desinfecteermiddel. Anne Frank, Dagboek B,&nbsp;10&nbsp;december 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oisf0\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 22 December 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"22yal\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 18 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zqcxn\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 29 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ocy7o\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in: <em>The&nbsp; Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kpdve\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De volgende telling is gedaan aan de hand van de facsimile&rsquo;s van de dagboeken, AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Dagboeken_I_001 t/m 004: Losse vellen. Totaal 215 zgn. &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo; waarvan 19 op bij benadering A4 formaat: 17 roze en 2 grauwe en 196 op bij benadering A5 formaat: 117 lichtgele/grauwe (waarvan 1x &frac12; A5), 43 blauwe (waarvan 1x1/2 A5) en 36 roze. Fysiek bestaat het manuscript van het dagboek uit 196 losse vellen: lichtgeel, blauw, roze en grauw gekleurd doorslagpapier, (bijna) A4 en A5 formaat (2x is een A5 formaat gehalveerd). Sommige vellen zijn beschadigd; ze zijn gescheurd of er zijn stukjes uitgeknipt). De verhaaltjes bestaan fysiek uit 17 losse vellen, waarvan 4 (roze) op A4 formaat en 13 (8 roze, 3 blauwe, 2 grauwe) op A5 formaat. 2 A4 (grauwe) vellen zijn Frans huiswerk. Anne heeft de A4 vellen in het manuscript van het dagboek (B versie) &eacute;&eacute;n keer dubbel gevouwen zodat er steeds vier zijdes (bijna A5 formaat) zijn ontstaan waarvan we nu elke beschreven zijde steeds als 1 pagina tellen. E&eacute;n A4 vel kan dus uit 1, 2, 3 of 4 beschreven pagina&rsquo;s bestaan. Bij de verhaaltjes heeft Anne ook twee zijdes van een A4 vel in &eacute;&eacute;n geheel beschreven. De A5 vellen zijn enkel- of dubbelzijdig beschreven. De beschreven zijdes worden steeds als &eacute;&eacute;n pagina geteld. De pagina&rsquo;s (of beschreven zijdes) zijn voor het overgrote deel genummerd van 1 t/m 324. Maar een aantal pagina&rsquo;s heeft geen nummer en een aantal heeft een binnennummering met a, b, c, etc. gekregen. De eerste twee (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s (1 vel A4) zijn niet genummerd (het lijkt een andere of kladversie van het begin / de eerste twee pagina&rsquo;s van de B-versie van het dagboek), sticker erop met (in handschrift Karolien) Suijk. [+2 buiten de nummering van 324]. Pagina&rsquo;s genummerd 1 t/m 324 waarvan: Pagina 64 dubbel is (twee keer genummerd &lsquo;64&rsquo;) [+1 binnen nummering van 324]. Pagina 86 heeft ook nog 86 a t/m g [+7 binnen nummering van 324]. Pagina 128 heeft ook nog 128a, b, c [+3]. Pagina 152 heeft ook nog 152 a,b, c [+3]. Pagina 235 heeft ook nog 235a [+1]. Pagina 280 en 281 zijn alleen in fotokopie (met verklaring van Fritzie erbij). Pagina 309 heeft ook nog 309a [+1]. Dagboekbrief van 8 februari 1944 is apart genummerd met 1, 2, en 3. Dit zijn ook pagina&rsquo;s van Suijk [+3 pagina&rsquo;s ] (Fysiek zijn dit 2 vellen A5). Buiten de nummering van 1 t/m 324: 1 pagina, Pseudoniemenlijst, ongenummerd (Fysiek 1 vel A5). 7 pagina&rsquo;s, &lsquo;Verhaaltjes&rsquo;, genummerd 1 t/m 7 (Fysiek 1 x A4 en 3 x A5). 25 pagina&rsquo;s, &lsquo;Verhaaltjes&rsquo; (Fysiek 3 x A4 en 10 x A5). 2 pagina&rsquo;s met een Franse huiswerkoefening, allen ongenummerd (Fysiek 2 x A4). Samenvattend: Totaal 2+324+1+7+3+3+1+1+3+1+7+27=380 (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s.Het manuscript dagboek bestaat uit 324+22=346 (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s (hierbij is ook de pseudoniemenlijst meegeteld). Totaal aantal &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo;: 215. Totaal aantal &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo; manuscript dagboek:196. Totaal aantal &#39;losse vellen&#39; verhaaltjes: 17. Totaal aantal &#39;losse vellen&#39; Frans huiswerk: 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m7zhl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ook wel de C-versie genoemd; zie noot 3.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het handgeschreven manuscript van de dagboeken van Anne Frank op basis waarvan Otto Frank de eerste editie van<em> Het Achterhuis</em> (<strong>1947</strong>) samenstelde, bestaat uit een roodgeruit boekje, twee gekartonneerde schriften en ruim 200 vellen doorslagpapier.&nbsp;Otto nam daarnaast&nbsp;ook vier korte verhaaltjes van Anne op in zijn editie.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5iuyu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het is gebruikelijk deze handschriften achtereenvolgens <em>dagboek A1, A2, A3</em> (A-versie) en de<em> losse vellen</em>&nbsp;(B-versie) te noemen. <sup data-footnote-id=\"w999b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Dagboek A1, A2</em> en <em>A3</em> bevatten de oorspronkelijke dagboekaantekeningen van Anne Frank. Op <em>de losse vellen</em> (B-versie) heeft Anne Frank haar oorspronkelijke dagboekaantekeningen herschreven met het oog op een mogelijke publicatie na de oorlog.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k6qq6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Samen met het Verhaaltjesboek, het Mooie Zinnenboek en een fotoalbum (het zogenaamde Blanco Monster Electro Huishoudboek)&nbsp;vormen deze handschriften<sup data-footnote-id=\"zepqi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;de nalatenschap van Otto Frank aan de staat der Nederlanden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b7i4b\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Dagboek A1</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank kreeg&nbsp;dit roodgeruite dagboek voor haar dertiende verjaardag. Het loopt van <strong>12 juni 1942</strong> t/m <strong>5 december 1942</strong>. Achterin staan nog drie notities in rode inkt, die gedateerd zijn op&nbsp;<strong>2 mei 1943</strong>. Anne was er bij toen het dagboek gekocht werd, waar is niet duidelijk. &#39;<em>Ik zal maar beginnen vanaf het ogenblik dat ik je gekregen heb, dus dat ik je heb zien liggen op mijn verjaardagstafel, (want het kopen, waar ik ook bij ben geweest, telt niet mee.)&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"h6ebj\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;Al op 20 oktober 1942 gaf Anne aan dat haar dagboek vol raakte. Ze plakte er witte velletjes in om het nog &#39;wat te strekken&#39; en ze mocht Bep vragen om bij Perry&nbsp;langs te gaan en te kijken of daar nog dagboeken in voorraad waren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cr093\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ontbrekende dagboeknotities</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Er zijn geen dagboekaantekeningen uit de periode <strong>5 december 1942</strong> tot <strong>22 december 1943</strong> overgeleverd. Tussen <em>dagboek A1</em> en <em>A2</em> ontbreekt dus ruim een jaar. Wel heeft Anne deze periode opgenomen bij het herschrijven van haar dagboek op de<em> losse vellen</em> (B-versie). Daar uit kan geconcludeerd worden dat de ontbrekende notities wel bestaan hebben. Ook zijn er passages in Anne&#39;s verhaaltjes die verwijzen naar het bestaan van de ontbrekende dagboekaantekeningen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3n00f\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Dagboek A2</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In een gekartonneerd (zwart) schoolschrift staan de dagboekaantekeningen van <strong>22 december 1943</strong> tot <strong>17 april 1944</strong>. De eerste dagboekbrief begint als volgt: &#39;<em>Lieve Kitty, Vader heeft toch weer een nieuw dagboek voor me opgespoord en dat het een respectabele dikte heeft, daar kan, je je ten zijnen tijde zelf van overtuigen.&#39;</em>​​​​​​​<sup data-footnote-id=\"oisf0\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Dagboek A3</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Dagboek A3 sluit aan op dagboek A2: een gekartonneerd (groengemarmerd) schoolschrift dat de periode <strong>17 april tot 1 augustus 1944</strong> (de laatste dagboeknotitie) beslaat.&nbsp;Op <strong>dinsdag 18 april 1944</strong> schrijft Anne hierover: &#39;<em>Lieve Kitty, weer is er een schat geweest die een scheikundeschrift voor mij uit elkaar gehaald heeft om me een nieuw dagboek te bezorgen, dit keer is het Margot.&#39;</em>​​​​​​​<sup data-footnote-id=\"22yal\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Dagboek B of de &lsquo;Losse vellen&rsquo;</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In dagboek A3 schrijft Anne Frank op woensdag <strong>29 maart 1944</strong>: &#39;<em>Lieve Kitty, Gisterenavond sprak minister Bolkesteyn aan de Oranjezender erover dat er na de oorlog een inzameling van dagboeken en brieven van deze oorlog zou worden gehouden. Natuurlijk stormden ze allemaal direct op mijn dagboek af. Stel je eens voor hoe interessant het zou zijn, als ik een roman van het Achterhuis uit zou geven, aan de titel alleen zouden de mensen denken dat het een detective-roman was.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"arhj8\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Twee maanden na die&nbsp;oproep van de minister van Onderwijs, Bolkestein, op radio Oranje, op&nbsp;<strong>28 maart 1944,</strong>&nbsp;begon&nbsp;Anne daadwerkelijk met het herschrijven van haar originele dagboek. Op&nbsp;<strong>zaterdag 20 mei 1944</strong>&nbsp;noteert ze: &#39;<em>Eindelijk na heel veel overpeinzingen ben ik dan met m&rsquo;n Achterhuis begonnen, in m&rsquo;n hoofd is het al zover af als het kan, maar in werkelijkheid zal het wel heel wat minder gauw gaan, als het wel ooit afkomt.&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"alq49\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne deed&nbsp;dit op losse,&nbsp;lichtgele, lichtblauwe, roze en witte&nbsp;doorslagvellen, die de <em>losse vellen</em>&nbsp;genoemd worden.&nbsp;Terwijl Anne haar dagboeken herschreef, schreef&nbsp;ze ook nog door in haar lopende dagboek (dagboek A).&nbsp;De &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo;&nbsp;beslaan&nbsp;de periode van&nbsp;<strong>20 juni 1942 t/m 29 maart 1944.</strong><sup data-footnote-id=\"lwhtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne heeft in ongeveer&nbsp;twee maanden een groot deel Dagboek A&nbsp;verwerkt tot Dagboek B.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Eerste uitgave van Het Achterhuis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank heeft voor de eerste editie van <em>Het Achterhuis </em>in&nbsp;<strong>1947</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"w97sc\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup>&nbsp;door het ontbreken van bijna <strong>geheel 1943</strong> in het originele manuscript, zowel Annes&nbsp;A-versie als Annes B-versie gebruikt.​​​​​​​&nbsp;Ook nam hij&nbsp;vier verhaaltjes op:&nbsp;<em>Het beste tafeltje, De plicht v.d. dag in de gemeenschap: Aardappelschillen!, De vrijheid in het Achterhuis&nbsp;en Wenn die Uhr halb neune schl&auml;gt&hellip;</em></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5iuyu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De originele handgeschreven manuscripten bevinden zich in de Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) bij de Anne Frank Stichting (AFS).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w999b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De benamingen dagboek 1, 2, 3 en losse vellen komen uit de wetenschappelijke editie: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD) (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 69-71.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k6qq6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, p. 215.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zepqi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_035: Mooie Zinnenboek; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_034: Verhaaltjesboek; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Blanco Monster Electro Huishoudboek.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b7i4b\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nog een ander geschrift dat Anne heeft nagelaten is het Egypteboek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_029). Dit boek wordt hierboven niet genoemd omdat het niet tijdens de onderduikperiode is geschreven, maar waarschijnlijk in de eerste klas van de middelbare school. Zie ook AFS, Getuigenarchief: Musikant, Klara.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6ebj\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cr093\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Dagboek A, 20 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>. Zie verder ook op 26 oktober 1942: &#39;Papa heeft mijnh Kleiman naar een dagboek gevraagd en Bep naar een po&#39;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3n00f\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>In the short story &quot;Roomers or renters&quot;,&quot;Anne refers to the loss of her fountain pen in an earlier diary entry when she writes, &quot;<em>I stopped at this point, unluckily enough, because in the meantime my fountain pen got tossed into the stove, so now I have to write with another one</em>.&quot; Anne Frank, Tales from the Secret Annex, &quot;Roomers or renters,&quot; 15 October 15 1943, in: Netherlands Institue for War Documentation (ed.), T<em>he Diary of Anne Frank, the revised critical edition</em>, New York, NY: Doubleday, 2003. (This reference cannot be found in the <em>Collected Works</em> edition.) In the B-version of the diary, this appears in &#39;Ode to my Fountain Pen&#39;. Anne Frank, Diary Version B, November 11, 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>. In the margin of the narrative &quot;The Dentist&quot;, Anne writes &quot;<em>In Dec. I wrote: uninfectant!</em>&quot; Anne Frank, Tales from the Secret Annex, &quot;The Dentist&quot;, 8 December 1942, in: <em>The Diary of Anne Frank, the revised critical edition</em>. (Reference not found in the <em>Collected Works</em> edition.) When describing Auguste van Pels&#39; dental treatment in the B-version, she does not make this spelling mistake and writes disinfectant. Anne Frank, Diary Version B, December 10, 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oisf0\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 22 december 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"22yal\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 18 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"arhj8\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 29 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"alq49\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 20 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lwhtm\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De volgende telling is gedaan aan de hand van de facsimile&rsquo;s van de dagboeken, AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Dagboeken_I_001 t/m 004: Losse vellen. Totaal 215 zgn. &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo; waarvan 19 op bij benadering A4 formaat: 17 roze en 2 grauwe en 196 op bij benadering A5 formaat: 117 lichtgele/grauwe (waarvan 1x &frac12; A5), 43 blauwe (waarvan 1x1/2 A5) en 36 roze. Fysiek bestaat het manuscript van het dagboek uit 196 losse vellen: lichtgeel, blauw, roze en grauw gekleurd doorslagpapier, (bijna) A4 en A5 formaat (2x is een A5 formaat gehalveerd). Sommige vellen zijn beschadigd; ze zijn gescheurd of er zijn stukjes uitgeknipt). De verhaaltjes bestaan fysiek uit 17 losse vellen, waarvan 4 (roze) op A4 formaat en 13 (8 roze, 3 blauwe, 2 grauwe) op A5 formaat. 2 A4 (grauwe) vellen zijn Frans huiswerk. Anne heeft de A4 vellen in het manuscript van het dagboek (B versie) &eacute;&eacute;n keer dubbel gevouwen zodat er steeds vier zijdes (bijna A5 formaat) zijn ontstaan waarvan we nu elke beschreven zijde steeds als 1 pagina tellen. E&eacute;n A4 vel kan dus uit 1, 2, 3 of 4 beschreven pagina&rsquo;s bestaan. Bij de verhaaltjes heeft Anne ook twee zijdes van een A4 vel in &eacute;&eacute;n geheel beschreven. De A5 vellen zijn enkel- of dubbelzijdig beschreven. De beschreven zijdes worden steeds als &eacute;&eacute;n pagina geteld. De pagina&rsquo;s (of beschreven zijdes) zijn voor het overgrote deel genummerd van 1 t/m 324. Maar een aantal pagina&rsquo;s heeft geen nummer en een aantal heeft een binnennummering met a, b, c, etc. gekregen. De eerste twee (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s (1 vel A4) zijn niet genummerd (het lijkt een andere of kladversie van het begin / de eerste twee pagina&rsquo;s van de B-versie van het dagboek), sticker erop met (in handschrift Karolien) Suijk. [+2 buiten de nummering van 324]. Pagina&rsquo;s genummerd 1 t/m 324 waarvan: Pagina 64 dubbel is (twee keer genummerd &lsquo;64&rsquo;) [+1 binnen nummering van 324]. Pagina 86 heeft ook nog 86 a t/m g [+7 binnen nummering van 324]. Pagina 128 heeft ook nog 128a, b, c [+3]. Pagina 152 heeft ook nog 152 a,b, c [+3]. Pagina 235 heeft ook nog 235a [+1]. Pagina 280 en 281 zijn alleen in fotokopie (met verklaring van Fritzie erbij). Pagina 309 heeft ook nog 309a [+1]. Dagboekbrief van 8 februari 1944 is apart genummerd met 1, 2, en 3. Dit zijn ook pagina&rsquo;s van Suijk [+3 pagina&rsquo;s ] (Fysiek zijn dit 2 vellen A5). Buiten de nummering van 1 t/m 324: 1 pagina, Pseudoniemenlijst, ongenummerd (Fysiek 1 vel A5). 7 pagina&rsquo;s, &lsquo;Verhaaltjes&rsquo;, genummerd 1 t/m 7 (Fysiek 1 x A4 en 3 x A5). 25 pagina&rsquo;s, &lsquo;Verhaaltjes&rsquo; (Fysiek 3 x A4 en 10 x A5). 2 pagina&rsquo;s met een Franse huiswerkoefening, allen ongenummerd (Fysiek 2 x A4). Samenvattend: Totaal 2+324+1+7+3+3+1+1+3+1+7+27=380 (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s.Het manuscript dagboek bestaat uit 324+22=346 (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s (hierbij is ook de pseudoniemenlijst meegeteld). Totaal aantal &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo;: 215. Totaal aantal &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo; manuscript dagboek:196. Totaal aantal &#39;losse vellen&#39; verhaaltjes: 17. Totaal aantal &#39;losse vellen&#39; Frans huiswerk: 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w97sc\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ook wel de C-versie genoemd; zie noot 3.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The handwritten manuscript of Anne Frank&#39;s diaries on the basis of which Otto Frank compiled the first edition of<em> The Secret Annex</em><strong> (1947</strong>) consists of a red-checkered booklet, two cardboard notebooks and over 200 sheets of copy&nbsp;paper. Otto also included four short stories by Anne in his edition.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5iuyu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>It is customary to refer to these manuscripts successively as <em>diary A1, A2, A3</em> (A-version) and the<em> loose sheets</em> (B-version). <sup data-footnote-id=\"w999b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> <em>Diary A1, A2</em> and <em>A3</em> contain Anne Frank&#39;s original diary entries. On <em>the loose sheets</em> (B version), Anne Frank rewrote her original diary entries with a view to possible publication after the war.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k6qq6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Together with the Tales Book, the Beautiful Phrase Book and a photo album (called the Blank Monster Electro Household Book), these manuscripts form <sup data-footnote-id=\"zepqi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Otto Frank&#39;s legacy to the state of the Netherlands. <sup data-footnote-id=\"b7i4b\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary A1</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank was given this red-checked diary for her thirteenth birthday. It runs from <strong>12 June 1942</strong> to <strong>5 December 1942</strong>. At the back are three more notes in red ink, dated <strong>2 May 1943</strong>. Anne was present when the diary was bought;&nbsp;where is not clear. <em>&#39;I&#39;ll begin from the moment I got you, the moment I saw you lying on the table among my other birthday presents. (I went along when you were bought, but that doesn&#39;t count.)&#39; </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"h6ebj\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;As early as 20 October 1942, Anne indicated that her diary was becoming full. She stuck white sheets in it to &quot;stretch it a bit more&quot; and she was allowed to ask Bep to visit Perry&#39;s and see if there were any diaries in stock there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cr093\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Missing diary entries</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>No diary entries from the period <strong>5 December 1942</strong> to <strong>22 December 1943</strong> have survived. So between <em>diary A1</em> and <em>A2</em>, over a year is missing. However, Anne did include this period when rewriting her diary on the<em> loose</em> sheets (B version). From this it can be concluded that the missing notes did exist. There are also passages in Anne&#39;s narrative that refer to the existence of the missing diary entries.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u70b2\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary A2</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>A cardboard (black) school notebook contains the diary entries from <strong>22 December 1943</strong> to <strong>17 April 1944</strong>. The first diary entry begins as follows: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, Daddy has tracked down another new diary for me and this one of a respectable thickness, as you will see for yourself in good time.​​​​​​​.&#39;</em>​​​​​​​<sup data-footnote-id=\"oisf0\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary A3</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Diary A3 follows on from diary A2: a cardboard (green marbled) school notebook covering the period <strong>17 April to 1 August 1944</strong> (the last diary entry). On <strong>Tuesday 18 April 1944</strong>, Anne writes: <em>&#39;Dear Kitty, Someone&#39;s been a real darling again and has torn up a chemistry exercise book for me to make a new diary, this time the someone was Margot.​​​​​​​&#39;</em>​​​​​​​<sup data-footnote-id=\"22yal\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary B or the &#39;Loose sheets&#39;</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In diary A3, Anne Frank writes on Wednesday <strong>29 March 1944</strong>: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, Bolkesteyn, an MP, was speaking in the Dutch News from London, and he said that they ought to make a collection of diaries and letters after the war. Of course they all made a rush at my diary immediately. Just imagine how interesting it would be if I were to publish a romance of the &#39;Secret Annexe&#39;, the title alone would be enough to make people think it was a detective story.</em>&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zqcxn\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Two months after that call from Education Minister Bolkestein on Radio Orange, on <strong>28 March 1944</strong>, Anne actually began rewriting her original diary. On <strong>Saturday 20 May</strong> <strong>1944</strong>, she notes: &#39;<em>At long last after a great deal of reflection I have started my &#39;Achterhuis&#39;, in my head it is as good as finished, although it won&#39;t go as quickly as that really, if it ever comes off at all.&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"ocy7o\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne did this on loose, light yellow, light blue, pink and white copy&nbsp;sheets called the <em>loose sheets</em>. While Anne was rewriting her diaries, she also continued writing in her running diary (Diary A). The &#39;loose sheets&#39; cover the period from <strong>20 June 1942 to 29 March 1944.</strong><sup data-footnote-id=\"kpdve\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>Anne processed much of Diary A into Diary B in about two months.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>First edition of The Secret Annex</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank used both Anne&#39;s A version and Anne&#39;s B version for the first edition of <em>The Secret Annex&nbsp;</em>in <strong>1947</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"m7zhl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> due to the absence of almost <strong>all of 1943</strong> in the original manuscript.​​​​​​​ He also included four stories: The Best Little Table, A Daily Chore in Our Little Community: Peeling Potatoes!, Freedom in the Annexe,<em>&nbsp;</em>and <em>Wenn die Uhr halb neune schl&auml;gt...</em></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5iuyu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De originele handgeschreven manuscripten bevinden zich in de Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) bij de Anne Frank Stichting (AFS).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w999b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De benamingen dagboek 1, 2, 3 en losse vellen komen uit de wetenschappelijke editie: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD) (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 69-71.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k6qq6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, p. 215.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zepqi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_035: Mooie Zinnenboek; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_034: Verhaaltjesboek; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Blanco Monster Electro Huishoudboek.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b7i4b\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nog een ander geschrift dat Anne heeft nagelaten is het Egypteboek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_029). Dit boek wordt hierboven niet genoemd omdat het niet tijdens de onderduikperiode is geschreven, maar waarschijnlijk in de eerste klas van de middelbare school. Zie ook AFS, Getuigenarchief: Musikant, Klara.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6ebj\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cr093\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Diary Version A, 20 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>. Also see 26 October 1942: &#39;Daddy has asked Mr Kleiman fot a diary and Bep for a potty&#39;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u70b2\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>In het verhaaltje &#39;Pension- of huurgasten&#39; verwijst Anne naar het verlies van haar vulpen in een eerdere dagboeknotitie als ze schrijft: &#39;<em>Stom genoeg ben ik hier opgehouden, zoals bekend heb ik intussen m&lsquo;n vulpen in de kachel gegooid en moet dus met een ander verder schrijven.&#39;&nbsp;</em>Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, &quot;Pension- of huurgasten&quot;, 15 oktober 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.&nbsp;In de B-versie komt dit terug in &#39;Ode aan mijn vulpen. In Memoriam&#39;. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 11 november 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>. In de marge van het verhaaltje &quot;De tandarts&quot; schrijft&nbsp;Anne &#39;<em>In Dec. schreef ik: decificeermiddel!&#39;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank, &quot;De tandarts&quot;, 8 december 1942, in: Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes, en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 17. Bij de bechrijving van de tandartsbehandeling van Auguste van Pels in de B-versie maakt ze deze spelfout niet en schrijft ze desinfecteermiddel. Anne Frank, Dagboek B,&nbsp;10&nbsp;december 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oisf0\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 22 December 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"22yal\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 18 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zqcxn\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 29 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ocy7o\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in: <em>The&nbsp; Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kpdve\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De volgende telling is gedaan aan de hand van de facsimile&rsquo;s van de dagboeken, AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Dagboeken_I_001 t/m 004: Losse vellen. Totaal 215 zgn. &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo; waarvan 19 op bij benadering A4 formaat: 17 roze en 2 grauwe en 196 op bij benadering A5 formaat: 117 lichtgele/grauwe (waarvan 1x &frac12; A5), 43 blauwe (waarvan 1x1/2 A5) en 36 roze. Fysiek bestaat het manuscript van het dagboek uit 196 losse vellen: lichtgeel, blauw, roze en grauw gekleurd doorslagpapier, (bijna) A4 en A5 formaat (2x is een A5 formaat gehalveerd). Sommige vellen zijn beschadigd; ze zijn gescheurd of er zijn stukjes uitgeknipt). De verhaaltjes bestaan fysiek uit 17 losse vellen, waarvan 4 (roze) op A4 formaat en 13 (8 roze, 3 blauwe, 2 grauwe) op A5 formaat. 2 A4 (grauwe) vellen zijn Frans huiswerk. Anne heeft de A4 vellen in het manuscript van het dagboek (B versie) &eacute;&eacute;n keer dubbel gevouwen zodat er steeds vier zijdes (bijna A5 formaat) zijn ontstaan waarvan we nu elke beschreven zijde steeds als 1 pagina tellen. E&eacute;n A4 vel kan dus uit 1, 2, 3 of 4 beschreven pagina&rsquo;s bestaan. Bij de verhaaltjes heeft Anne ook twee zijdes van een A4 vel in &eacute;&eacute;n geheel beschreven. De A5 vellen zijn enkel- of dubbelzijdig beschreven. De beschreven zijdes worden steeds als &eacute;&eacute;n pagina geteld. De pagina&rsquo;s (of beschreven zijdes) zijn voor het overgrote deel genummerd van 1 t/m 324. Maar een aantal pagina&rsquo;s heeft geen nummer en een aantal heeft een binnennummering met a, b, c, etc. gekregen. De eerste twee (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s (1 vel A4) zijn niet genummerd (het lijkt een andere of kladversie van het begin / de eerste twee pagina&rsquo;s van de B-versie van het dagboek), sticker erop met (in handschrift Karolien) Suijk. [+2 buiten de nummering van 324]. Pagina&rsquo;s genummerd 1 t/m 324 waarvan: Pagina 64 dubbel is (twee keer genummerd &lsquo;64&rsquo;) [+1 binnen nummering van 324]. Pagina 86 heeft ook nog 86 a t/m g [+7 binnen nummering van 324]. Pagina 128 heeft ook nog 128a, b, c [+3]. Pagina 152 heeft ook nog 152 a,b, c [+3]. Pagina 235 heeft ook nog 235a [+1]. Pagina 280 en 281 zijn alleen in fotokopie (met verklaring van Fritzie erbij). Pagina 309 heeft ook nog 309a [+1]. Dagboekbrief van 8 februari 1944 is apart genummerd met 1, 2, en 3. Dit zijn ook pagina&rsquo;s van Suijk [+3 pagina&rsquo;s ] (Fysiek zijn dit 2 vellen A5). Buiten de nummering van 1 t/m 324: 1 pagina, Pseudoniemenlijst, ongenummerd (Fysiek 1 vel A5). 7 pagina&rsquo;s, &lsquo;Verhaaltjes&rsquo;, genummerd 1 t/m 7 (Fysiek 1 x A4 en 3 x A5). 25 pagina&rsquo;s, &lsquo;Verhaaltjes&rsquo; (Fysiek 3 x A4 en 10 x A5). 2 pagina&rsquo;s met een Franse huiswerkoefening, allen ongenummerd (Fysiek 2 x A4). Samenvattend: Totaal 2+324+1+7+3+3+1+1+3+1+7+27=380 (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s.Het manuscript dagboek bestaat uit 324+22=346 (beschreven) pagina&rsquo;s (hierbij is ook de pseudoniemenlijst meegeteld). Totaal aantal &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo;: 215. Totaal aantal &lsquo;losse vellen&rsquo; manuscript dagboek:196. Totaal aantal &#39;losse vellen&#39; verhaaltjes: 17. Totaal aantal &#39;losse vellen&#39; Frans huiswerk: 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m7zhl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ook wel de C-versie genoemd; zie noot 3.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Otto Frank used both the A and B versions of Anne's diary for the first edition of The Secret Annex in 1947.",
                        "summary_nl": "Otto Frank heeft voor de eerste editie van Het Achterhuis in 1947 zowel de A-versie als B-versie van Annes dagboek gebruikt.",
                        "summary_en": "Otto Frank used both the A and B versions of Anne's diary for the first edition of The Secret Annex in 1947.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124643,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "related_locations": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/a23c4dd3-ad1f-48f4-9a92-93c52e75c650/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Joodsche Invalide",
                "name_nl": "Joodsche Invalide",
                "name_en": "Joodsche Invalide",
                "uuid": "a23c4dd3-ad1f-48f4-9a92-93c52e75c650",
                "content": "<p><strong>Address:</strong>&nbsp;Weesperplein 1, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u1mdm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The <em>Joodsche Invalide</em> was an nursing home for elderly and disabled Jews, that was founded in <strong>1911</strong>. In <strong>1938</strong>, the institution moved into a new building on Weesperplein. On <strong>1 March 1943</strong>, all residents were deported<sup data-footnote-id=\"v2qi3\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes in her diary that subtenant Werner Goldschmidt worked at the <em>Joodsche Invalide</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"us9zv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;He was a stoker there, as&nbsp;is evident from the book by his sister-in-law Ellen Schwarzschild.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8a9sw\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>When editing <em>Het Achterhuis</em>, Otto Frank added to Anne&#39;s text that he had&nbsp;visited elderly people in the&nbsp;<em>Joodsche Invalide</em> on <strong>5 July 1942</strong> (the day of the call-up).</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u1mdm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.joodsmonument.nl/page/298950/nl\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.joodsmonument.nl/page/298950/nl</a> (geraadpleegd 22 augustus 2011).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v2qi3\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.jhm.nl/cultuur-en-geschiedenis/amsterdam/joodse-invalide\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.jhm.nl/cultuur-en-geschiedenis/amsterdam/joodse-invalide</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"us9zv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, 2nd, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8a9sw\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ellen Schwarzschild, <em>Niet lesen, Als &rsquo;t U blieft. Nicht lesen Bitte</em>, Amstelveen: s.n., 1999, p. 64, 76 en 77.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>:&nbsp;Weesperplein 1, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u1mdm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De <em>Joodsche Invalide</em> was een tehuis voor oude en gehandicapte Joden, dat in <strong>1911 </strong>was opgericht. In <strong>1938 </strong>betrok&nbsp;de instelling een nieuw pand op het Weesperplein. Op <strong>1 maart 1943</strong> werden alle bewoners gedeporteerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v2qi3\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schrijft in haar dagboek dat onderhuurder&nbsp;Werner Goldschmidt bij <em>De Joodsche Invalide</em> werkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"us9zv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij was daar&nbsp;stoker, zo blijkt uit het boek van zijn schoonzus Ellen Schwarzschild.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8a9sw\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank voegde&nbsp;in zijn redactie van <em>Het Achterhuis</em> aan Annes tekst toe dat hij op <strong>5 juli 1942</strong> (de dag van de oproep) bij oude mensen in <em>De Joodsche Invalide</em> op bezoek was geweest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u1mdm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.joodsmonument.nl/page/298950/nl\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.joodsmonument.nl/page/298950/nl</a> (geraadpleegd 22 augustus 2011).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v2qi3\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.jhm.nl/cultuur-en-geschiedenis/amsterdam/joodse-invalide\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.jhm.nl/cultuur-en-geschiedenis/amsterdam/joodse-invalide</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"us9zv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942, 2e, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8a9sw\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ellen Schwarzschild, <em>Niet lesen, Als &rsquo;t U blieft. Nicht lesen Bitte</em>, Amstelveen: s.n., 1999, p. 64, 76 en 77.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address:</strong>&nbsp;Weesperplein 1, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u1mdm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The <em>Joodsche Invalide</em> was an nursing home for elderly and disabled Jews, that was founded in <strong>1911</strong>. In <strong>1938</strong>, the institution moved into a new building on Weesperplein. On <strong>1 March 1943</strong>, all residents were deported<sup data-footnote-id=\"v2qi3\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes in her diary that subtenant Werner Goldschmidt worked at the <em>Joodsche Invalide</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"us9zv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;He was a stoker there, as&nbsp;is evident from the book by his sister-in-law Ellen Schwarzschild.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8a9sw\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>When editing <em>Het Achterhuis</em>, Otto Frank added to Anne&#39;s text that he had&nbsp;visited elderly people in the&nbsp;<em>Joodsche Invalide</em> on <strong>5 July 1942</strong> (the day of the call-up).</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u1mdm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.joodsmonument.nl/page/298950/nl\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.joodsmonument.nl/page/298950/nl</a> (geraadpleegd 22 augustus 2011).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v2qi3\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.jhm.nl/cultuur-en-geschiedenis/amsterdam/joodse-invalide\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.jhm.nl/cultuur-en-geschiedenis/amsterdam/joodse-invalide</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"us9zv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, 2nd, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8a9sw\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ellen Schwarzschild, <em>Niet lesen, Als &rsquo;t U blieft. Nicht lesen Bitte</em>, Amstelveen: s.n., 1999, p. 64, 76 en 77.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.907885 52.362219)",
                "summary": "The Joodsche Invalide was a nursing home for old and disabled Jews.",
                "summary_nl": "De Joodsche Invalide was een verpleeghuis voor oude en gehandicapte Joden.",
                "summary_en": "The Joodsche Invalide was a nursing home for old and disabled Jews.",
                "same_as": [
                    "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/corporaties/4487"
                ],
                "street": "Weesperplein 1",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 122,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 937,
                    "uuid": "bca4a51a-c36a-4d30-89f3-d522d94b7a23",
                    "name": "Keg001jpg",
                    "title": "Personeel van Keg voor het pand Prinsengracht 265, omstreeks 1947",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Afkomstig uit privécollectie",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Keg001jpg.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                },
                "latitude": "52.37523",
                "longitude": "4.884067",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 282,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/0996f06e-79e0-4d5b-9cbf-4a2bbfbdd756/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/36f1f8d1-cb6d-4f52-86b6-5c356c441af5"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c261dd9b-fab2-44d2-a38b-b85144c4ed72",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/bd8c6e9b-3e7e-45d2-958e-cf6a3277b6be"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "0996f06e-79e0-4d5b-9cbf-4a2bbfbdd756",
                        "name": "The Keg firm is burgled",
                        "name_nl": "Inbraak bij de firma Keg",
                        "name_en": "The Keg firm is burgled",
                        "content": "<p>One of the Achterhuis&#39; neighbouring premises housed the Keg tea and coffee company. It had already been burgled in <strong>July 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On&nbsp;<strong>1 november 1940,</strong> warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche reported another burglary attempt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;and branch manager Jacob Boon also repeatedly reported burglaries and thefts, as well as various attempts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In de een van de buurpanden naast het Achterhuis was thee- en koffiehandel Keg gevestigd. In&nbsp;<strong>juli 1940</strong>&nbsp;was daar al eens ingebroken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Op <strong>1 november 1940</strong> deed magazijnchef Hendrik Mussche aangifte van nog een inbraakpoging bij het bedrijf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ook filiaalchef Jacob Boon deed hij herhaaldelijk aangifte van inbraken en diefstallen, en van pogingen daartoe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>One of the Achterhuis&#39; neighbouring premises housed the Keg tea and coffee company. It had already been burgled in <strong>July 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On&nbsp;<strong>1 november 1940,</strong> warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche reported another burglary attempt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;and branch manager Jacob Boon also repeatedly reported burglaries and thefts, as well as various attempts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1940-10-31",
                        "date_end": "1940-11-01",
                        "summary": "The Keg company was repeatedly broken into during the war.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bij de firma Keg werd tijdens de oorlog herhaaldelijk ingebroken.",
                        "summary_en": "The Keg company was repeatedly broken into during the war.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 196,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                        "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                        "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                        "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
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                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name": "Keg Thee en Koffie, firma C. (C. Keg Tea and Coffee Co.)",
                "name_nl": "Keg Thee en Koffie, firma C.",
                "name_en": "Keg Thee en Koffie, firma C. (C. Keg Tea and Coffee Co.)",
                "uuid": "f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0",
                "content": "<p>This branch of a wholesale company of coffee, tea and packaged foodstuffs was located at Prinsengracht 265, Amsterdam, next to Otto Frank&#39;s business premises (as of <strong>1 December 1940</strong>).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>As well as Opekta and Gies &amp; Co. (and other companies), Keg regularly suffered from burglaries. The staff was therefore assigned night-time guard duty.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Before the period in hiding, there were several known burglaries in the building. One of these was committed via the then vacant neighboring building 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Reports were made by branch manager Jacob Boon and warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Keg also had to contend with crime after the liberation: &#39;<em>On behalf of N.V. Keg&#39;s Groothandel, P 265 in A-dam, a report is made of the theft of 7&frac12; KG raisins, from a shipment of 2900 KG, sent from R-dam to the addressee by expedition. Bijloo</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Because the building on Prinsengracht had a basement and no ground floor, Keg had a garage at Egelantiersstraat 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 February 1940</strong>, there was a collision on Columbusplein in which a Keg van, driven by H.J. Mooseker, was involved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892:&nbsp;Rijksrecherche, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3274:&nbsp;Meldingsrapp. wachtcomm. recherche 17-18 november 1945, mut. 14.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Afschrift rapport Westerstraat, 27 april 1942, 15.00 uur.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5933:&nbsp;Rapport Willem Schoutenstraat, 5-6 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Deze&nbsp;vestiging van een Zaanse&nbsp;groothandel in koffie, thee en verpakte levensmiddelen was&nbsp;gevestigd op de Prinsengracht 265, Amsterdam, naast het bedrijfspand (vanaf <strong>1 december 1940</strong>) van Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Evenals Opekta en Gies &amp; Co. (en andere bedrijven) had Keg regelmatig last van inbraken. Het personeel kreeg&nbsp;daarom nachtelijke wachtdiensten opgelegd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;V&oacute;&oacute;r de onderduikperiode waren&nbsp;er enkele inbraken in het pand bekend. Een daarvan was gepleegd via het toen nog leegstaande buurpand 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Aangiftes werden gedaan door filiaalchef Jacob Boon en magazijnchef Hendrik Mussche.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ook na de bevrijding had Keg met criminaliteit te kampen: &#39;<em>Namens N.V. Keg&rsquo;s Groothandel, P 265 te A-dam, wordt aangifte gedaan van diefstal van 7&frac12; KG rozijnen, van een zending groot 2900 KG, verzonden van R-dam aan geadresseerde per expeditie Bijloo</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Omdat het pand aan de Prinsengracht een souterrain had, en geen gelijkvloerse benedenverdieping, had Keg een garage op het adres Egelantiersstraat 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>5 februari 1940</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;er een aanrijding op het Columbusplein waarbij een bestelauto van Keg, bestuurd door H.J. Mooseker, was betrokken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892:&nbsp;Rijksrecherche, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3274:&nbsp;Meldingsrapp. wachtcomm. recherche 17-18 november 1945, mut. 14.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Afschrift rapport Westerstraat, 27 april 1942, 15.00 uur.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5933:&nbsp;Rapport Willem Schoutenstraat, 5-6 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>This branch of a wholesale company of coffee, tea and packaged foodstuffs was located at Prinsengracht 265, Amsterdam, next to Otto Frank&#39;s business premises (as of <strong>1 December 1940</strong>).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>As well as Opekta and Gies &amp; Co. (and other companies), Keg regularly suffered from burglaries. The staff was therefore assigned night-time guard duty.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Before the period in hiding, there were several known burglaries in the building. One of these was committed via the then vacant neighboring building 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Reports were made by branch manager Jacob Boon and warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Keg also had to contend with crime after the liberation: &#39;<em>On behalf of N.V. Keg&#39;s Groothandel, P 265 in A-dam, a report is made of the theft of 7&frac12; KG raisins, from a shipment of 2900 KG, sent from R-dam to the addressee by expedition. Bijloo</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Because the building on Prinsengracht had a basement and no ground floor, Keg had a garage at Egelantiersstraat 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 February 1940</strong>, there was a collision on Columbusplein in which a Keg van, driven by H.J. Mooseker, was involved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892:&nbsp;Rijksrecherche, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3274:&nbsp;Meldingsrapp. wachtcomm. recherche 17-18 november 1945, mut. 14.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Afschrift rapport Westerstraat, 27 april 1942, 15.00 uur.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5933:&nbsp;Rapport Willem Schoutenstraat, 5-6 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.884067 52.37523)",
                "summary": "Branch of a Zaandam wholesale company in coffee, tea and packaged foods, located next door to Otto Frank's business premises.",
                "summary_nl": "Filiaal van een Zaanse groothandel in koffie, thee en verpakte levensmiddelen, gevestigd naast het bedrijfspand van Otto Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Branch of a Zaandam wholesale company in coffee, tea and packaged foods, located next door to Otto Frank's business premises.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Prinsengracht 265",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    282
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 228,
                "files": [
                    {
                        "id": 1107,
                        "uuid": "3b42e7ae-657a-446b-8803-2d5fa8ddb014",
                        "name": "'De Tijd', 26 november 1940, p. 4.",
                        "title": "'De Tijd', 26 november 1940, p. 4.",
                        "alt": "Delpher.",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/De_Tijd_26_november_1940_p._4..PNG",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                        "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                    }
                ],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 962,
                    "uuid": "5a748e60-27b5-40fc-b9fe-1ef24a5a28d8",
                    "name": "Kliniek voor Honden en Katten",
                    "title": "Wachtkamer van de Kliniek voor Honden en Katten.",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Delpher, Algemeen Handelsblad, 26 november 1940.",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Kliniek_voor_honden_en_katten.PNG",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                },
                "latitude": "52.372426",
                "longitude": "4.875",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 301,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/0fc702b6-d52a-44e3-9061-c6cecf48cbb1/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/facb8e53-713e-4ac3-bc29-12e1e3fcebe6"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/8aa52287-4365-4842-a727-624453b17b7b"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/03ceeced-9e12-422e-8162-ed7cf7794710",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "0fc702b6-d52a-44e3-9061-c6cecf48cbb1",
                        "name": "Miep takes Moffie to the vet",
                        "name_nl": "Miep met Moffie naar de dierenarts",
                        "name_en": "Miep takes Moffie to the vet",
                        "content": "<p>Warehouse cat Moffie (Boche) was suddenly very quiet and drooling one Saturday. Miep wrapped her in a cloth and took her to the clinic. That method of transportation was common in those days, as shown in a photo from the clinic&#39;s waiting room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne later writes about this in het diary: &quot;Miep quickly picked him up, wrapped him in a cloth, put him in her shopping bag and took him to the dog-and-cat clinic.&quot; It turned out to be not too serious. There was something wrong with Moffie&#39;s intestines and he was given a drink by the vet. Peter administered it to her a few times.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Pakhuiskat Moffie was op een zaterdag plotseling erg stil en kwijlde. Miep wikkelde haar in een doek en ging met haar naar de kliniek. Die wijze van vervoer was in die tijd gebruikelijk, zoals op een foto uit de wachtkamer van de kliniek te zien is.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schreef hierover later in haar dagboek: &quot;Fluks&nbsp;pakte Miep haar op, rolde haar in een doek,&nbsp;stopte haar in de boodschappentas en bracht&nbsp;haar naar de honden- en kattenkliniek.&quot; Het bleek nogal mee te vallen. Moffie had iets aan haar ingewanden en kreeg een drankje van de dierenarts. Peter diende haar dat een paar keer toe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Warehouse cat Moffie (Boche) was suddenly very quiet and drooling one Saturday. Miep wrapped her in a cloth and took her to the clinic. That method of transportation was common in those days, as shown in a photo from the clinic&#39;s waiting room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne later writes about this in het diary: &quot;Miep quickly picked him up, wrapped him in a cloth, put him in her shopping bag and took him to the dog-and-cat clinic.&quot; It turned out to be not too serious. There was something wrong with Moffie&#39;s intestines and he was given a drink by the vet. Peter administered it to her a few times.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1944-04-08",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "When warehouse cat Moffie was sick in April 1944, Miep took her to the vet.",
                        "summary_nl": "Toen pakhuiskat Moffie in april 1944 ziek was, bracht Miep haar naar de dierenarts.",
                        "summary_en": "When warehouse cat Moffie was sick in April 1944, Miep took her to the vet.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [],
                "related_locations": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/03ceeced-9e12-422e-8162-ed7cf7794710/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Clinic for Dogs and Cats",
                "name_nl": "Kliniek voor Honden en Katten",
                "name_en": "Clinic for Dogs and Cats",
                "uuid": "03ceeced-9e12-422e-8162-ed7cf7794710",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.875 52.372426)",
                "summary": "From November 1940, the Association for Actual Animal Protection had a Clinic for Dogs and Cats for the underprivileged and the indigent on the Rozengracht.",
                "summary_nl": "Vanaf november 1940 had de Bond voor Daadwerkelijke Dierenbescherming op de Rozengracht een Kliniek voor Honden en Katten van min- en onvermogenden.",
                "summary_en": "From November 1940, the Association for Actual Animal Protection had a Clinic for Dogs and Cats for the underprivileged and the indigent on the Rozengracht.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Rozengracht 226",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "Noord-Holland",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    301
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 227,
                "files": [
                    {
                        "id": 1094,
                        "uuid": "84c45130-3f2c-49f2-a70f-a64b7d7cc7c8",
                        "name": "Advertentie Kunstijsbaan",
                        "title": "Nieuwe Haarlemsche Courant, 12 november 1934.",
                        "alt": "Delpher. Nieuwe Haarlemsche Courant, 12 november 1934.",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Nieuwe_Haarlemsche_Courant_12_november_1934_voorpagina..png",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                        "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                    }
                ],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1054,
                    "uuid": "b880b916-9ae1-4219-9db3-f74c8dcac30f",
                    "name": "OSIM00005005232",
                    "title": "Kunstijsbaan in Amsterdam-Oost, oktober 1935.",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger: Polygoon. Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam.",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/OSIM00005005232.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                },
                "latitude": "52.356622",
                "longitude": "4.929428",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124571,
                        "image": {
                            "id": 733,
                            "uuid": "78c6e933-6067-49a6-80e1-d31f66864ace",
                            "name": "A_AFrank_III_055.077.jpg",
                            "title": "Margot Frank en haar vriendin Hetty Ludel, winter 1937-1938.",
                            "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                            "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/250x250/83f5a83d-7446-d375-331c-422278e596d7.jpg",
                            "path": null,
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "Foto van Margot Frank en haar vriendin Hetty Ludel op schaatsen op de ijsbaan, winter 1937-1938.",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/7e611418-a939-409e-9e0c-7f667267f009/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "7e611418-a939-409e-9e0c-7f667267f009",
                        "name": "Leisure activities, Margot Frank",
                        "name_nl": "Vrijetijdsbesteding Margot Frank",
                        "name_en": "Leisure activities, Margot Frank",
                        "description": "<h1><strong>Swimming</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 August 1935</strong>, Margot passed a swimming test consisting of 60 metres breaststroke and 40 metres backstroke.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> It is not clear where this took place, but probably in the Amstelparkbad (now De Mirandabad).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to Greet Bezema, a friend of hers at the Girls&#39; High School:<em> &#39;We went swimming in Diemen once and I remember Margot had a very nice swimming costume, a sunbathing suit</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Edith Frank wrote in a letter dated <strong>18 January 1937</strong> to former neighbour Gertrud Naumann that Margot went ice skating&nbsp;once a week that winter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There is a photograph of Margot, dated <strong>winter of 1937-&#39;38</strong>, showing her with Hetty Ludel at the ice rink. In it, she can be seen wearing figure skates.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The ice rink where Margot went ice skating&nbsp;was an initiative of the &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39;. It was an open-air swimming pool that was used as an ice skating rink in winter. The ice rink was in use from <strong>1934</strong> to <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rink was opened on the weekend of <strong>24-25 November 1934</strong>. On <strong>26 November</strong>, Sonja Henie performed for an audience of schoolchildren. As a result of this performance, Henie became hugely popular among Amsterdam schoolgirls. In <strong>spring 1940</strong>, the rink was shut down and the installation moved to the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Later (while in hiding), Anne Frank pasted a picture of Sonja Henie on the wall of her little room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot initially skated on ice skates that had to be bolted on with a spanner.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Rowing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot Frank rowed with the <em>Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Watersport onder Jongeren </em>(VBWJ).<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Margot was in second position in a &#39;four&#39; with Bella Kohlwey on stroke, Jaaike van Bork on bow and Anna Harting on three. They were trained by Roos (Rozette) van Gelder. They won a silver medal in school races.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> All four rowers were at the Girls&#39; High School.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> They used the facilities of the VBWJ under the Berlagebrug in Amsterdam. This rowing activity was initiated from the Meisjeslyceum, but its exact status is unclear. On <strong>8 September 1940</strong>, they participated in races of the <em>Zaanlandsche Zeil Vereeniging </em>(ZZV) in Zaandam. They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event in the girls 14-16 category.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y627e\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> It is not known whether this competition participation took place in the context of school rowing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Just before the 1941 races<strong>,</strong> Margot, being Jewish, was no longer allowed to row at the club. Her friends subsequently refused to participate in the races any more.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Roos van Gelder, as a Jew, was also no longer allowed to coach. Her replacement was not accepted by the remaining rowers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1941</strong>, the inspector for physical education asked alderman Smit whether Jewish children were allowed to use (among other things) the rowing facility under the Berlage Bridge. Smit replied in the negative.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In anticipation of the new season, the VBWJ secretary asked the Government Commissioner of Amsterdam Municipality on <strong>1 March 1942</strong> whether it would not be possible for Jewish students to row separately and with Jewish instructors at certain times, at which time the boathouse would remain&nbsp;closed to &quot;the others&quot;. An unknown person, someone at the Education Department or perhaps Mayor V&ocirc;ute, wrote in the margin<em> &#39;Seems possible to me. V</em> &#39;. A reply to the letter is not known.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3za\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the <strong>spring of 1941</strong>, Margot was a member of a<em> &#39;tennis club with lessons</em>&#39;, namely Tennisvereniging Temminck on Zuidelijke Wandelweg in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> A number of classmates from the Girls&#39; High School, including Henny Corts, were also members of this club.<sup data-footnote-id=\"riooz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Jan Temmink was also the owner of a sports shop at Weteringschans 76 and founder of Amsterdam&#39;s first golf course in the &#39;railway bend&#39; near Duivendrecht; Hetty Last said that she (Hetty) was the initiator of playing tennis; a court was rented for a whole group of girls and whoever wanted could join in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>There is a photo showing, in addition to Margot: Lidy Schuit, Hennie Coster, Bea van Overbeek, Ineke Beugelink, Annemarie van Ees, Fita Weddepohl, An van der Burg, Tineke Cohen, and Tine ten Kley. They are all wearing sports/tennis clothes and posing&nbsp;near a net on a tennis court.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the summer <strong>of 1945</strong>, Otto Frank wrote to his family in Basel:<em> &#39;Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> Anne writes in her diary about Margot:<em> &#39;Reads everything, preferably on religion and medicine</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zunku\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> And in an earlier diary entry, Anne writes:<em> &#39;I laid with Margot on the divan together and read &quot;The Stormers&quot;</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Of the following books, we know that Margot has owned and/or read them:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Margot read a book by Moli&egrave;re, <em>Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme</em>. This was a school book.</li>\r\n\t<li>She had the English textbook <em>English Passages for Translation</em>.</li>\r\n\t<li>She also had a book by A. de Chateaubriand, <em>Monsieur de Lourdines</em>, annotated by H. Noordhof. This was probably also a school book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot&#39;s books also included Gottfried Keller, <em>Die drei gerechten Kammacher. Spiegel das K&auml;tzchen</em> (Leipzig 1922). Edith wrote in the front:<em> &quot;Margot Frank Amsterdam 16. Februar</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71kej\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>We know from a diary entry by Anne that Margot owned a copy of <em>Camera Obscura</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Anne received the <em>Camera Obscura</em> for her 13th birthday, but since Margot already had it, she swapped it for a volume of <em>Dutch Sagas and Legends.</em></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot and Peter, according to Anne, were allowed to read almost all the books Kleiman brought with him during the hiding period, except: a war book from the previous war, rather freely written or as Anne calls it in her diary: <em>a special book on a female subject.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot was allowed to read the book <em>Gentlemen, Servants and Women</em> while in hiding, but Anne was not.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s recommendation, Margot and Anne read <em>Henri from the Other Side</em>. Despite Pfeffer&#39;s commendations, according to Anne, neither thought it was a good book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A diary entry by Anne shows that she and Margot kept track of which books they both read. They did this in an old cartography box, with blank cards on one side.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ry624\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>From Anne&rsquo;s diary, we know that Margot also kept a diary. &quot;<em>Margot and I got in the same bed last evening, it was a frightful squash, but that was just the fun of it, she asked if she could read my diary sometime, I said yes at least bits of it, and then I asked if I could read hers</em>.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"assv1\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot&rsquo;s diary has not survived.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_MFrank_I_025: Getuigschrift, 22 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Bezema: Gesprek Greet Bezema met Dineke Stam, 10 mei 1996.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Getuigen_I_099: Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 18 januari 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Foto&#39;s bij gashouder in &quot;Blanco Electro Monster Huishoudboek 1937&quot;, p.33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Berends, &quot;De eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland, schaatsen op een zwembad&quot;,&nbsp;<br />\r\n\t<a href=\"https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html</a> (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;, in: Ons Amsterdam, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29,&nbsp;https://onsamsterdam.nl/bevroren-borstplaat (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Gedenkboek ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan van het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes te Amsterdam en het afscheid van Dr Magrita J. Freie als rectrix van deze school</em>, Amsterdam 1950, p. 99; Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Archief Curatoren van het Lyceum voor Meisjes: Rapportenregisters van de HBS, 421 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_040-042).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y627e\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>De Zaanlander</em>, 8 september 1940; Medaille met o.a. twee roeiriemen en op achterzijde &quot;Z.Z.V. 8-9-&#39;40&quot;. AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_II_001.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3za\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Afdeling onderwijs en rechtsvoorganger (toegang 5191), inv. nr.7552, volgnr. 1254: A.J.H. Dokkum (secretaris VBWJ) aan Den Heer Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam, 1 maart 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voluit N.V. Temminks Robak Tennispark, Zuidelijke Wandelweg 43. Zie een foto uit mei &#39;54 in de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam, fotonummer 010122042197.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"riooz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Corts: Mededeling H.M. Swart-Corts, 11 februari 2005.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Last, Hetty.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFAC, reg. code A_MFrank_III_035: Groepsfoto van Margot Frank en haar vriendinnen op de tennisbaan omstreeks 1941/42. De foto is afkomstig van Tine ten Kley. Waarschijnlijk vergist zij zich en moet Hennie Coster zijn Hennie Corts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan &quot;ihr Lieben&#39;, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zunku\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 4 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71kej\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_001. Gezien de datum was het waarschijnlijk een verjaardagscadeau.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 and 15 Juni 1942, in:<em> The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942 and Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.&nbsp; Het ging om de trilogie <em>Gij Vrouwen..!, Vrouwen in nood en Vrouwenroeping</em> door Helen Zenna Smith, dat in 1938 bij de Arbeiderspers was verschenen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 Sseptember 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 Sseptember 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ry624\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 February 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"assv1\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 28 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<h1>Zwemmen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>22 augustus 1935</strong> legde&nbsp;Margot met goed gevolg een zwemproef af, bestaande uit 60 meter borstslag en 40 meter rugslag.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Niet duidelijk is waar dit plaats heeft gevonden, maar waarschijnlijk in het Amstelparkbad (nu het De Mirandabad).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vriendin op het Meisjeslyceum Greet Bezema: &#39;<em>We gingen een keer zwemmen in Diemen en ik weet nog dat Margot een heel mooi zwempak had, een zonnepakje</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Schaatsen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Edith Frank schreef&nbsp;in een brief van <strong>18 januari 1937</strong> aan voormalig buurmeisje&nbsp;Gertrud&nbsp;Naumann dat&nbsp;Margot die winter een keer per week schaatste.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Er is een foto van Margot, gedateerd&nbsp;<strong>winter van&nbsp;1937-&#39;38</strong>,&nbsp;waarop zij met Hetty Ludel op de kunstijsbaan is. Daarop is te zien dat draagt kunstschaatsen draagt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De ijsbaan waar Margot schaatst, was een initiatief van de &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39;. Het was een openluchtzwembad dat &#39;s winters in gebruik was als schaatsbaan. De ijsbaan deed&nbsp;dienst van <strong>1934</strong> tot <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In het weekend van <strong>24-25 november 1934</strong> werd&nbsp;de baan geopend. Op <strong>26 november</strong> trad&nbsp;Sonja Henie op voor de schooljeugd. Als gevolg van dit optreden werd&nbsp;Henie ongekend populair onder Amsterdamse schoolmeisjes. In het <strong>voorjaar van 1940</strong> werd&nbsp;de baan opgeheven en ging&nbsp;de installatie&nbsp;naar de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Later (tijdens de onderduik) plakte Anne Frank een plaatje van Sonja Henie op de muur van haar kamertje.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot schaatste aanvankelijk op schaatsen die met een sleuteltje aangeschroefd moesten worden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Roeien</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot Frank roeide&nbsp;bij de Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Watersport onder Jongeren (VBWJ).<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot zat op de tweede positie in een &#39;vier&#39; met Bella Kohlwey op slag, Jaaike van Bork op boeg en Anna Harting op drie. Ze werden getraind door Roos (Rozette) van Gelder. Ze wonnen een zilveren medaille bij schoolwedstrijden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;De roeisters zaten alle vier op het Meisjeslyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Ze maakten gebruik van de faciliteiten van de VBWJ onder de Berlagebrug te Amsterdam. Deze roeiactiviteit ging&nbsp;van het Meisjeslyceum uit, maar de precieze status is onduidelijk. Op <strong>8 september 1940</strong> namen ze deel aan wedstrijden van de Zaanlandsche Zeil Vereeniging (ZZV) in Zaandam. Ze wonnen een medaille op het onderdeel &#39;stijlroeien&#39; in de categorie meisjes 14-16 jaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y627e\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het is niet bekend of deze wedstrijddeelname in het kader van het schoolroeien plaatsvond.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vlak voor de wedstrijden van <strong>1941</strong> mocht&nbsp;Margot als Joodse niet meer bij de club roeien. Haar vriendinnen weigerden vervolgens om nog deel te nemen aan de wedstrijden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Roos van Gelder mocht als Joodse ook niet meer coachen. Haar vervangster werd&nbsp;door de overblijvende roeisters niet geaccepteerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>september 1941</strong> vroeg&nbsp;de inspecteur voor de lichamelijke opvoeding aan wethouder Smit of Joodse kinderen gebruik mochten maken van (o.a.) de roeigelegenheid onder de Berlagebrug. Smit antwoordde&nbsp;negatief.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooruitlopend op het nieuwe seizoen vroeg&nbsp;de secretaris van VBWJ op&nbsp;<strong>1 maart 1942</strong> aan de Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam of het niet mogelijk was om Joodse leerlingen afzonderlijk en met Joodse instructeurs op bepaalde tijden te laten roeien. Waarbij het botenhuis voor&nbsp;&quot;de overigen&quot; gesloten bleef. Een onbekende, iemand aan de Afdeling Onderwijs of wellicht burgemeester V&ocirc;ute,&nbsp;schreef&nbsp;in de marge &#39;<em>Lijkt mij wel mogelijk. V</em>&#39;.&nbsp;Een antwoord op de brief is niet bekend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3za\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> &nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Tennis</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In het <strong>voorjaar van 1941</strong> was&nbsp;Margot lid van een &#39;<em>tennisclub met les</em>&#39;, t.w. Tennisvereniging Temminck aan de Zuidelijke Wandelweg te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Ook een aantal klasgenoten van het Meisjeslyceum, onder wie Henny Corts, was lid van deze vereniging.<sup data-footnote-id=\"riooz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Jan Temmink was tevens eigenaar van een sportzaak aan de Weteringschans 76 en stichter van de eerste Amsterdamse golfbaan in de &#39;spoorboog&#39; bij Duivendrecht; Hetty Last vertelde&nbsp; dat zij (Hetty) de initiatiefneemster van het tennissen was; voor een hele groep meisjes werd er een baan gehuurd en wie wilde deed mee.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Er is een foto met daarop naast Margot: Lidy Schuit, Hennie Coster, Bea van Overbeek, Ineke Beugelink, Annemarie van Ees, Fita Weddepohl, An van der Burg, Tineke Cohen, en Tine ten Kley. Ze dragen allemaal sport/tenniskleding en poseren bij een net op een tennisbaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Lezen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank schreef&nbsp;in de <strong>zomer van 1945</strong>, aan zijn familie in Bazel: &#39;<em>Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft in haar dagboek over Margot: &#39;<em>Leest alles, liefst over godsdienst en medicijnen</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zunku\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;En in een vroegere dagboeknotitie schrijft Anne: &#39;<em>Ik heb met Margot samen op de divan gelegen en in &laquo;De Stormers&raquo; gelezen</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Van onderstaande boeken weten we dat Margot ze in haar bezit heeft gehad en/of gelezen heeft:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Margot las&nbsp;een boek van Moli&egrave;re,&nbsp;<em>Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme</em>. Dit was een schoolboek.</li>\r\n\t<li>Ze hadt het Engelse leerboek&nbsp;<em>English Passages for Translation</em>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Ze had&nbsp;ook een boek van A. de Chateaubriand,&nbsp;<em>Monsieur de Lourdines</em>, geannoteerd door H. Noordhof. Dit was waarschijnlijk ook een schoolboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Tot de boeken van Margot behoorde&nbsp;ook Gottfried Keller,&nbsp;<em>Die drei gerechten Kammacher. Spiegel das K&auml;tzchen</em>&nbsp;(Leipzig 1922). Edith schreef&nbsp;voorin:&nbsp;&quot;<em>Margot Frank Amsterdam 16. Februar</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71kej\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Uit een dagboeknotie van Anne weten we dat Margot&nbsp;een exemplaar bezat van de <em>Camera Obscura</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne kreeg&nbsp;voor haar 13e verjaardag de <em>Camera Obscura</em>, maar omdat Margot het al had, ruilde&nbsp;ze het voor een deel van <em>Nederlandse Sagen en Legenden.</em></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot en Peter mochten, volgens Anne,&nbsp;tijdens de onderduik bijna alle boeken die Kleiman meenam, lezen, behalve: een oorlogsboek uit de vorige oorlog, nogal vrij geschreven of zoals Anne het in haar dagboek noemt:&nbsp;<em>een bijzonder boek over een vrouwenonderwerp.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot mocht tijdens de onderduik het boek <em>Heren, Knechten en vrouwen lezen</em>, maar Anne niet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Op aanraden van Fritz Pfeffer lazen Margot en Anne&nbsp;<em>Henri van de overkant</em>. Ondanks Pfeffers aanprijzingen vonden zij&nbsp;het, volgens Anne, allebei geen goed boek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Uit een dagboeknotitie van Anne blijkt dat ze&nbsp;samen met Margot bijhield&nbsp;welke boeken ze allebei lazen. Ze deden dit in een&nbsp;oude cartotheekdoos, met aan &eacute;&eacute;n kant onbeschreven kaartjes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ry624\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Dagboek</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Uit Annes dagboek blijkt trouwens dat Margot ook een dagboek bijhield. &lsquo;<em>Gisteren avond lagen Margot en ik samen in mijn bed, het was onnoemelijk klein maar juist grappig, ze vroeg of ze soms mijn dagboek mocht lezen, ik zeg sommige stukken wel, en toen vroeg ik naar de hare dat mocht ik dan ook lezen</em>.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"fjbcw\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Dat dagboek is niet bewaard gebleven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_MFrank_I_025: Getuigschrift, 22 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Bezema: Gesprek Greet Bezema met Dineke Stam, 10 mei 1996.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Getuigen_I_099: Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 18 januari 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Foto&#39;s bij gashouder in &quot;Blanco Electro Monster Huishoudboek 1937&quot;, p.33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Berends, &quot;De eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland, schaatsen op een zwembad&quot;,&nbsp;<br />\r\n\t<a href=\"https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html</a> (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;, in: Ons Amsterdam, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29,&nbsp;https://onsamsterdam.nl/bevroren-borstplaat (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Gedenkboek ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan van het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes te Amsterdam en het afscheid van Dr Magrita J. Freie als rectrix van deze school</em>, Amsterdam 1950, p. 99; Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Archief Curatoren van het Lyceum voor Meisjes: Rapportenregisters van de HBS, 421 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_040-042).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y627e\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>De Zaanlander</em>, 8 september 1940; Medaille met o.a. twee roeiriemen en op achterzijde &quot;Z.Z.V. 8-9-&#39;40&quot;. AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_II_001.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3za\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Afdeling onderwijs en rechtsvoorganger (toegang 5191), inv. nr.7552, volgnr. 1254: A.J.H. Dokkum (secretaris VBWJ) aan Den Heer Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam, 1 maart 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voluit N.V. Temminks Robak Tennispark, Zuidelijke Wandelweg 43. Zie een foto uit mei &#39;54 in de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam, fotonummer 010122042197.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"riooz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Corts: Mededeling H.M. Swart-Corts, 11 februari 2005.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Last, Hetty.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFAC, reg. code A_MFrank_III_035: Groepsfoto van Margot Frank en haar vriendinnen op de tennisbaan omstreeks 1941/42. De foto is afkomstig van Tine ten Kley. Waarschijnlijk vergist zij zich en moet Hennie Coster zijn Hennie Corts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan &quot;ihr Lieben&#39;, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zunku\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 4 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71kej\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_001. Gezien de datum was het waarschijnlijk een verjaardagscadeau.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 en 15 juni 1942, in:<em> Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942 en Dagboek B, 2 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.&nbsp; Het ging om de trilogie <em>Gij Vrouwen..!, Vrouwen in nood en Vrouwenroeping</em> door Helen Zenna Smith, dat in 1938 bij de Arbeiderspers was verschenen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 27 september 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ry624\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 27 februari 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fjbcw\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 28 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<h1><strong>Swimming</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 August 1935</strong>, Margot passed a swimming test consisting of 60 metres breaststroke and 40 metres backstroke.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> It is not clear where this took place, but probably in the Amstelparkbad (now De Mirandabad).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to Greet Bezema, a friend of hers at the Girls&#39; High School:<em> &#39;We went swimming in Diemen once and I remember Margot had a very nice swimming costume, a sunbathing suit</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Edith Frank wrote in a letter dated <strong>18 January 1937</strong> to former neighbour Gertrud Naumann that Margot went ice skating&nbsp;once a week that winter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There is a photograph of Margot, dated <strong>winter of 1937-&#39;38</strong>, showing her with Hetty Ludel at the ice rink. In it, she can be seen wearing figure skates.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The ice rink where Margot went ice skating&nbsp;was an initiative of the &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39;. It was an open-air swimming pool that was used as an ice skating rink in winter. The ice rink was in use from <strong>1934</strong> to <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rink was opened on the weekend of <strong>24-25 November 1934</strong>. On <strong>26 November</strong>, Sonja Henie performed for an audience of schoolchildren. As a result of this performance, Henie became hugely popular among Amsterdam schoolgirls. In <strong>spring 1940</strong>, the rink was shut down and the installation moved to the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Later (while in hiding), Anne Frank pasted a picture of Sonja Henie on the wall of her little room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot initially skated on ice skates that had to be bolted on with a spanner.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Rowing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot Frank rowed with the <em>Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Watersport onder Jongeren </em>(VBWJ).<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Margot was in second position in a &#39;four&#39; with Bella Kohlwey on stroke, Jaaike van Bork on bow and Anna Harting on three. They were trained by Roos (Rozette) van Gelder. They won a silver medal in school races.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> All four rowers were at the Girls&#39; High School.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> They used the facilities of the VBWJ under the Berlagebrug in Amsterdam. This rowing activity was initiated from the Meisjeslyceum, but its exact status is unclear. On <strong>8 September 1940</strong>, they participated in races of the <em>Zaanlandsche Zeil Vereeniging </em>(ZZV) in Zaandam. They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event in the girls 14-16 category.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y627e\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> It is not known whether this competition participation took place in the context of school rowing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Just before the 1941 races<strong>,</strong> Margot, being Jewish, was no longer allowed to row at the club. Her friends subsequently refused to participate in the races any more.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Roos van Gelder, as a Jew, was also no longer allowed to coach. Her replacement was not accepted by the remaining rowers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1941</strong>, the inspector for physical education asked alderman Smit whether Jewish children were allowed to use (among other things) the rowing facility under the Berlage Bridge. Smit replied in the negative.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In anticipation of the new season, the VBWJ secretary asked the Government Commissioner of Amsterdam Municipality on <strong>1 March 1942</strong> whether it would not be possible for Jewish students to row separately and with Jewish instructors at certain times, at which time the boathouse would remain&nbsp;closed to &quot;the others&quot;. An unknown person, someone at the Education Department or perhaps Mayor V&ocirc;ute, wrote in the margin<em> &#39;Seems possible to me. V</em> &#39;. A reply to the letter is not known.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3za\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the <strong>spring of 1941</strong>, Margot was a member of a<em> &#39;tennis club with lessons</em>&#39;, namely Tennisvereniging Temminck on Zuidelijke Wandelweg in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> A number of classmates from the Girls&#39; High School, including Henny Corts, were also members of this club.<sup data-footnote-id=\"riooz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Jan Temmink was also the owner of a sports shop at Weteringschans 76 and founder of Amsterdam&#39;s first golf course in the &#39;railway bend&#39; near Duivendrecht; Hetty Last said that she (Hetty) was the initiator of playing tennis; a court was rented for a whole group of girls and whoever wanted could join in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>There is a photo showing, in addition to Margot: Lidy Schuit, Hennie Coster, Bea van Overbeek, Ineke Beugelink, Annemarie van Ees, Fita Weddepohl, An van der Burg, Tineke Cohen, and Tine ten Kley. They are all wearing sports/tennis clothes and posing&nbsp;near a net on a tennis court.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the summer <strong>of 1945</strong>, Otto Frank wrote to his family in Basel:<em> &#39;Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> Anne writes in her diary about Margot:<em> &#39;Reads everything, preferably on religion and medicine</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zunku\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> And in an earlier diary entry, Anne writes:<em> &#39;I laid with Margot on the divan together and read &quot;The Stormers&quot;</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Of the following books, we know that Margot has owned and/or read them:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Margot read a book by Moli&egrave;re, <em>Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme</em>. This was a school book.</li>\r\n\t<li>She had the English textbook <em>English Passages for Translation</em>.</li>\r\n\t<li>She also had a book by A. de Chateaubriand, <em>Monsieur de Lourdines</em>, annotated by H. Noordhof. This was probably also a school book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot&#39;s books also included Gottfried Keller, <em>Die drei gerechten Kammacher. Spiegel das K&auml;tzchen</em> (Leipzig 1922). Edith wrote in the front:<em> &quot;Margot Frank Amsterdam 16. Februar</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71kej\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>We know from a diary entry by Anne that Margot owned a copy of <em>Camera Obscura</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Anne received the <em>Camera Obscura</em> for her 13th birthday, but since Margot already had it, she swapped it for a volume of <em>Dutch Sagas and Legends.</em></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot and Peter, according to Anne, were allowed to read almost all the books Kleiman brought with him during the hiding period, except: a war book from the previous war, rather freely written or as Anne calls it in her diary: <em>a special book on a female subject.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot was allowed to read the book <em>Gentlemen, Servants and Women</em> while in hiding, but Anne was not.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s recommendation, Margot and Anne read <em>Henri from the Other Side</em>. Despite Pfeffer&#39;s commendations, according to Anne, neither thought it was a good book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A diary entry by Anne shows that she and Margot kept track of which books they both read. They did this in an old cartography box, with blank cards on one side.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ry624\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>From Anne&rsquo;s diary, we know that Margot also kept a diary. &quot;<em>Margot and I got in the same bed last evening, it was a frightful squash, but that was just the fun of it, she asked if she could read my diary sometime, I said yes at least bits of it, and then I asked if I could read hers</em>.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"assv1\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot&rsquo;s diary has not survived.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_MFrank_I_025: Getuigschrift, 22 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Bezema: Gesprek Greet Bezema met Dineke Stam, 10 mei 1996.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Getuigen_I_099: Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 18 januari 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Foto&#39;s bij gashouder in &quot;Blanco Electro Monster Huishoudboek 1937&quot;, p.33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Berends, &quot;De eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland, schaatsen op een zwembad&quot;,&nbsp;<br />\r\n\t<a href=\"https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html</a> (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;, in: Ons Amsterdam, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29,&nbsp;https://onsamsterdam.nl/bevroren-borstplaat (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Gedenkboek ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan van het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes te Amsterdam en het afscheid van Dr Magrita J. Freie als rectrix van deze school</em>, Amsterdam 1950, p. 99; Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Archief Curatoren van het Lyceum voor Meisjes: Rapportenregisters van de HBS, 421 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_040-042).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y627e\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>De Zaanlander</em>, 8 september 1940; Medaille met o.a. twee roeiriemen en op achterzijde &quot;Z.Z.V. 8-9-&#39;40&quot;. AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_II_001.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3za\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Afdeling onderwijs en rechtsvoorganger (toegang 5191), inv. nr.7552, volgnr. 1254: A.J.H. Dokkum (secretaris VBWJ) aan Den Heer Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam, 1 maart 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voluit N.V. Temminks Robak Tennispark, Zuidelijke Wandelweg 43. Zie een foto uit mei &#39;54 in de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam, fotonummer 010122042197.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"riooz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Corts: Mededeling H.M. Swart-Corts, 11 februari 2005.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Last, Hetty.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFAC, reg. code A_MFrank_III_035: Groepsfoto van Margot Frank en haar vriendinnen op de tennisbaan omstreeks 1941/42. De foto is afkomstig van Tine ten Kley. Waarschijnlijk vergist zij zich en moet Hennie Coster zijn Hennie Corts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan &quot;ihr Lieben&#39;, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zunku\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 4 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71kej\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_001. Gezien de datum was het waarschijnlijk een verjaardagscadeau.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 and 15 Juni 1942, in:<em> The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942 and Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.&nbsp; Het ging om de trilogie <em>Gij Vrouwen..!, Vrouwen in nood en Vrouwenroeping</em> door Helen Zenna Smith, dat in 1938 bij de Arbeiderspers was verschenen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 Sseptember 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 Sseptember 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ry624\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 February 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"assv1\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 28 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Margot Frank was sporty: she played tennis, rowed, swam and ice skated.",
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                "summary": "In 1934 Amsterdam East got the first artificial ice rink in the Netherlands.",
                "summary_nl": "Amsterdam Oost kreeg in 1934 de eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland.",
                "summary_en": "In 1934 Amsterdam East got the first artificial ice rink in the Netherlands.",
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                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name_en": "Nederlandse Pectine Industrie",
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                "content": "<p><strong>Addresses:&nbsp;</strong>Rotterdam (1932), Singel 157, Amsterdam (April 1933); Chass&eacute;straat 30 (January 1934); Karel van Gelderlaan 20, Oosterbeek (3 January 1936).<sup data-footnote-id=\"eyuve\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Founded in Rotterdam in <strong>1932 </strong>, the company was engaged in the manufacture and sale of pectin and related items. Its product&#39;s name was &#39;Pen-Jel&#39;, and the manufacturer competed with Opekta by, among other things, advertising a boiling time of eight minutes ,<sup data-footnote-id=\"fc0w7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>. whereas Opekta required 10 minutes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6v3ex\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>1939</strong>, due to the disappointing fruit harvest, Opekta and Pen-Jel agreed to maintain prices and not give away gifts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pgbvd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie did business with Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0vcxx\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The trade&nbsp; information agency Van der Graaf had doubts about the business integrity of its director in <strong>1936</strong>, but a year later the agency was more positive.<sup data-footnote-id=\"73tew\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1950</strong>, the company was still located at the address in Oosterbeek, which also housed the &#39;Ned. Malt Prod. Ind.&#39; <sup data-footnote-id=\"ckh72\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eyuve\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister, Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 630, dossier 43299. &nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fc0w7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie,&nbsp;<em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em>, 10 juli 1935</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6v3ex\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie (&lsquo;Surpriseweek&rsquo;), <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 27 juni 1936.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pgbvd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: &#39;Bericht over het boekjaar 1939&#39;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0vcxx\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Delft, Nederlandse Gist- &amp; Spiritusfabriek (NG&amp;SF) (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, post 295. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"73tew\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij: Rapport over Pen-Jel.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckh72\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Telefoongids </em>1950.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adressen:&nbsp;</strong>Rotterdam (&rsquo;32), Singel 157, Amsterdam (april &rsquo;33); Chass&eacute;straat 30 (januari &rsquo;34); Karel van Gelderlaan 20, Oosterbeek (3 januari 1936).<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:804,&quot;y&quot;:43,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1025,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1859}\" data-footnote-id=\"eyuve\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het bedrijf werd in <strong>1932 </strong>opgericht in Rotterdam en hield zich bezig met fabricage en verkoop van pectine en aanverwante artikelen. De productnaam was &lsquo;Pen-Jel&rsquo;, en de fabrikant beconcurreerde&nbsp;Opekta onder meer door te adverteren met een kooktijd van acht minuten,<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:541,&quot;y&quot;:100,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:762,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1916}\" data-footnote-id=\"fc0w7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>. terwijl Opekta tien minuten nodig had.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:777,&quot;y&quot;:100,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:998,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1916}\" data-footnote-id=\"6v3ex\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>1939 </strong>spraken Opekta en Pen-Jel vanwege de tegenvallende fruitoogst af de prijzen te handhaven en geen cadeaus weg te geven.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:502,&quot;y&quot;:124,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:723,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1940}\" data-footnote-id=\"pgbvd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie deed zaken met Sangostop.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:393,&quot;y&quot;:161,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:614,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" data-footnote-id=\"0vcxx\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het bureau voor handelsinlichtingen Van der Graaf had&nbsp;in <strong>1936 </strong>twijfels over de zakelijke integriteit van de toenmalige directeur, maar een jaar later was het bureau positiever.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:1017,&quot;y&quot;:198,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1238,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2014}\" data-footnote-id=\"73tew\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1950</strong> was&nbsp;het bedrijf nog altijd op het adres in Oosterbeek gevestigd, en huisvestte daar ook de &lsquo;Ned. Moutprod. Ind.&rsquo; <sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:709,&quot;y&quot;:235,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:930,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2051}\" data-footnote-id=\"ckh72\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:20,&quot;y&quot;:270,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:238,&quot;abs_x&quot;:241,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2086}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:35,&quot;y&quot;:287,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:256,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2103}\">\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eyuve\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister, Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 630, dossier 43299. &nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fc0w7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie,&nbsp;<em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em>, 10 juli 1935</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6v3ex\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie (&lsquo;Surpriseweek&rsquo;), <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 27 juni 1936.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pgbvd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: &#39;Bericht over het boekjaar 1939&#39;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0vcxx\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Delft, Nederlandse Gist- &amp; Spiritusfabriek (NG&amp;SF) (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, post 295. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"73tew\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij: Rapport over Pen-Jel.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckh72\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Telefoongids </em>1950.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Addresses:&nbsp;</strong>Rotterdam (1932), Singel 157, Amsterdam (April 1933); Chass&eacute;straat 30 (January 1934); Karel van Gelderlaan 20, Oosterbeek (3 January 1936).<sup data-footnote-id=\"eyuve\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Founded in Rotterdam in <strong>1932 </strong>, the company was engaged in the manufacture and sale of pectin and related items. Its product&#39;s name was &#39;Pen-Jel&#39;, and the manufacturer competed with Opekta by, among other things, advertising a boiling time of eight minutes ,<sup data-footnote-id=\"fc0w7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>. whereas Opekta required 10 minutes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6v3ex\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>1939</strong>, due to the disappointing fruit harvest, Opekta and Pen-Jel agreed to maintain prices and not give away gifts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pgbvd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie did business with Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0vcxx\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The trade&nbsp; information agency Van der Graaf had doubts about the business integrity of its director in <strong>1936</strong>, but a year later the agency was more positive.<sup data-footnote-id=\"73tew\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1950</strong>, the company was still located at the address in Oosterbeek, which also housed the &#39;Ned. Malt Prod. Ind.&#39; <sup data-footnote-id=\"ckh72\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eyuve\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister, Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 630, dossier 43299. &nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fc0w7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie,&nbsp;<em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em>, 10 juli 1935</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6v3ex\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie (&lsquo;Surpriseweek&rsquo;), <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 27 juni 1936.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pgbvd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: &#39;Bericht over het boekjaar 1939&#39;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0vcxx\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Delft, Nederlandse Gist- &amp; Spiritusfabriek (NG&amp;SF) (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, post 295. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"73tew\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij: Rapport over Pen-Jel.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckh72\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Telefoongids </em>1950.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.86183 52.3684)",
                "summary": "The Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie was a competitor of the Nederlandsche Opekta Mij.",
                "summary_nl": "De Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie was een concurrent van de Nederlandsche Opekta Mij.",
                "summary_en": "The Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie was a competitor of the Nederlandsche Opekta Mij.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Chasséstraat 30",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
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                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/c37cb7d8-0d05-4015-a942-600dda2bd3a1/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
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                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b1f2828-0f9d-49a0-bf55-869b818e76ab",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/22e16ce9-e2a5-476f-b517-7e48026e719e",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "c37cb7d8-0d05-4015-a942-600dda2bd3a1",
                        "name": "Johannes Kleiman works at Noblesse",
                        "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkzaam bij Noblesse",
                        "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman works at Noblesse",
                        "content": "<p>On <strong>1 September 1950</strong>, Johannes Kleiman, Otto Frank and Pieter van Borssum Waalkes founded the chocolate confectionery and pastry factory Noblesse. The company was located at Keizersgracht 29.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nOn <strong>15 June 1951,</strong> Johannes Kleiman and Otto Frank left the company. Van Borssum Waalkes continued the business alone.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c5yvq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c5yvq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Alle informatie ontleend aan: Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3154, dossier 75280: Akteletters a en b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Op&nbsp;<strong>1 september 1950</strong>&nbsp;richtten Johannes Kleiman, Otto Frank en Pieter van Borssum Waalkes de Chocolade- suikerwerk- en banketfabriek&nbsp;<em>Noblesse</em>&nbsp;op. Het bedrijf was gevestigd op Keizersgracht 29.&nbsp;Op&nbsp;<strong>15 juni 1951</strong>&nbsp;stapten Johannes Kleiman en Otto Frank uit de vennootschap. Van Borssum Waalkes zette de zaak alleen voort.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c5yvq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c5yvq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Alle informatie ontleend aan: Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3154, dossier 75280: Akteletters a en b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>On <strong>1 September 1950</strong>, Johannes Kleiman, Otto Frank and Pieter van Borssum Waalkes founded the chocolate confectionery and pastry factory Noblesse. The company was located at Keizersgracht 29.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nOn <strong>15 June 1951,</strong> Johannes Kleiman and Otto Frank left the company. Van Borssum Waalkes continued the business alone.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c5yvq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c5yvq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Alle informatie ontleend aan: Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3154, dossier 75280: Akteletters a en b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1950-09-01",
                        "date_end": "1951-06-15",
                        "summary": "Noblesse was een door Otto Frank en Jo Kleiman opgerichte fabriek voor chocolade, suikerwerk en banket.",
                        "summary_nl": "Noblesse was een door Otto Frank en Jo Kleiman opgerichte fabriek voor chocolade, suikerwerk en banket.",
                        "summary_en": "",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                "subjects": [
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                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.889748 52.378779)",
                "summary": "Chocolate, confectionery and pastry factory.",
                "summary_nl": "Chocolade-, suikerwerk- en banketfabriek.",
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                "street": "Keizersgracht 29",
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                "city": "Amsterdam",
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                "land": "Nederland",
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                    "name": "OSIM00003003290",
                    "title": "Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
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                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/OSIM00003003290.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
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                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/e908faaf-6766-4f5a-8971-a556c69f64f3/",
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                        "name": "Johannes Kleiman worked at N.V. Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken",
                        "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkzaam bij N.V. Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken",
                        "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman worked at N.V. Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken",
                        "content": "<p>On <strong>29 January 1937</strong>, the Kleiman brothers and four others formed a syndicate to investigate the commercial possibilities of the invention &#39;<em>het volautomatisch kalendermechanisme op uurwerken</em>&#39; (the fully automatic calendar mechanism on clocks)&nbsp;patented in <strong>May 1936</strong> by P.J. Paauwe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From <strong>26 April</strong> to <strong>5 May 1937,</strong> the firm held an exhibition at Hotel Suisse on Kalverstraat where the mechanism was demonstrated to invited guests.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nKleiman travelled to England for Paauwe and made contact with Smith&#39;s English Clocks Works Ltd. in London.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20fxs\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> On <strong>9 November 1937</strong>, Kleiman founded N.V. Paauwe with Paauwe, J.C. Werner and his brother Willy Kleiman before notary W.W. Rutgers. He had nine shares, as did his brother Willy, Pauwe owned 17 and Werner 15 shares,&nbsp;making a total of 50 shares. Each share was worth&nbsp;300 guilders, so the total starting capital was 15,000 guilders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixqyl\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Johannes Kleiman thus held an 18 per cent shareholding worth 2,100 guilders.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nKleiman was supervisory director of the company from <strong>19 September 1938</strong>. He remained so until his death in <strong>January 1959</strong>. His brother was also a supervisory director and later authorised signatory of the company. He was involved with Paauwe until his death in <strong>June 1955</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okkbc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nThere was a Paauwe clock on the wall of Kleiman&#39;s office at Opekta (the &#39;front office&#39; of Prinsengracht 263). The clock was almost stolen in a burglary in early <strong>1944</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"va4k2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn <strong>1940</strong>, the company was one of the first factories in the Netherlands to have&nbsp;an assembly line, for clock assembly.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rrbn3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> By January that year, the factory was producing 130 clocks a week, and the firm employed a total of 65 people.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nAddresses where the firm was successively located:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Korte Prinsengracht 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tl89j\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Generaal Vetterstraat 40.<sup data-footnote-id=\"alp51\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Bloemgracht 135.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pfitl\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>2e&nbsp;Schinkelstraat 30.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rm77p\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A photograph has survived of the staff at a Christmas party, presumably in the early 1950s.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71p81\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Memo &quot;Wat gebeurde er bij Paauwe&#39;s Patent&quot;, uit persoonlijke papieren van P.J. Paauwe in bezit van zijn dochter, transcriptie door Willem van der Krogt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20fxs\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Brochure <em>Werken &amp; streven van Paauwes Patent</em>, p. 17. De brochure is een schenking van Guus Haverman, wiens vader bij Paauwe werkte.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixqyl\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam,&nbsp;Handelsregister&nbsp;dossier 50604 (dossiernummers zijn tegenwoordig achtcijferig, details zijn echter nu niet&nbsp;bekend en het dossier is nog niet naar het Noord-Hollands Archief overgebracht).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"okkbc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, Handelsregister 50604.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"va4k2\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rrbn3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rienk Vermij, &quot;Gedwongen tempo. De lopende band in Nederland tot de Tweede Wereldoorlog&quot; in: <em>NEHA-jaarboek</em>, (2001) nr. 64, p. 227-257, aldaar p. 235.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tl89j\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hier ging het bedrijf van start. E-mail Willem van der Krogt, 20 augustus 2009, bij documenten naar taxonomie Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"alp51\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Christiaan Huygens. Vakblad voor uurwerkmakers</em>, 29 mei 1937. Dit is Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres, mogelijk als postadres voor Paauwe.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pfitl\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam, fotonummer 012000007156. Dit is een nieuw pand, dat de firma in 1939 in gebruik neemt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rm77p\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, Handelsregister&nbsp;dossier 50604. Dit is een oud schoolgebouw. Rond 1950 verandert de naam in NUFA. Inmiddels heet het bedrijf Nedklok, gevestigd aan de Hemweg in Amsterdam.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71p81\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Geschonken door G. Haverman, wiens vader op de foto staat. Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Kleiman_III_101.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Op <strong>29 januari 1937</strong> vormden de gebroeders Kleiman met vier anderen een syndicaat om de exploitatiemogelijkheden van de in <strong>mei 1936</strong> door P.J. Paauwe geoctrooieerde vinding &#39;<em>het volautomatisch kalendermechanisme op uurwerken</em>&#39; te onderzoeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Van <strong>26 april</strong> tot <strong>5 mei 1937</strong> hield de firma in Hotel Suisse aan de Kalverstraat een expositie waar het mechanisme aan genodigden werd gedemonstreerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nKleiman reisde voor Paauwe naar Engeland en legde daar contact met Smith&#39;s English Clocks Works Ltd. in London.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20fxs\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op <strong>9 november 1937</strong>&nbsp;richtte Kleiman met Paauwe, J.C. Werner en zijn broer Willy Kleiman ten overstaan van notaris W.W. Rutgers de N.V. Paauwe op. Hij had negen&nbsp;aandelen, net zoals zijn broer Willy, Pauwe bezat 17 en Werner 15 aandelen:&nbsp;totaal dus 50 aandelen. Ieder aandeel was fl.&nbsp;300 gulden waard, zodat het totale startkapitaal fl.&nbsp;15.000 gulden bedroeg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixqyl\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Johannes Kleiman was dus voor 2.100 gulden en 18 procent aandeelhouder.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nKleiman was per <strong>19 september 1938</strong> commissaris van het bedrijf. Hij bleef dat tot aan zijn overlijden in <strong>januari 1959</strong>. Zijn broer&nbsp;was ook commissaris en later procuratiehouder van het bedrijf. Hij was betrokken bij Paauwe tot zijn overlijden in <strong>juni 1955</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okkbc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn Kleimans kantoor bij Opekta (het &#39;voorkantoor&#39; van de Prinsengracht 263) hing een Paauwe-klok, die bij een inbraak begin <strong>1944</strong> bijna was gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"va4k2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn <strong>1940</strong> had het bedrijf (als een van de eerste fabrieken in Nederland) een lopende band voor de uurwerkmontage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rrbn3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;In januari van dat jaar produceerde de fabriek 130 klokken per week, en werkte er bij de firma in totaal 65 personen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nAdressen waar de firma achtereenvolgens gevestigd was:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Korte Prinsengracht 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tl89j\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Generaal Vetterstraat 40.<sup data-footnote-id=\"alp51\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Bloemgracht 135.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pfitl\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>2e Schinkelstraat 30.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rm77p\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Er is een foto bewaard gebleven van het personeel tijdens een kerstfeest, vermoedelijk begin jaren vijftig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71p81\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Memo &quot;Wat gebeurde er bij Paauwe&#39;s Patent&quot;, uit persoonlijke papieren van P.J. Paauwe in bezit van zijn dochter, transcriptie door Willem van der Krogt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20fxs\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Brochure <em>Werken &amp; streven van Paauwes Patent</em>, p. 17. De brochure is een schenking van Guus Haverman, wiens vader bij Paauwe werkte.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixqyl\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam,&nbsp;Handelsregister&nbsp;dossier 50604 (dossiernummers zijn tegenwoordig achtcijferig, details zijn echter nu niet&nbsp;bekend en het dossier is nog niet naar het Noord-Hollands Archief overgebracht).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"okkbc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, Handelsregister 50604.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"va4k2\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rrbn3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rienk Vermij, &quot;Gedwongen tempo. De lopende band in Nederland tot de Tweede Wereldoorlog&quot; in: <em>NEHA-jaarboek</em>, (2001) nr. 64, p. 227-257, aldaar p. 235.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tl89j\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hier ging het bedrijf van start. E-mail Willem van der Krogt, 20 augustus 2009, bij documenten naar taxonomie Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"alp51\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Christiaan Huygens. Vakblad voor uurwerkmakers</em>, 29 mei 1937. Dit is Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres, mogelijk als postadres voor Paauwe.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pfitl\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam, fotonummer 012000007156. Dit is een nieuw pand, dat de firma in 1939 in gebruik neemt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rm77p\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, Handelsregister&nbsp;dossier 50604. Dit is een oud schoolgebouw. Rond 1950 verandert de naam in NUFA. Inmiddels heet het bedrijf Nedklok, gevestigd aan de Hemweg in Amsterdam.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71p81\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Geschonken door G. Haverman, wiens vader op de foto staat. Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Kleiman_III_101.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>On <strong>29 January 1937</strong>, the Kleiman brothers and four others formed a syndicate to investigate the commercial possibilities of the invention &#39;<em>het volautomatisch kalendermechanisme op uurwerken</em>&#39; (the fully automatic calendar mechanism on clocks)&nbsp;patented in <strong>May 1936</strong> by P.J. Paauwe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From <strong>26 April</strong> to <strong>5 May 1937,</strong> the firm held an exhibition at Hotel Suisse on Kalverstraat where the mechanism was demonstrated to invited guests.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nKleiman travelled to England for Paauwe and made contact with Smith&#39;s English Clocks Works Ltd. in London.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20fxs\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> On <strong>9 November 1937</strong>, Kleiman founded N.V. Paauwe with Paauwe, J.C. Werner and his brother Willy Kleiman before notary W.W. Rutgers. He had nine shares, as did his brother Willy, Pauwe owned 17 and Werner 15 shares,&nbsp;making a total of 50 shares. Each share was worth&nbsp;300 guilders, so the total starting capital was 15,000 guilders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixqyl\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Johannes Kleiman thus held an 18 per cent shareholding worth 2,100 guilders.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nKleiman was supervisory director of the company from <strong>19 September 1938</strong>. He remained so until his death in <strong>January 1959</strong>. His brother was also a supervisory director and later authorised signatory of the company. He was involved with Paauwe until his death in <strong>June 1955</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okkbc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nThere was a Paauwe clock on the wall of Kleiman&#39;s office at Opekta (the &#39;front office&#39; of Prinsengracht 263). The clock was almost stolen in a burglary in early <strong>1944</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"va4k2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn <strong>1940</strong>, the company was one of the first factories in the Netherlands to have&nbsp;an assembly line, for clock assembly.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rrbn3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> By January that year, the factory was producing 130 clocks a week, and the firm employed a total of 65 people.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nAddresses where the firm was successively located:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Korte Prinsengracht 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tl89j\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Generaal Vetterstraat 40.<sup data-footnote-id=\"alp51\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Bloemgracht 135.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pfitl\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>2e&nbsp;Schinkelstraat 30.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rm77p\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A photograph has survived of the staff at a Christmas party, presumably in the early 1950s.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71p81\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fn3kl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Memo &quot;Wat gebeurde er bij Paauwe&#39;s Patent&quot;, uit persoonlijke papieren van P.J. Paauwe in bezit van zijn dochter, transcriptie door Willem van der Krogt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20fxs\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Brochure <em>Werken &amp; streven van Paauwes Patent</em>, p. 17. De brochure is een schenking van Guus Haverman, wiens vader bij Paauwe werkte.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixqyl\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam,&nbsp;Handelsregister&nbsp;dossier 50604 (dossiernummers zijn tegenwoordig achtcijferig, details zijn echter nu niet&nbsp;bekend en het dossier is nog niet naar het Noord-Hollands Archief overgebracht).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"okkbc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, Handelsregister 50604.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"va4k2\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rrbn3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rienk Vermij, &quot;Gedwongen tempo. De lopende band in Nederland tot de Tweede Wereldoorlog&quot; in: <em>NEHA-jaarboek</em>, (2001) nr. 64, p. 227-257, aldaar p. 235.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tl89j\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hier ging het bedrijf van start. E-mail Willem van der Krogt, 20 augustus 2009, bij documenten naar taxonomie Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"alp51\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Christiaan Huygens. Vakblad voor uurwerkmakers</em>, 29 mei 1937. Dit is Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres, mogelijk als postadres voor Paauwe.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pfitl\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam, fotonummer 012000007156. Dit is een nieuw pand, dat de firma in 1939 in gebruik neemt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rm77p\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, Handelsregister&nbsp;dossier 50604. Dit is een oud schoolgebouw. Rond 1950 verandert de naam in NUFA. Inmiddels heet het bedrijf Nedklok, gevestigd aan de Hemweg in Amsterdam.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71p81\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Geschonken door G. Haverman, wiens vader op de foto staat. Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Kleiman_III_101.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1937-01-29",
                        "date_end": "1959-01-28",
                        "summary": "Johannes Kleiman was there at the birth of N.V. Paauwe's Patent.",
                        "summary_nl": "Johannes Kleiman stond aan de wieg van N.V. Paauwe's Patent.",
                        "summary_en": "Johannes Kleiman was there at the birth of N.V. Paauwe's Patent.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
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                        "name": "Businesses",
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                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
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                "published": true,
                "name": "N.V. Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken (N.V. Paauwe's Fully Automatic Calendar Clocks)",
                "name_nl": "N.V. Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken",
                "name_en": "N.V. Paauwe's Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken (N.V. Paauwe's Fully Automatic Calendar Clocks)",
                "uuid": "f9bad9c3-50bb-41b5-b528-74c36e40d028",
                "content": "",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.889329 52.382117)",
                "summary": "Johannes Kleiman was co-founder and supervisory director of this company.",
                "summary_nl": "Johannes Kleiman was mede-oprichter en commissaris van dit bedrijf.",
                "summary_en": "Johannes Kleiman was co-founder and supervisory director of this company.",
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                "street": "Bloemgracht 135",
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                "city": "Amsterdam",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/07733b53-04bc-4e0e-88ea-a410f0686506/",
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                        "name": "Barbara Ledermann goes into hiding",
                        "name_nl": "Barbara Ledermann duikt onder",
                        "name_en": "Barbara Ledermann goes into hiding",
                        "content": "<p>Barbara Ledermann went into hiding around <strong>November 1942</strong>. She obtained a different identity with the help of connections of her friend Manfred Gr&uuml;nberg. Her new papers were in the name of Barbara Waarts, and the correct first names of parents, her date and place of birth had been retained. On <strong>5 July 1944</strong>, she was also given a new identity card in the name of Barbara Waarts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yncpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> This was after the <strong>April 1944</strong> bombing of the State Inspectorate of Population Registers, whose documents posed the greatest danger to holders of fake personal identity cards.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m36vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The quality of her first identity card is not known, but in <strong>July 1944</strong> it was easier to get her a good fake one. After the liberation, the Population Registry cleaned up the corrupted card file, and in the process Barbara Waarts&#39; card was also labelled &#39;Valsch&#39;&nbsp;(False).​</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yncpg\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten Barbara Ledermann en Barbara Waarts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m36vo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Loe de Jong,&nbsp;<em>Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, 1939 - 1945</em>, deel 7, <em>Mei &#39;43 - Juni &#39;44</em>,&nbsp;tweede helft, Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976, p. 797 - 802.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Barbara Ledermann dook <strong>rond ​november 1942</strong> onder. Ze kreeg met behulp van connecties van&nbsp;haar vriend Manfred Gr&uuml;nberg een andere identiteit. Haar nieuwe papieren stonden op&nbsp;naam&nbsp;van Barbara Waarts, en de juiste voornamen van de ouders, haar geboortedatum en &ndash;plaats waren gehandhaafd.&nbsp;Op <strong>5 juli 1944</strong> kreeg ze op de naam Barbara Waarts ook nog een nieuw persoonsbewijs.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yncpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Dit was na het bombardement in <strong>april 1944</strong> op de Rijksinspectie voor de Bevolkingsregisters, waarvan de documenten het grootste gevaar voor houders van valse persoonsbewijzen vormde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m36vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> De kwaliteit van haar eerste persoonsbewijs is niet bekend, maar in <strong>juli 1944</strong> was het eenvoudiger haar een goede falsificatie te bezorgen.&nbsp;Na de bevrijding saneerde&nbsp;het Bevolkingsregister het gecorrumpeerde kaartenbestand en daarbij kreeg ook de kaart van Barbara Waarts het predicaat &ldquo;Valsch&rdquo;.​</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yncpg\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten Barbara Ledermann en Barbara Waarts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m36vo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Loe de Jong,&nbsp;<em>Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, 1939 - 1945</em>, deel 7, <em>Mei &#39;43 - Juni &#39;44</em>,&nbsp;tweede helft, Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976, p. 797 - 802.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Barbara Ledermann went into hiding around <strong>November 1942</strong>. She obtained a different identity with the help of connections of her friend Manfred Gr&uuml;nberg. Her new papers were in the name of Barbara Waarts, and the correct first names of parents, her date and place of birth had been retained. On <strong>5 July 1944</strong>, she was also given a new identity card in the name of Barbara Waarts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yncpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> This was after the <strong>April 1944</strong> bombing of the State Inspectorate of Population Registers, whose documents posed the greatest danger to holders of fake personal identity cards.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m36vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The quality of her first identity card is not known, but in <strong>July 1944</strong> it was easier to get her a good fake one. After the liberation, the Population Registry cleaned up the corrupted card file, and in the process Barbara Waarts&#39; card was also labelled &#39;Valsch&#39;&nbsp;(False).​</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yncpg\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten Barbara Ledermann en Barbara Waarts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m36vo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Loe de Jong,&nbsp;<em>Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, 1939 - 1945</em>, deel 7, <em>Mei &#39;43 - Juni &#39;44</em>,&nbsp;tweede helft, Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff, 1976, p. 797 - 802.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1942-11-01",
                        "date_end": "1945-05-07",
                        "summary": "Barbara Ledermann went into hiding around November 1942. Having been given a solid false identity, she was able to walk the streets freely. She became active in the resistance by helping Jews in hiding. Her parents did not want to go into hiding and were rounded up with her sister Sanne in a major raid on 20 June 1943 and taken to Camp Westerbork.",
                        "summary_nl": "Barbara Ledermann, een vriendin van Margot Frank, dook rond ​november 1942 onder. Doordat ze een solide valse identiteit had, kon ze vrij over straat lopen. Ze werd actief in het verzet door Joden te helpen met onderduiken. Haar ouders wilden niet onderduiken en werden  met haar zus Sanne bij een grote razzia op 20 juni 1943 opgepakt en naar kamp Westerbork gebracht.",
                        "summary_en": "Barbara Ledermann went into hiding around November 1942. Having been given a solid false identity, she was able to walk the streets freely. She became active in the resistance by helping Jews in hiding. Her parents did not want to go into hiding and were rounded up with her sister Sanne in a major raid on 20 June 1943 and taken to Camp Westerbork.",
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                "published": true,
                "name": "Address where Barbara Ledermann was in hiding",
                "name_nl": "Onderduikadres Barbara Ledermann",
                "name_en": "Address where Barbara Ledermann was in hiding",
                "uuid": "3728c44f-9948-4763-84c3-ba87ac8da4b1",
                "content": "",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.884482 52.35484)",
                "summary": "From 20 June 1943, Barbara Ledermann lived at Reijnier Vinkeleskade 61 huis, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_nl": "Vanaf 20 juni 1943 woonde Barbara Ledermann op Reijnier Vinkeleskade 61 huis, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_en": "From 20 June 1943, Barbara Ledermann lived at Reijnier Vinkeleskade 61 huis, Amsterdam.",
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                "street": "Reijnier Vinkeleskade 61 huis",
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