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                    "id": 1158,
                    "uuid": "b0e16653-a717-4783-94ce-2b92e7f6b22f",
                    "name": "ANWU01624000001",
                    "title": "Gebouw Candida, rond 1933",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/ANWU01624000001.jpg",
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                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
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                "latitude": "52.375236",
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                    {
                        "id": 247,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/b808c539-1fbe-46d4-8dbb-62ccc7c004b3/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/60372a46-0754-4cde-8460-8c2a436b879d",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
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                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
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                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "b808c539-1fbe-46d4-8dbb-62ccc7c004b3",
                        "name": "Otto Frank establishes Opekta in the Netherlands",
                        "name_nl": "Otto Frank vestigt Opekta in Nederland",
                        "name_en": "Otto Frank establishes Opekta in the Netherlands",
                        "content": "<p>He established his company in Amsterdam.&nbsp;Opekta is a company which was licensed to sell pectin. Opekta was also the name of the gelling agent to make homemade jam. To sell his product Otto arranged&nbsp;advertisements and organizes demonstrations at meetings for housewife associations. Victor Kugler and Miep Santrouschitz helped him build up his business. Victor was his righthand man. Miep gave&nbsp;information over the telephone and also sent&nbsp;information about using Opekta. Johannes Kleiman and Bep Voskuijl joined the company later. Others worked in the warehouse and sales.</p>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Zijn bedrijf vestigde hij in Amsterdam.&nbsp;Opekta is een bedrijf dat onder licentie pectine verkoopt aan consumenten. Dit is een geleermiddel waarmee huisvrouwen zelf jam kunnen maken. Om zijn product te verkopen verzorgde&nbsp;hij reclamematerialen en organiseerde&nbsp;hij demonstraties op bijeenkomsten van huisvrouwenverenigingen. Victor Kugler en Miep Santrouschitz hielpen Otto bij de opbouw van zijn bedrijf. Victor werd&nbsp;zijn rechterhand. Miep gaf&nbsp;telefonisch en schriftelijk inlichtingen over het gebruik van Opekta. Later kwamen&nbsp;ook Johannes Kleiman en Bep Voskuijl in dienst. Verdere werkten er mensen in het magazijn en in de verkoop.</p>",
                        "content_en": "<p>He established his company in Amsterdam.&nbsp;Opekta is a company which was licensed to sell pectin. Opekta was also the name of the gelling agent to make homemade jam. To sell his product Otto arranged&nbsp;advertisements and organizes demonstrations at meetings for housewife associations. Victor Kugler and Miep Santrouschitz helped him build up his business. Victor was his righthand man. Miep gave&nbsp;information over the telephone and also sent&nbsp;information about using Opekta. Johannes Kleiman and Bep Voskuijl joined the company later. Others worked in the warehouse and sales.</p>",
                        "date": "1933-07-01",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "In July 1933 Otto Frank began selling Opekta in the Netherlands.",
                        "summary_nl": "In juli 1933 begon Otto Frank met de verkoop van Opekta in Nederland.",
                        "summary_en": "In July 1933 Otto Frank began selling Opekta in the Netherlands.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 257,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/4e042032-9591-423e-a1b3-730e2fdbcfdb/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/b5b7150e-e9c9-4e09-85f4-130e3cdcce69",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/a86dc611-ad64-45f0-b639-9ff6a135a8ae",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/133f31cd-8fcb-469a-a1c6-58f2b2b369f3",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/94d0786c-04e7-4095-ba04-876b8544e1b2"
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c885285f-6d92-48fc-817f-543f6f20f9bf",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "4e042032-9591-423e-a1b3-730e2fdbcfdb",
                        "name": "Miep Gies works at Opekta",
                        "name_nl": "Miep Gies werkzaam bij Opekta",
                        "name_en": "Miep Gies works at Opekta",
                        "content": "<p>According to the Register of Foreign Nationals, Miep worked at Opekta from <strong>16 October 1933</strong>, after more than ten months of unemployment. She earned NLG 15&nbsp;per week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hu0nu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> By her own account, she was put to work on jam preparation the first day and spent at least a month working with all kinds of recipes. When she had mastered this, she was put on the phone to help solve problems<em> </em>(Opekta information department)<em> </em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Besides the Opekta information department, Miep Gies did administrative work: her responsibilities&nbsp;included payroll and the bank giro cash book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2abym\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Sometimes Miep Gies got the people in hiding to update debtors&#39; lists and sales books.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5564e\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nMiep had her workplace in the front office, where Bep and Kleiman were also working.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the arrest, she and Bep continued to work in the office until Kleiman&#39;s return, and according to her, Miep Gies was the only one able to continue the business activities in the meantime.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t9geb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nThere are photos and video material documenting Miep&#39;s presence at Opekta:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>The photo of Miep&nbsp;with Otto Frank and Henk van Beusekom, <strong>September 1936</strong>, in the office at Singel 400.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r4c3v\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The photo of Miep with Henk van Beusekom, Isa Cauvern and Branca Boom (sister-in-law of Miep Gies).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ryqv2\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The photo of Miep with Isa Cauvern, Henk van Beusekom, Hetty Levie and Kugler on the pavement of Singel 400.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ue1s6\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Miep figured in the Opekta advertising film, which showed jam preparation using Opekta liquid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3tz\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The <strong>1941 </strong>photo of Miep with Kugler, Bep, Pine and Esther in the front office of Prinsengracht 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kbugw\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The <strong>May 1941 </strong>photo of Miep in the front office. She posed with Van Pels, Esther and Bep.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ntf5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Also from&nbsp;<strong>May 1941 </strong>is the photo of Miep with Bep and Pine at the waterfront.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5kr4k\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On the occasion of Miep&#39;s marriage to Jan Gies on <strong>16 July 1941</strong>, a party was held at the Opekta office. Some photos were taken during this, both inside and outside in front of the door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aw45a\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The <strong>1945 </strong>photo of Miep with other helpers and Otto Frank in the front office.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2b3x\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep herself resigned from Opekta in the summer of <strong>1947</strong>. She felt that running a household with three men (Jan, Otto Frank and Ab Cauvern) was already a full-time job: &quot;I was no longer the young girl searching for freedom and independence&nbsp;through her work.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"b4edr\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hu0nu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz: Transcriptie Vreemdelingenkaart H. Santrouschitz, Notitie 3 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Miep Gies, Interview 1992, deel 1.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2abym\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verklaring E. van Wijk-Voskuijl, voor RIOD, 27 februari 1981.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5564e\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 30 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t9geb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 199-203.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r4c3v\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_III_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ryqv2\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_003. Branca komt in 1935 bij Opekta en trouwt in augustus 1936. Na haar huwelijk gaat ze weg. AFS, Getuigenarchief,&nbsp; Boom.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ue1s6\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_007. Opekta betrok Singel 400 eind 1934; Henk van Beusekom werkte er tot 7 januari 1938. In die periode moet de foto zijn gemaakt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3tz\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_IV_001. De film is gedateerd 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kbugw\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_008. De datering staat in Beps handschrift achterop.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ntf5k\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_009. In Beps handschrift staat achterop 1940. Het bijschrift in de Museale Collectie zegt 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5kr4k\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Digitale fotocollectie. Als deze en de vorige allebei uit mei 1941 zijn, dan in ieder geval verschillende dagen: Miep draagt andere kleren.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aw45a\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Digitale fotocollectie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2b3x\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b4edr\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Gies &amp; Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank</em>, p. 235.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Volgens het register van de Vreemdelingendienst werkte Miep Gies, bij Opekta vanaf <strong>16 oktober 1933</strong>, na ruim tien maanden werkloosheid. Ze verdiende fl. 15, - per week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hu0nu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Naar eigen zeggen, werd ze de eerste dag aan de jambereiding gezet en was ze zeker een maand met allerlei recepten in de weer. Toen ze dit onder de knie had, werd ze aan de telefoon gezet om problemen te helpen oplossen (<em>Opekta inlichtingendienst </em>).<sup data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep had haar werkplek in het voorkantoor, waar ook Bep en Kleiman zaten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Behalve de Opekta Inlichtingendienst deed Miep administratief werk: de loonadministratie en het kasbankgiroboek vielen onder andere onder haar verantwoordelijkheid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2abym\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Soms schakelde Miep Gies de onderduikers in om debiteurenlijsten en verkoopboeken door hen te laten bijwerken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5564e\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Na de arrestatie bleef ze samen met Bep op kantoor werken tot Kleimans terugkeer.&nbsp;Naar eigen zeggen was Miep Gies de enige die de bedrijfsactiviteiten in de tussentijd kon voortzetten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t9geb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;<br />\r\n<br />\r\nEr is divers beeldmateriaal dat Mieps aanwezigheid bij Opekta documenteert:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>De foto van Miep met Otto Frank en Henk van Beusekom, <strong>september 1936</strong>, in het kantoor op Singel 400.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r4c3v\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>De foto van Miep met Henk van Beusekom, Isa Cauvern en Branca Boom (schoonzus van Miep Gies).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ryqv2\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>De foto van Miep met Isa Cauvern, Henk van Beusekom, Hetty Levie en Kugler op de stoep van Singel 400.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ue1s6\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Miep figureerde in de Opekta reclamefilm, waarin de jambereiding met Opekta vloeibaar werd getoond.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3tz\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>De foto uit <strong>1941 </strong>van Miep met Kugler, Bep, Pine en Esther in het voorkantoor van Prinsengracht 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kbugw\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>De foto uit <strong>mei 1941 </strong>van Miep in het voorkantoor. Ze poseerde met Van Pels, Esther en Bep.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ntf5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Eveneens gedateerd <strong>mei 1941 </strong>is de foto van Miep met Bep en Pine aan de waterkant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5kr4k\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Ter gelegenheid van Mieps huwelijk met Jan Gies op <strong>16 juli 1941 </strong>werd in het Opekta kantoor een feestje gevierd. Daarbij werden enkele foto&rsquo;s gemaakt, zowel binnen als buiten voor de deur.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aw45a\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>De foto uit <strong>1945 </strong>van Miep met andere helpers en Otto Frank in het voorkantoor.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2b3x\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep nam in de zomer van <strong>1947 </strong>zelf ontslag bij Opekta. Ze vond dat ze aan haar huishouden met drie mannen (Jan, Otto Frank en Ab Cauvern) een dagtaak had: &#39;<em>Ik was niet langer het jonge meisje dat via haar werk vrijheid en onafhankelijkheid zocht.</em>&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"b4edr\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hu0nu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz: Transcriptie Vreemdelingenkaart H. Santrouschitz, Notitie 3 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Miep Gies, Interview 1992, deel 1.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2abym\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verklaring E. van Wijk-Voskuijl, voor RIOD, 27 februari 1981.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5564e\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 30 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t9geb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 199-203.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r4c3v\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_III_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ryqv2\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_003. Branca komt in 1935 bij Opekta en trouwt in augustus 1936. Na haar huwelijk gaat ze weg. AFS, Getuigenarchief,&nbsp; Boom.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ue1s6\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_007. Opekta betrok Singel 400 eind 1934; Henk van Beusekom werkte er tot 7 januari 1938. In die periode moet de foto zijn gemaakt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3tz\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_IV_001. De film is gedateerd 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kbugw\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_008. De datering staat in Beps handschrift achterop.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ntf5k\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_009. In Beps handschrift staat achterop 1940. Het bijschrift in de Museale Collectie zegt 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5kr4k\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Digitale fotoollectie, Als deze en de vorige allebei uit mei 1941 zijn, dan in ieder geval verschillende dagen: Miep draagt andere kleren.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aw45a\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Digitale fotocollectie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2b3x\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b4edr\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Gies &amp; Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank</em>, p. 235.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>According to the Register of Foreign Nationals, Miep worked at Opekta from <strong>16 October 1933</strong>, after more than ten months of unemployment. She earned NLG 15&nbsp;per week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hu0nu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> By her own account, she was put to work on jam preparation the first day and spent at least a month working with all kinds of recipes. When she had mastered this, she was put on the phone to help solve problems<em> </em>(Opekta information department)<em> </em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Besides the Opekta information department, Miep Gies did administrative work: her responsibilities&nbsp;included payroll and the bank giro cash book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2abym\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Sometimes Miep Gies got the people in hiding to update debtors&#39; lists and sales books.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5564e\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nMiep had her workplace in the front office, where Bep and Kleiman were also working.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the arrest, she and Bep continued to work in the office until Kleiman&#39;s return, and according to her, Miep Gies was the only one able to continue the business activities in the meantime.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t9geb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nThere are photos and video material documenting Miep&#39;s presence at Opekta:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>The photo of Miep&nbsp;with Otto Frank and Henk van Beusekom, <strong>September 1936</strong>, in the office at Singel 400.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r4c3v\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The photo of Miep with Henk van Beusekom, Isa Cauvern and Branca Boom (sister-in-law of Miep Gies).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ryqv2\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The photo of Miep with Isa Cauvern, Henk van Beusekom, Hetty Levie and Kugler on the pavement of Singel 400.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ue1s6\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Miep figured in the Opekta advertising film, which showed jam preparation using Opekta liquid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3tz\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The <strong>1941 </strong>photo of Miep with Kugler, Bep, Pine and Esther in the front office of Prinsengracht 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kbugw\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The <strong>May 1941 </strong>photo of Miep in the front office. She posed with Van Pels, Esther and Bep.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ntf5k\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Also from&nbsp;<strong>May 1941 </strong>is the photo of Miep with Bep and Pine at the waterfront.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5kr4k\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On the occasion of Miep&#39;s marriage to Jan Gies on <strong>16 July 1941</strong>, a party was held at the Opekta office. Some photos were taken during this, both inside and outside in front of the door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aw45a\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The <strong>1945 </strong>photo of Miep with other helpers and Otto Frank in the front office.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2b3x\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep herself resigned from Opekta in the summer of <strong>1947</strong>. She felt that running a household with three men (Jan, Otto Frank and Ab Cauvern) was already a full-time job: &quot;I was no longer the young girl searching for freedom and independence&nbsp;through her work.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"b4edr\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hu0nu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz: Transcriptie Vreemdelingenkaart H. Santrouschitz, Notitie 3 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j4dy9\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Miep Gies, Interview 1992, deel 1.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2abym\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verklaring E. van Wijk-Voskuijl, voor RIOD, 27 februari 1981.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5564e\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 30 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t9geb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 199-203.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r4c3v\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_III_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ryqv2\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_003. Branca komt in 1935 bij Opekta en trouwt in augustus 1936. Na haar huwelijk gaat ze weg. AFS, Getuigenarchief,&nbsp; Boom.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ue1s6\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_007. Opekta betrok Singel 400 eind 1934; Henk van Beusekom werkte er tot 7 januari 1938. In die periode moet de foto zijn gemaakt.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3tz\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_IV_001. De film is gedateerd 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kbugw\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_008. De datering staat in Beps handschrift achterop.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ntf5k\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_009. In Beps handschrift staat achterop 1940. Het bijschrift in de Museale Collectie zegt 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5kr4k\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Digitale fotocollectie. Als deze en de vorige allebei uit mei 1941 zijn, dan in ieder geval verschillende dagen: Miep draagt andere kleren.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aw45a\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Digitale fotocollectie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2b3x\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_III_011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b4edr\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Gies &amp; Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank</em>, p. 235.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1933-10-16",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "From 16 October 1933, Miep Gies worked at Opekta.",
                        "summary_nl": "Vanaf 16 oktober 1933 werkte Miep Gies bij Opekta.",
                        "summary_en": "From 16 October 1933, Miep Gies worked at Opekta.",
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                        "name": "Businesses",
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                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name_en": "Opekta | Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal",
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                "summary": "First office of \"Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij N.V.\" and \"Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie\" in Candida building, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_nl": "Eerste kantoor van \"Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij N.V.\" en \"Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie\" in gebouw Candida, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_en": "First office of \"Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij N.V.\" and \"Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie\" in Candida building, Amsterdam.",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0/",
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                        "name": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                        "name_nl": "Een Amerikaanse bommenwerper stort neer in de Spaarndammerbuurt",
                        "name_en": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                        "content": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Na bommen te hebben afgegooid boven Berlijn&nbsp;was het vliegtuig weer op weg naar de thuisbasis in Engeland toen het werd geraakt door Duits luchtafweergeschut.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de omgeving van Bremen gaf piloot Edward Stull de opdracht aan vijf bemanningsleden om te springen, terwijl hij en co-piloot Samuel Showalter doorvlogen. Boven Schellingswoude werd het vliegtuig opnieuw beschoten, waarna beide piloten uit het vliegtuig sprongen. Het vliegtuig kwam neer op een school in de Westzaanstraat en gedeeltelijk voor de pastorie van de katholieke kerk in de Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank schrijft over deze gebeurtenis in in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A en B, 23 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1944-03-22",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                        "summary_nl": "Terugvliegend van een missie in Duitsland werd een Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress geraakt door Duits luchtafweer en stortte neer in de Spaarndammerstraat.",
                        "summary_en": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 196,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                        "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                        "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                        "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124388,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
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                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a699d98a-eab0-4e27-a4a1-f2c76df56892",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6e7854d3-c834-44c4-9129-c742ff899d22",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0"
                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene",
                "name_nl": "Pastorie Maria Magdalenakerk",
                "name_en": "Presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene",
                "uuid": "19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.880692 52.387585)",
                "summary": "The presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene was hit by parts of a bomber that had been shot.",
                "summary_nl": "De pastorie van de Maria Magdalenakerk werd getroffen door een deel van een neergestorte bommenwerper.",
                "summary_en": "The presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene was hit by parts of a bomber that had been shot.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Spaarndammerstraat 9",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    275
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            },
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                "latitude": "52.37433",
                "longitude": "4.88691",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                    {
                        "id": 396124613,
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/60010658-62d2-4c3e-bb62-14f0f43117e3/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "60010658-62d2-4c3e-bb62-14f0f43117e3",
                        "name": "Otto Frank and the publication of Anne's Fables and Short Stories",
                        "name_nl": "Otto Frank en de uitgave van Annes verhaaltjes",
                        "name_en": "Otto Frank and the publication of Anne's Fables and Short Stories",
                        "description": "<p>Even before the publication of &#39;The Secret Annex&#39;, Otto Frank approached several publishers to publish Anne&#39;s short stories, which she had written while in hiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne started writing these stories in the <strong>summer of&nbsp;1943</strong>:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;A break in the Secret Annex&nbsp;sketches. A few weeks ago I started writing a story, something I made up from beginning to end, and I&#39;ve enjoyed it so much that the products of my pen are piling up<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The short stories are recorded in the diary, on loose sheets and in a cardboard notebook: Short stories, and events from the Secret Annex described by Anne Frank. Dedicated Thursday 2 September 1943.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got the idea to publish them during the period in hiding: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, (&hellip;) I want to ask the magazine The Prince if they&#39;ll take one of my fairy tales, under a pseudonym of course. But up to now all my fairy tales have been too long, so I don&#39;t think I have much of a chance&#39;.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank related in <strong>1959</strong> that Anne asked Jo Kleiman to send the story <em>Blurry the Explorer</em>, among others, under the name of his daughter Corrie (a pseudonym for Jopie Kleiman). But Kleiman thought this was too dangerous. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After Otto Frank retrieved his daughter&#39;s writings, he first had the short stories written out and translated to send to his family <strong>in autumn 1945</strong>. The first story is: <em>Blurry, der Weltentdekker [sic], </em>which is about a little bear.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Otto Frank wrote to his mother on <strong>12 December 1945</strong>:<em> &#39;Frl. Sch&uuml;tz wird Dir wohl eine Uebersetzung von Annes M&auml;rchen Eva&#39;s Traum senden, was sie mir im letzten Jahr zum Geburtstag gegeben hatte.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></em></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the little story <em>Why?</em> Otto Frank recognised the influence of the letter he had sent her when she was 10 and which she had pasted in her diary, through the text:<em> &#39;It will be a support to me for life</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> According to Otto Frank, the little story <em>Give!</em> was childishly idealistic, but typical of Anne. Following the example of her mother and grandmother, she used the oft-used phrase:<em> &#39;No one has yet become poor from giving.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"doura\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Otto Frank found the story <em>A Maths Lesson</em> telling about Anne&#39;s psychology.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On two occasions, Contact Publishers rejected the manuscript of the short stories.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Then Otto Frank tried in vain to interest other publishers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Eventually, he and Contact came to an agreement. The publisher suggested editing the collection in such a way that <em>Kaatje</em>, judged to be less strong, would not be included. Moreover, the school memories were given a place in the back, mainly because of their importance for Anne&#39;s &quot;psychology&quot;. In <strong>1949.</strong> Contact nevertheless published<em>&nbsp;Do You</em>&nbsp;<em>Remember? Fables and Short Stories</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup><br />\r\nA wider selection of Anne&#39;s stories was also published by Contact in <strong>1960</strong>: <em>Tales from the House Behind</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> The publisher would have preferred a complete&nbsp;edition but understood that Otto Frank did not want the &quot;weaker parts&quot; published.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 7 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Omdat er geen dagboekaantekeningen van 6 december1942 tot 22 december 1943 in de A-versie zijn overgeleverd, is het niet duidelijk of Anne Frank in deze periode de verhaaltjes eerst in haar (tweede niet overgeleverde) dagboek heeft opgeschreven en wellicht later in het verhaaltjesboek in het net heeft overgeschreven.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact / Gilles de Neve, 3 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 30 september en 11 november 1945.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 12 december 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 1 januari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doura\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 7 april 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact, 5 juli 1949.&nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 5 november 1946 en 17 januari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090:&nbsp;Brief van De Bezige Bij aan Otto Frank,16 januari 1946 (&#39;te zwak, te onrijp en te weinig evenwichtig&#39;); Brief Otto Frank aan uitgeverij de Telg, 4 december 1946; Briefkaart van de Arbeiderspers aan Otto Frank, 22 december 1947; Brief van uitgeverij de Driehoek aan Otto Frank, 28 februari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes.</em> Amsterdam/Antwerpen: Contact, 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam/ Antwerpen: Contact, 1960.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 13 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Nog voor publicatie van &#39;Het Achterhuis&#39; benaderde Otto Frank verschillende uitgevers om Annes verhaaltjes uit te geven, die zij tijdens de onderduikperiode had&nbsp;geschreven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne begon&nbsp;met het schrijven van deze verhaaltjes in de <strong>zomer van 1943</strong>:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Een onderbreking in de Achterhuisschetsen. Ik ben een paar weken geleden begonnen om eens een verhaal te schrijven, iets dat helemaal verzonnen is en heb daar zo&#39;n plezier aan gekregen dat m&#39;n pennekinderen zich opstapelen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;De verhaaltjes zijn opgetekend in het dagboek, op de losse vellen en in een gekartonneerd schrift:&nbsp;<em>Verhaaltjes, en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis beschreven door Anne Frank. Ingewijd Donderdag 2 september 1943.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></em></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Tijdens de onderduik kreeg&nbsp;Anne het idee om ze uit te geven: &#39;Liefste Kitty, (&hellip;) Ik wil bij de &quot;Prins&quot;&nbsp;aanvragen of ze een sprookje van me plaatsen, natuurlijk onder een pseudoniem, maar daar mijn sprookjes tot nu toe nog te lang zijn, denk ik niet dat ik veel kans op slagen heb.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank vertelde&nbsp;hierover in <strong>1959</strong> dat Anne aan Jo Kleiman vroeg&nbsp;om onder andere het verhaaltje <em>Blurry</em> op te sturen onder de naam van zijn dochter Corrie (=&nbsp;pseudoniem voor Jopie Kleiman). Maar Kleiman vond&nbsp;dit te gevaarlijk.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Nadat Otto Frank de geschriften van zijn dochter kreeg, liet hij <strong>najaar 1945</strong> eerst&nbsp;de verhaaltjes uitschrijven en vertalen om aan zijn familie te sturen. Het eerste verhaaltje is: Blurry, der Weltentdekker [sic], dat gaat over een beertje.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp; Otto Frank schreef&nbsp;aan zijn moeder op <strong>12 december 1945</strong>: &#39;<em>Frl. Sch&uuml;tz wird Dir wohl eine Uebersetzung von Annes M&auml;rchen Eva&rsquo;s Traum senden, was sie&nbsp;mir im letzten Jahr zum Geburtstag gegeben hatte</em>.<em>&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In het verhaaltje <em>Waarom?</em> herkende&nbsp;Otto Frank de invloed van de brief die hij haar op haar tiende had&nbsp;gestuurd en die zij in haar dagboek had&nbsp;geplakt, door de tekst: &#39;Het zal me een steun voor het leven zijn.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het verhaaltje <em>Geef!</em>&nbsp;was&nbsp;volgens Otto Frank kinderlijk idealistisch, maar wel typisch Anne. In navolging van haar moeder en grootmoeder gebruikte&nbsp;ze het veel gebezigde zinnetje: &#39;Niemand is nog van geven arm geworden.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"gfg18\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het verhaal <em>Een Wiskunde-les</em> vond&nbsp;Otto Frank veelzeggend over de psychologie van Anne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Tot tweemaal toe wees Uitgeverij Contact het manuscript van de verhaaltjes af.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Vervolgens probeerde&nbsp;Otto Frank tevergeefs andere uitgeverijen te interesseren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;Uiteindelijk werden&nbsp;hij en Contact het toch eens. De uitgeverij stelde&nbsp;voor de bundel zodanig te redigeren dat <em>Kaatje</em>, beoordeeld als minder sterk, er niet in kwam. Bovendien kregen de schoolherinneringen een plaats achterin, vooral vanwege hun belang voor de &quot;psychologie&quot; van Anne.&nbsp;Zo&nbsp;verscheen&nbsp;in&nbsp;<strong>1949</strong> <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes</em> toch bij Contact.<sup data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup><br />\r\nIn <strong>1960</strong> verscheen&nbsp;bij Contact ook nog een ruimere selectie van Anne&rsquo;s verhaaltjes: <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;De uitgever wilde het liefst een integrale uitgave maar begreep&nbsp;dat Otto Frank de &quot;zwakkere gedeelten&quot; niet gepubliceerd wilde zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 7 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Omdat er geen dagboekaantekeningen van 6 december1942 tot 22 december 1943 in de A-versie zijn overgeleverd, is het niet duidelijk of Anne Frank in deze periode de verhaaltjes eerst in haar (tweede niet overgeleverde) dagboek heeft opgeschreven en wellicht later in het verhaaltjesboek in het net heeft overgeschreven.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact / Gilles de Neve, 3 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 30 september en 11 november 1945.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 12 december 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 1 januari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gfg18\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 7 april 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact, 5 juli 1949.&nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 5 november 1946 en 17 januari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090:&nbsp;Brief van De Bezige Bij aan Otto Frank,16 januari 1946 (&#39;te zwak, te onrijp en te weinig evenwichtig&#39;); Brief Otto Frank aan uitgeverij de Telg, 4 december 1946; Briefkaart van de Arbeiderspers aan Otto Frank, 22 december 1947; Brief van uitgeverij de Driehoek aan Otto Frank, 28 februari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes.</em> Amsterdam/Antwerpen: Contact, 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam/ Antwerpen: Contact, 1960.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 13 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Even before the publication of &#39;The Secret Annex&#39;, Otto Frank approached several publishers to publish Anne&#39;s short stories, which she had written while in hiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne started writing these stories in the <strong>summer of&nbsp;1943</strong>:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;A break in the Secret Annex&nbsp;sketches. A few weeks ago I started writing a story, something I made up from beginning to end, and I&#39;ve enjoyed it so much that the products of my pen are piling up<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The short stories are recorded in the diary, on loose sheets and in a cardboard notebook: Short stories, and events from the Secret Annex described by Anne Frank. Dedicated Thursday 2 September 1943.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got the idea to publish them during the period in hiding: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, (&hellip;) I want to ask the magazine The Prince if they&#39;ll take one of my fairy tales, under a pseudonym of course. But up to now all my fairy tales have been too long, so I don&#39;t think I have much of a chance&#39;.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank related in <strong>1959</strong> that Anne asked Jo Kleiman to send the story <em>Blurry the Explorer</em>, among others, under the name of his daughter Corrie (a pseudonym for Jopie Kleiman). But Kleiman thought this was too dangerous. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After Otto Frank retrieved his daughter&#39;s writings, he first had the short stories written out and translated to send to his family <strong>in autumn 1945</strong>. The first story is: <em>Blurry, der Weltentdekker [sic], </em>which is about a little bear.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Otto Frank wrote to his mother on <strong>12 December 1945</strong>:<em> &#39;Frl. Sch&uuml;tz wird Dir wohl eine Uebersetzung von Annes M&auml;rchen Eva&#39;s Traum senden, was sie mir im letzten Jahr zum Geburtstag gegeben hatte.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></em></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the little story <em>Why?</em> Otto Frank recognised the influence of the letter he had sent her when she was 10 and which she had pasted in her diary, through the text:<em> &#39;It will be a support to me for life</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> According to Otto Frank, the little story <em>Give!</em> was childishly idealistic, but typical of Anne. Following the example of her mother and grandmother, she used the oft-used phrase:<em> &#39;No one has yet become poor from giving.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"doura\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Otto Frank found the story <em>A Maths Lesson</em> telling about Anne&#39;s psychology.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On two occasions, Contact Publishers rejected the manuscript of the short stories.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Then Otto Frank tried in vain to interest other publishers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Eventually, he and Contact came to an agreement. The publisher suggested editing the collection in such a way that <em>Kaatje</em>, judged to be less strong, would not be included. Moreover, the school memories were given a place in the back, mainly because of their importance for Anne&#39;s &quot;psychology&quot;. In <strong>1949.</strong> Contact nevertheless published<em>&nbsp;Do You</em>&nbsp;<em>Remember? Fables and Short Stories</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup><br />\r\nA wider selection of Anne&#39;s stories was also published by Contact in <strong>1960</strong>: <em>Tales from the House Behind</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> The publisher would have preferred a complete&nbsp;edition but understood that Otto Frank did not want the &quot;weaker parts&quot; published.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 7 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Omdat er geen dagboekaantekeningen van 6 december1942 tot 22 december 1943 in de A-versie zijn overgeleverd, is het niet duidelijk of Anne Frank in deze periode de verhaaltjes eerst in haar (tweede niet overgeleverde) dagboek heeft opgeschreven en wellicht later in het verhaaltjesboek in het net heeft overgeschreven.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact / Gilles de Neve, 3 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 30 september en 11 november 1945.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 12 december 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 1 januari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doura\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 7 april 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact, 5 juli 1949.&nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 5 november 1946 en 17 januari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090:&nbsp;Brief van De Bezige Bij aan Otto Frank,16 januari 1946 (&#39;te zwak, te onrijp en te weinig evenwichtig&#39;); Brief Otto Frank aan uitgeverij de Telg, 4 december 1946; Briefkaart van de Arbeiderspers aan Otto Frank, 22 december 1947; Brief van uitgeverij de Driehoek aan Otto Frank, 28 februari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes.</em> Amsterdam/Antwerpen: Contact, 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam/ Antwerpen: Contact, 1960.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 13 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Otto Frank was actively involved in the publication of Anne's diary and her short stories.",
                        "summary_nl": "Otto Frank was naast de publicatie van het dagboek van Anne actief betrokken bij de uitgave van haar verhaaltjes.",
                        "summary_en": "Otto Frank was actively involved in the publication of Anne's diary and her short stories.",
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                "name_en": "Prad, Reclameadvies- en advertentiebureau (Prad Advertising Consultancy and Agency)",
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                "content": "<p><strong>Address:&nbsp;</strong>Herengracht 168, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Prad was an advertising agency that Otto Frank was in contact with after the war. Before the war, Maurice Aronson had been very successful with his advertising agency Arc&#39;s. When he set up another agency after the war, he again looked for a four-letter name. He considered choosing &#39;Prograd&#39; (&#39;progression and advertising&#39;), but eventually accepted his wife&#39;s suggestion to call the business &#39;Prad&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1949</strong>, Prad agency offered Otto Frank two proof drawings, made by (Arthur) Goldsteen, for the proposed publication of the little story written by Anne while in hiding, <em>Do you remember? </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> <sup data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1963</strong>, Prad was one of the largest advertising agencies in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: M.A. Aronson aan Otto Frank, 3 mei 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M. van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau: de ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em> (proefschrift Universteit van Amsterdam, 2012), p. 215 (noot 78).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie noot 1. Uiteindelijk zullen omslag en illustraties gemaakt worden door Kees Kelfkens.<em>&nbsp;</em>In de lente van dat jaar heeft Otto Frank het bureau enkele keren in zijn agenda staan.AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_006: Agenda Otto Frank 1949 (aantekeningen bij 26 april, 24 mei en 11 juni).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Tales and Events from the Secret Annex, &quot;Do You Remember?&quot;, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty; transl. from the German language by Kirsten Warner and transl. from the Dutch language by Nancy Forest-Flier]. London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4729-6491-5.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau</em>, p. 236 (noot 102).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:19,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1838}\"><strong bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:25,&quot;w&quot;:44,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1844}\">Adres:&nbsp;</strong>Herengracht 168, Amsterdam.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:238,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:459,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1841}\" data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:238,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:459,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1841}\" href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:56,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:65,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1875}\">Prad was een reclame bureau waar Otto Frank na de oorlog contact mee had. Voor de oorlog had Maurits Aronson veel succes met zijn reclamebureau Arc&#39;s. Toen hij na de oorlog opnieuw een bureau oprichtte, zocht hij weer een naam met vier letters. Hij overwoog &#39;Prograd&#39; (&#39;progressie en adverteren&#39;) te kiezen, maar nam uiteindelijk het voorstel van zijn vrouw over om de zaak &#39;Prad&#39; te noemen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:220,&quot;y&quot;:100,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:441,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1919}\" data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:220,&quot;y&quot;:100,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:441,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1919}\" href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:135,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:44,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1954}\">In <strong bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:137,&quot;w&quot;:28,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1956}\">1949</strong> bood bureau Prad Otto Frank twee proeftekeningen aan, gemaakt door (Arthur) Goldsteen, voor de voorgenomen uitgave van het door Anne tijdens de onderduik geschreven verhaaltje,&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:161,&quot;w&quot;:79,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1980}\">Weet je nog?&nbsp;</em><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:163,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:384,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:163,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:384,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:179,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:400,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:179,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:400,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:193,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2012}\">In <strong bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:198,&quot;w&quot;:28,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2017}\">1963</strong> was Prad een van de grootste reclamebureaus van Nederland.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:428,&quot;y&quot;:195,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:649,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2014}\" data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:428,&quot;y&quot;:195,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:649,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2014}\" href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:229,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:231,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2048}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:247,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2066}\">\r\n<h2 bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:247,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2066}\">Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:286,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:161,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2105}\">\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:286,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2105}\" data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:289,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2108}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:289,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2108}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:292,&quot;w&quot;:844,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2111}\">Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: M.A. Aronson aan Otto Frank, 3 mei 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:310,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:44,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2129}\" data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:312,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2131}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:312,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2131}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:316,&quot;w&quot;:949,&quot;h&quot;:35,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2135}\">R.P.M. van Rossum,&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:204,&quot;y&quot;:316,&quot;w&quot;:819,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:425,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2135}\">Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau: de ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em> (proefschrift Universteit van Amsterdam, 2012), p. 215 (noot 78).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:355,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:44,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2174}\" data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:357,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2176}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:357,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2176}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:360,&quot;w&quot;:932,&quot;h&quot;:35,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2179}\">Zie noot 1. Uiteindelijk zullen omslag en illustraties gemaakt worden door Kees Kelfkens.<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:593,&quot;y&quot;:360,&quot;w&quot;:3,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:814,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2179}\">&nbsp;</em>In de lente van dat jaar heeft Otto Frank het bureau enkele keren in zijn agenda staan.AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_006: Agenda Otto Frank 1949 (aantekeningen bij 26 april, 24 mei en 11 juni).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:399,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2218}\" data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:402,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2221}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:402,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2221}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:405,&quot;w&quot;:756,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2224}\">Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, &quot;Weet je nog?&quot;,&nbsp;in:&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:552,&quot;y&quot;:405,&quot;w&quot;:96,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:773,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2224}\">Verzameld werk,</em>&nbsp;Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:423,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2242}\" data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:426,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2245}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:426,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2245}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:429,&quot;w&quot;:459,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2248}\">Van Rossum,&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:163,&quot;y&quot;:429,&quot;w&quot;:268,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:384,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2248}\">Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau</em>, p. 236 (noot 102).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address:&nbsp;</strong>Herengracht 168, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Prad was an advertising agency that Otto Frank was in contact with after the war. Before the war, Maurice Aronson had been very successful with his advertising agency Arc&#39;s. When he set up another agency after the war, he again looked for a four-letter name. He considered choosing &#39;Prograd&#39; (&#39;progression and advertising&#39;), but eventually accepted his wife&#39;s suggestion to call the business &#39;Prad&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1949</strong>, Prad agency offered Otto Frank two proof drawings, made by (Arthur) Goldsteen, for the proposed publication of the little story written by Anne while in hiding, <em>Do you remember? </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> <sup data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1963</strong>, Prad was one of the largest advertising agencies in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: M.A. Aronson aan Otto Frank, 3 mei 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M. van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau: de ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em> (proefschrift Universteit van Amsterdam, 2012), p. 215 (noot 78).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie noot 1. Uiteindelijk zullen omslag en illustraties gemaakt worden door Kees Kelfkens.<em>&nbsp;</em>In de lente van dat jaar heeft Otto Frank het bureau enkele keren in zijn agenda staan.AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_006: Agenda Otto Frank 1949 (aantekeningen bij 26 april, 24 mei en 11 juni).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Tales and Events from the Secret Annex, &quot;Do You Remember?&quot;, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty; transl. from the German language by Kirsten Warner and transl. from the Dutch language by Nancy Forest-Flier]. London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4729-6491-5.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau</em>, p. 236 (noot 102).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88691 52.37433)",
                "summary": "Prad was an advertising agency Otto Frank was in contact with after the war.",
                "summary_nl": "Prad was reclamebureau waar Otto Frank na de oorlog contact mee had.",
                "summary_en": "Prad was an advertising agency Otto Frank was in contact with after the war.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Herengracht 168",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 90,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.341072",
                "longitude": "4.89387",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 110,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/9e8d5ed0-2487-48bc-9a05-8c593599f121/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7f401256-5ce0-43cd-a15a-94336d90290d",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/780d0c9f-f8fa-4ab1-89a0-515fd117716c",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/b7ed3286-394a-4bc0-b6b8-9e52c196b353"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/36a662f9-f828-44ad-9609-bd8901c723f4",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "9e8d5ed0-2487-48bc-9a05-8c593599f121",
                        "name": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Rivierenlaan",
                        "name_nl": "Fritz Pfeffer ingeschreven op de Rivierenlaan",
                        "name_en": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Rivierenlaan",
                        "content": "<p>He&nbsp;lived here with landlady Stephanie Meijer-Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he also met Otto Frank, of whom Meijer-Schuster was a childhood friend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Charlotte Kaletta continued to live here during the occupation years. Koos Vorrink, a prominent member of the SDAP,&nbsp;also lived at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Hij woonde hier bij hospita Stephanie Meijer - Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hier leerde hij ook Otto Frank kennen, van wie Meijer - Schuster een jeugdvriendin&nbsp;was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Charlotte Kaletta bleef hier gedurende de bezettingsjaren wonen. Ook SDAP-prominent&nbsp;Koos Vorrink woonde&nbsp;op dit adres.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>He&nbsp;lived here with landlady Stephanie Meijer-Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he also met Otto Frank, of whom Meijer-Schuster was a childhood friend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Charlotte Kaletta continued to live here during the occupation years. Koos Vorrink, a prominent member of the SDAP,&nbsp;also lived at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1940-05-19",
                        "date_end": "1940-06-17",
                        "summary": "Pfeffer moved in here shortly after the German invasion and stayed for about a month.",
                        "summary_nl": "Pfeffer trok hier kort na de Duitse inval in en verbleef er ongeveer een maand.",
                        "summary_en": "Pfeffer moved in here shortly after the German invasion and stayed for about a month.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124556,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                "content": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89387 52.341072)",
                "summary": "Home of Stephanie Meijer-Schuster. Fritz Pfeffer was registered at this address for a month. His wife Charlotte Kaletta lived here from 1940 to 1946. Prominent SDAP member Koos Vorrink, a leading social-democrat, also lived at this address. Currently President Kennedylaan.",
                "summary_nl": "Woning van Stephanie Meijer-Schuster. Op dit adres stond Fritz Pfeffer een maand ingeschreven. Zijn vrouw Charlotte Kaletta woonde hier van 1940 tot 1946. Ook prominent SDAP'er Koos Vorrink woonde op dit adres. Tegenwoordig President Kennedylaan.",
                "summary_en": "Home of Stephanie Meijer-Schuster. Fritz Pfeffer was registered at this address for a month. His wife Charlotte Kaletta lived here from 1940 to 1946. Prominent SDAP member Koos Vorrink, a leading social-democrat, also lived at this address. Currently President Kennedylaan.",
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                "street": "Rivierenlaan 270-I",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
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                        "name": "Businesses",
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                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "published": true,
                "name": "Sangostop",
                "name_nl": "Sangostop",
                "name_en": "Sangostop",
                "uuid": "a4257fc0-726f-49b3-9912-80a4aacbacbb",
                "content": "<p><strong>Address</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pb5m9\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company founded on <strong>10 August 1934</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> with which Opekta did business. It&#39;s objective was:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The manufacture of haemostatics and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in these substances and products,&nbsp;&nbsp;and in the raw materials thereof, as well as everything that is related to the above in the broadest sense or can be conducive thereto, and furthermore the cooperation with, the participation in, managing and financing other companies, of whatever nature&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades and Stheeman. On <strong>20 March 1936</strong>, an annual meeting took place in the building of the Hollandsche Bank Unie on the Herengracht, immediately preceding that of Thelopharm N.V.<sup data-footnote-id=\"12s9r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938</strong> the company stood as a creditor in Opekta&#39;s balance sheet for more than four thousand<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ohvl\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> and in <strong>1939</strong> for more than thirteen hundred guilders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"i9zlj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Founder Benno Brahn became a commissioner and vice-chairman of the Supervisory Board of Sangostop that year.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hava4\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to the company&#39;s scientific research, it acquired the publication <em>Die Pektinstoffe</em> by Rudolf Ř&iacute;pa.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ouye5\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Sangostop&#39;s accounting showed various transactions with Opekta. The company supplied goods from <strong>1935</strong> onwards.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cupuz\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> &nbsp;In <strong>November 1940</strong>, there was another delivery of 250 kilos of pectin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x9lgl\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Opekta competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among the buyers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"11pb8\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to Brahn&#39;s Jewish ancestry, he had to give up direct control over his company. On <strong>30&nbsp;August 1943</strong>, the company booked an amount of one hundred and eighty guilders for the &#39;Aryanization of N.V.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ugh5s\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pb5m9\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1940, p. 245.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"12s9r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ohvl\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), A_Opekta_I_003: Balans Opekta, 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i9zlj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, A_Opekta_I_004: Balans Opekta, 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hava4\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ouye5\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Delft (SAD), Nederlandsche Gist- &amp; Spiritusfabriek (NG&amp;SF) (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4684: kasboek N.V. Sangostop, 1936 - 1946, post 488, 26 januari 1938. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cupuz\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF&nbsp;(toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, posten 165, 278 en&nbsp;482.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x9lgl\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4695: verkoopboek Sangostop 1935 &ndash; 1943, 22 november 1940, post 527.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"11pb8\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF&nbsp;(toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, posten 295 en 463.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ugh5s\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF (toegang 188) kasboek Sangostop 1934 &ndash; 1946, 30 augustus 1943, post 963.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pb5m9\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf, opgericht op <strong>10 agustus 1934</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;waarmee Opekta zaken deed.&nbsp;Doelstelling was:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Het fabriceren van bloedstelpende middelen en andere chemische en farmaceutische artikelen, de handel in die middelen en artikelen en in de grondstoffen daarvan, zomede al hetgeen met het bovenstaande in de ruimste zin verband houdt of daaraan bevorderlijk kan zijn en voorts het samenwerken met, het deelnemen in, het voeren van beheer over en het financieren van andere ondernemingen, van welke aard ook&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Sangostop was gelieerd aan Brocades en Stheeman. Op <strong>20 maart 1936</strong> vond er een jaarvergadering plaats in het gebouw van de Hollandsche Bank Unie aan de Herengracht, direct voorafgaand aan die van Thelopharm N.V.&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"12s9r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het bedrijf stond in <strong>1938 </strong>voor ruim vierduizend<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ohvl\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> en in <strong>1939</strong> voor ruim dertienhonderd gulden als crediteur in de balans van Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"i9zlj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Oprichter Benno Brahn werd dat jaar commissaris en vicevoorzitter van de Raad van Commissarissen van Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hava4\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege het wetenschappelijk onderzoek van het bedrijf schafte het de publicatie&nbsp;<em>Die Pektinstoffe</em> van Rudolf Ř&iacute;pa aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ouye5\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Uit de boekhouding van Sangostop bleken diverse transacties met Opekta. Zo leverde&nbsp;het bedrijf vanaf <strong>1935&nbsp;</strong>goederen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ziydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>november 1940</strong>&nbsp;was er nog een levering van 250 kilo pectine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tesn7\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ook Opekta-concurrent Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie en Pomosin Import behoorden&nbsp;tot de afnemers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"11pb8\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege Brahns Joodse afkomst moest hij directe zeggenschap over zijn bedrijf opgeven. De firma boekte op <strong>30 augustus 1943</strong> een bedrag van honderdtachtig gulden voor de &#39; ariseering der N.V.&#39; <sup data-footnote-id=\"ugh5s\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pb5m9\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1940, p. 245.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"12s9r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ohvl\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), A_Opekta_I_003: Balans Opekta, 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i9zlj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, A_Opekta_I_004: Balans Opekta, 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hava4\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ouye5\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Delft (SAD), Nederlandsche Gist- &amp; Spiritusfabriek (NG&amp;SF) (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4684: kasboek N.V. Sangostop, 1936 - 1946, post 488, 26 januari 1938. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ziydh\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF&nbsp;(toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, posten 165, 278 en&nbsp;482</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tesn7\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4695: verkoopboek Sangostop 1935 &ndash; 1943, 22 november 1940, post 527.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"11pb8\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF&nbsp;(toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, posten 295 en 463.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ugh5s\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF (toegang 188) kasboek Sangostop 1934 &ndash; 1946, 30 augustus 1943, post 963.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address</strong>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pb5m9\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company founded on <strong>10 August 1934</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> with which Opekta did business. It&#39;s objective was:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The manufacture of haemostatics and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in these substances and products,&nbsp;&nbsp;and in the raw materials thereof, as well as everything that is related to the above in the broadest sense or can be conducive thereto, and furthermore the cooperation with, the participation in, managing and financing other companies, of whatever nature&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades and Stheeman. On <strong>20 March 1936</strong>, an annual meeting took place in the building of the Hollandsche Bank Unie on the Herengracht, immediately preceding that of Thelopharm N.V.<sup data-footnote-id=\"12s9r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938</strong> the company stood as a creditor in Opekta&#39;s balance sheet for more than four thousand<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ohvl\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> and in <strong>1939</strong> for more than thirteen hundred guilders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"i9zlj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Founder Benno Brahn became a commissioner and vice-chairman of the Supervisory Board of Sangostop that year.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hava4\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to the company&#39;s scientific research, it acquired the publication <em>Die Pektinstoffe</em> by Rudolf Ř&iacute;pa.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ouye5\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Sangostop&#39;s accounting showed various transactions with Opekta. The company supplied goods from <strong>1935</strong> onwards.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cupuz\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> &nbsp;In <strong>November 1940</strong>, there was another delivery of 250 kilos of pectin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x9lgl\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Opekta competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among the buyers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"11pb8\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to Brahn&#39;s Jewish ancestry, he had to give up direct control over his company. On <strong>30&nbsp;August 1943</strong>, the company booked an amount of one hundred and eighty guilders for the &#39;Aryanization of N.V.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ugh5s\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pb5m9\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1940, p. 245.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ctfky\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"12s9r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ohvl\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), A_Opekta_I_003: Balans Opekta, 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i9zlj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, A_Opekta_I_004: Balans Opekta, 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hava4\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ouye5\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Delft (SAD), Nederlandsche Gist- &amp; Spiritusfabriek (NG&amp;SF) (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4684: kasboek N.V. Sangostop, 1936 - 1946, post 488, 26 januari 1938. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cupuz\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF&nbsp;(toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, posten 165, 278 en&nbsp;482.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x9lgl\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF (toegang 188), inv. nr. 4695: verkoopboek Sangostop 1935 &ndash; 1943, 22 november 1940, post 527.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"11pb8\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF&nbsp;(toegang 188), inv. nr. 4683: kasboek Sangostop 1934 - 1935, posten 295 en 463.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ugh5s\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAD, NG&amp;SF (toegang 188) kasboek Sangostop 1934 &ndash; 1946, 30 augustus 1943, post 963.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88128 52.36853)",
                "summary": "Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
                "summary_nl": "Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.",
                "summary_en": "Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
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                "street": "Looiersgracht 25",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
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                "latitude": "52.366204",
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                    {
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/1317e81a-6e2c-45b3-82ec-128d94a69ecd/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/f2004ab1-f62f-43c5-9864-18eea838d81e"
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a7bc55a0-7741-4259-a387-42959e20d899",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "1317e81a-6e2c-45b3-82ec-128d94a69ecd",
                        "name": "Miep Gies worked at Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                        "name_nl": "Hermine Santrouschitz werkzaam bij Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                        "name_en": "Miep Gies worked at Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                        "content": "<p>The firm Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens&#39; Embroidery and Pleating Workshops)&nbsp;was located at 5-9 Nieuwe Herengracht from <strong>1915</strong> to <strong>1938</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Miep Gies worked there for four-and-a-half years after leaving a MULO school, according to her foster parents.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was listed in the staff address book with the address Gaaspstraat 12.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to the Register of Foreign Nationals, she worked in the office at Schellekens for NLG&nbsp;67.50 a month from <strong>1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> She worked there as a typist. At Schellekens she met Jan Gies, who was a bookkeeper there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, inv. nr. 76,&nbsp;Archief Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Gies, Miep: Transcriptie kaart H. Santrouschitz uit Vreemdelingenregister.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>De firma Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers was van <strong>1915</strong> tot <strong>1938</strong> gevestigd aan de Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hermine Santrouschitz, beter bekend als&nbsp;Miep Gies, werkte hier volgens haar pleegouders na het verlaten van de MULO vier&euml;neenhalf jaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Zij stond&nbsp;in het personeelsadresboek met het adres Gaaspstraat 12.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens het Vreemdelingenregister werkte ze van <strong>1 september 1927 tot 1 december 1932</strong> bij Schellekens als kantoorbediende voor fl/ 67,50 per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze werkte daar als&nbsp;typiste. Bij&nbsp;Schellekens leerde ze Jan Gies kennen, die daar boekhouder was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, inv. nr. 76,&nbsp;Archief Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Gies, Miep: Transcriptie kaart H. Santrouschitz uit Vreemdelingenregister.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>The firm Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens&#39; Embroidery and Pleating Workshops)&nbsp;was located at 5-9 Nieuwe Herengracht from <strong>1915</strong> to <strong>1938</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Miep Gies worked there for four-and-a-half years after leaving a MULO school, according to her foster parents.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was listed in the staff address book with the address Gaaspstraat 12.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to the Register of Foreign Nationals, she worked in the office at Schellekens for NLG&nbsp;67.50 a month from <strong>1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> She worked there as a typist. At Schellekens she met Jan Gies, who was a bookkeeper there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, inv. nr. 76,&nbsp;Archief Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Gies, Miep: Transcriptie kaart H. Santrouschitz uit Vreemdelingenregister.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1927-09-01",
                        "date_end": "1932-12-01",
                        "summary": "From 1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932, Miep Gies worked in the office at Schellekens.",
                        "summary_nl": "Van 1 september 1927 tot 1 december 1932 werkte Miep Gies als kantoorbediende bij Schellekens.",
                        "summary_en": "From 1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932, Miep Gies worked in the office at Schellekens.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
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                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/a7bc55a0-7741-4259-a387-42959e20d899/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens Embroidery and Pleating Studios)",
                "name_nl": "Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                "name_en": "Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens Embroidery and Pleating Studios)",
                "uuid": "a7bc55a0-7741-4259-a387-42959e20d899",
                "content": "<p>De firma Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers was van <strong>1915 tot 1938</strong> gevestigd aan de Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Jan Gies werkte hier. Hij woonde in die periode op de adressen Stuyvesantstraat 55 en Maasstraat 10 III, later II.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Die adressen in aanmerking genomen, begon hij bij Schellekens tussen eind <strong>december 1928</strong> en <strong>juli 1931</strong>. Hij ging weg tussen <strong>september 1931</strong> en <strong>januari 1936</strong>.&nbsp;Volgens Miep, die Jan hier heeft leren kennen, werkte hij er als boekhouder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers, toegang 30498: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers , inv. nr. 76:&nbsp;Adresboek personeel Schellekens.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>De firma Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers was van <strong>1915 tot 1938</strong> gevestigd aan de Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Jan Gies werkte hier. Hij woonde in die periode op de adressen Stuyvesantstraat 55 en Maasstraat 10 III, later II.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Die adressen in aanmerking genomen, begon hij bij Schellekens tussen eind <strong>december 1928</strong> en <strong>juli 1931</strong>. Hij ging weg tussen <strong>september 1931</strong> en <strong>januari 1936</strong>.&nbsp;Volgens Miep, die Jan hier heeft leren kennen, werkte hij er als boekhouder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers, toegang 30498: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers , inv. nr. 76:&nbsp;Adresboek personeel Schellekens.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.902096 52.366204)",
                "summary": "Jan and Miep Gies worked for this company.",
                "summary_nl": "Jan en Miep Gies waren werkzaam bij dit bedrijf.",
                "summary_en": "Jan and Miep Gies worked for this company.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
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                "id": 21,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.344765",
                "longitude": "4.871053",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 60,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/efa69dae-5da8-49a6-b62d-8723d8af7e57/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5ea902c2-a419-4311-bd4b-7b1519c94f23",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
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                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/659045cf-8d0e-4f12-831d-b1e75fc74397",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f"
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/07627e87-1438-47e2-a29c-847e27ce51c8",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "efa69dae-5da8-49a6-b62d-8723d8af7e57",
                        "name": "Otto Frank rents a room in Amsterdam",
                        "name_nl": "Otto Frank huurt een kamer in Amsterdam",
                        "name_en": "Otto Frank rents a room in Amsterdam",
                        "content": "<p>In <strong>July 1933</strong> Otto Frank started his Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij. On the fourth of that month the first demonstration of the new company&#39;s product took place in Heerlen. A few weeks later, on <strong>16 August</strong>, he formally moved to Amsterdam, where he initially occupied a room in the house of Marianne van Buren, a lodger on Stadionkade. On <strong>5 December</strong> he and Edith moved into the house at Merwedeplein 37-II.</p>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In <strong>juli 1933</strong> startte Otto Frank zijn Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij. Op de vierde van die maand vond&nbsp;in Heerlen de eerste demonstratie&nbsp;van het product van het nieuwe bedrijf plaats. Enkele weken later, op <strong>16 augustus</strong>, vestigde hij zich formeel in Amsterdam, waar hij aanvankelijk een kamer in het huis van kamerverhuurster Marianne van Buren aan de Stadionkade bewoonde. Op <strong>5 december</strong> betrok hij met Edith de woning Merwedeplein 37-II.</p>",
                        "content_en": "<p>In <strong>July 1933</strong> Otto Frank started his Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij. On the fourth of that month the first demonstration of the new company&#39;s product took place in Heerlen. A few weeks later, on <strong>16 August</strong>, he formally moved to Amsterdam, where he initially occupied a room in the house of Marianne van Buren, a lodger on Stadionkade. On <strong>5 December</strong> he and Edith moved into the house at Merwedeplein 37-II.</p>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1933-08-16",
                        "date_end": "1933-12-05",
                        "summary": "Otto Frank lived in a room in Amsterdam for some time to prepare for his family's new life.",
                        "summary_nl": "Otto Frank woonde enige tijd op een kamer in Amsterdam om het nieuwe bestaan van zijn gezin voor te bereiden.",
                        "summary_en": "Otto Frank lived in a room in Amsterdam for some time to prepare for his family's new life.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
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                        "id": 396124556,
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
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                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
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                "name_en": "Stadionkade 24-II",
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                "content": "",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.871053 52.344765)",
                "summary": "Address of Otto Frank in Amsterdam in 1933.",
                "summary_nl": "Adres van Otto Frank in Amsterdam in 1933.",
                "summary_en": "Address of Otto Frank in Amsterdam in 1933.",
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                "street": "Stadionkade 24-II",
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                "city": "Amsterdam",
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                "land": "Nederland",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/d86fae9b-9972-47e4-a2d0-09c32813e274/",
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                        "name": "Formation of N.V. Sangostop",
                        "name_nl": "Oprichting van N.V. Sangostop",
                        "name_en": "Formation of N.V. Sangostop",
                        "content": "<p>The objective of the company founded by Benno Brahn was &quot;the manufacture of haemostatic agents and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in those agents and articles, and in their raw materials.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman and with Thelopharm. Sangostop&#39;s&nbsp;records show several transactions with&nbsp;Opekta. Opekta&#39;s competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among its customers.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Doelstelling van het bedrijf door Benno Brahn opgerichte bedrijf was &#39;<em>het fabriceren van bloedstelpende middelen en andere chemische en farmaceutische artikelen, de handel in die middelen en artikelen en in de grondstoffen daarvan</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was gelieerd aan Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman en aan Thelopharm.&nbsp;Uit de boekhouding van Sangostop blijken diverse transacties met Opekta.&nbsp;Ook Opekta-concurrent Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie en Pomosin Import behoorden&nbsp;tot de afnemers.&nbsp;​</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>The objective of the company founded by Benno Brahn was &quot;the manufacture of haemostatic agents and other chemical and pharmaceutical articles, the trade in those agents and articles, and in their raw materials.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Sangostop was affiliated with Brocades &amp;&nbsp;Stheeman and with Thelopharm. Sangostop&#39;s&nbsp;records show several transactions with&nbsp;Opekta. Opekta&#39;s competitors Nederlandsche Pectine Industrie and Pomosin Import were also among its customers.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ya5u7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Kamer van Koophandel Delft, Handelsregister 1921 &ndash; 1995 (toegang 3.17.19), inv. nr. 508, dossier 16118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1934-03-10",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "​Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
                        "summary_nl": "​Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n​",
                        "summary_en": "​Sangostop was a pharmaceutical company with which Opekta did business.",
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                        "files": []
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                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name_en": "Thelopharm, N.V.",
                "uuid": "caa75771-165a-46ed-a848-c3a9df9eb52c",
                "content": "<p><strong>Addresss</strong>:&nbsp;Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0grke\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop<sup data-footnote-id=\"snsll\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and the brothers Max and Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Max Brahn was director of Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> On <strong>20 March 1936</strong>, an annual meeting took place in the building of the Hollandsche Bank Unie, immediately following that of Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was also affiliated with Brocades Stheeman. It engaged in the manufacturing and trading of pharmaceutical and chemical products. Max Brahn became a commissioner and vice-chairman of the Supervisory Board of Thelopharm in <strong>November 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1943</strong> the registered capital amounted to one hundred thousand guilders, of which twenty-four thousand had been issued.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>1945</strong>, Thelopharm owned a Canadian patent on an insulin application invented by Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0grke\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 271.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snsll\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zakenrelatie van Otto Frank. Otto Frank heeft Brahns telefoonnummer in zijn agenda&#39;s genoteerd van <strong>1937</strong> en <strong>1946</strong> t/m <strong>1952</strong>.&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. codes OFA_001 en 003 t/m 009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart M. Brahn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>N.E. Onnes Rost wordt voorzitter. &ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden</em>, 19 oktober 1943, p. 6.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Canadian Intellectual Property Office, <a href=\"http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html</a> (geraadpleegd 14 juli 2017).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>:&nbsp;Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0grke\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Thelopharm was een farmaceutisch bedrijf gelieerd aan Sangostop<sup data-footnote-id=\"snsll\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> en aan de broers Max en Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Max Brahn was directeur van Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Op <strong>20 maart 1936 </strong>vond er een jaarvergadering plaats in het gebouw van de Hollandsche Bank Unie, direct volgend op die van Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De firma was ook gelieerd aan Brocades Stheeman. Ze deed de vervaardiging van en handel in farmaceutische en chemische producten. Max Brahn werd in <strong>november</strong> <strong>1939 </strong>commissaris en vicevoorzitter van de Raad van Commissarissen van Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1943 </strong>bedroeg het maatschappelijk kapitaal honderdduizend gulden, waarvan vierentwintigduizend geplaatst was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Thelopharm was in <strong>1945 </strong>eigenaar van een Canadees patent op een door Benno Brahn uitgevonden insulinetoepassing.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0grke\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 271.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snsll\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zakenrelatie van Otto Frank. Otto Frank heeft Brahns telefoonnummer in zijn agenda&#39;s genoteerd van <strong>1937</strong> en <strong>1946</strong> t/m <strong>1952</strong>.&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. codes OFA_001 en 003 t/m 009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart M. Brahn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>N.E. Onnes Rost wordt voorzitter. &ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden</em>, 19 oktober 1943, p. 6.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Canadian Intellectual Property Office,<a href=\"http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html</a> (geraadpleegd 14 juli 2017).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Addresss</strong>:&nbsp;Looiersgracht 25, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0grke\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop<sup data-footnote-id=\"snsll\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and the brothers Max and Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Max Brahn was director of Thelopharm.<sup data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> On <strong>20 March 1936</strong>, an annual meeting took place in the building of the Hollandsche Bank Unie, immediately following that of Sangostop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was also affiliated with Brocades Stheeman. It engaged in the manufacturing and trading of pharmaceutical and chemical products. Max Brahn became a commissioner and vice-chairman of the Supervisory Board of Thelopharm in <strong>November 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1943</strong> the registered capital amounted to one hundred thousand guilders, of which twenty-four thousand had been issued.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>1945</strong>, Thelopharm owned a Canadian patent on an insulin application invented by Benno Brahn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0grke\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst voor den interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, z.p.: Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 271.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snsll\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sangostop was een farmaceutisch bedrijf waarmee Opekta zaken deed.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3z0yq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zakenrelatie van Otto Frank. Otto Frank heeft Brahns telefoonnummer in zijn agenda&#39;s genoteerd van <strong>1937</strong> en <strong>1946</strong> t/m <strong>1952</strong>.&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. codes OFA_001 en 003 t/m 009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"40kqs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart M. Brahn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4hlrf\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Vergaderingen&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 20 maart 1936 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d96vo\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>N.E. Onnes Rost wordt voorzitter. &ldquo;Handelsregister. Wijzigingen November 1939&rdquo;, <em>Pharmaceutisch Weekblad</em>.<em> Orgaan van de Nederlandsche Maatschappij ter bevordering van de Pharmacie</em>, 6 januari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic3jl\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden</em>, 19 oktober 1943, p. 6.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f92k1\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Canadian Intellectual Property Office, <a href=\"http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://brevets-patents.ic.gc.ca/opic-cipo/cpd/eng/patent/425759/summary.html</a> (geraadpleegd 14 juli 2017).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88128 52.36853)",
                "summary": "Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop. Opekta did business with Sangostop.",
                "summary_nl": "Thelopharm was een farmaceutisch bedrijf gelieerd aan Sangostop. Opekta deed zaken met Sangostop.",
                "summary_en": "Thelopharm was a pharmaceutical company affiliated with Sangostop. Opekta did business with Sangostop.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": [
                    279
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
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            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 137,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.36208",
                "longitude": "4.88841",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124628,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/c3233be2-3492-455a-94e0-74b662bf1976/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "c3233be2-3492-455a-94e0-74b662bf1976",
                        "name": "Pectacon N.V., Handelsmaatschappij",
                        "name_nl": "Pectacon N.V., Handelsmaatschappij",
                        "name_en": "Pectacon N.V., Handelsmaatschappij",
                        "description": "<p>Opekta&#39;s pectin business was seasonal, as fruit was only available in the summer and late summer. To smooth out the sales fluctuations that resulted from this, Otto Frank looked for other products. He found these in <strong>1938</strong> at Pectacon, a trading company in spices and preservatives, which he took over from Johannes Kleiman and Antonius Dunselman shortly after its foundation.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Founding</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong><strong>1 June 1938</strong>: </strong>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., a company for trading and manufacturing chemical products and foodstuffs, was founded by Jo Kleiman and Ton Dunselman before notary E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> As early as <strong>21 October 1938</strong>, Otto Frank took over the shares from the founders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Pectacon imported raw materials from Hungary and Belgium; sales were also made to Belgium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn its <strong>1939 </strong>annual report, Opekta noted its cooperation with Pectacon. Pectacon&#39;s trade, unlike Opekta&#39;s, was mainly concentrated in the winter months. Opekta hoped to benefit from the cooperation the following year.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Volume and nature of trade</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>May &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon registered a logo with the explanation:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Type of goods: herbs and spices and substitutes for herbs and spices; chemicals and flavourings (aromas) for flavouring and/or preserving food and beverages; pharmaceuticals, medicines, chemicals for medical and hygienic purposes; drying agents; cereal and flour products; starches and starch products; sweeteners; odouriferous substances and flavourings; tea, coffee, cocoa, honey and substitutes for these products; juices, broths and extracts of meat, fish, molluscs and crustaceans, plants, seeds and fruits in liquid, solid or paste form food or beverage colours; soups and soup preparations; yeast and yeast substitutes, raising agents, baking creams, baking powders; custard powders, sauce or gravy preparations, preserved vegetables (for example, ginger, angelica, sucade) malt, malt extract and other malt products, food preparations and beverages consisting essentially of malt, malt extract or malt products; dietetic foodstuffs, vitamin preparations; pectin, binders; polishing, scouring and cleaning preparations.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qes54\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Pectacon&nbsp;did business with spice broker Van Jinnelt, among other parties. In <strong>September </strong>and <strong>October &#39;39</strong>, the following goods arrived through this business partner:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of white Batavia Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>4 bales of Ambon nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>27/2 (?) crates of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>5 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of Menado nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>3 crates of Banda mace.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Cassia Lignea (cinnamon).</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of black Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>37 bales of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>About 1 tonne of white Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Jamaica allspice.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Some of these goods the company sold on immediately. Others were processed first. During this period, Pectacon supplied grocery chain SPAR:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>110 x 1 kg white pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>225 &quot; black pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>149 &quot; ground cinnamon.</li>\r\n\t<li>25 &quot; ground nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>12 &quot; ground allspice.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Another 1,000 kg of Moroccan coriander arrived in <strong>January &#39;41</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>October &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon sold to sausage seasoning business EFWEKA:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>20 kg clove flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2&nbsp;p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg pepper flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>50 kg nutmeg flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg nutmeg emulsion, NLG&nbsp;8.50 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>200 kg citric acid, NLG&nbsp;1.30 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>450 kg boric acid scales, NLG&nbsp;0.36 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>245 kg of soup flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2.05 p/kg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Here we see&nbsp;the first surrogate products already emerging.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Initially, the company benefitted from the reform of the Dutch food supply. The reduction in livestock boosted the meat processing industry, for which Pectacon produced spice mixes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Unlike Opekta, production activities for this company took place on the premises. To this end, Pectacon purchased two spice mills from Peppink in <strong>early 1941</strong>, which it resold to Gies &amp; Co when it was &#39;aryanised&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 March 1942</strong>, the ascription of the licence passed to Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>By <strong>September 1941</strong>, the company already had more than 22,000 guilders in undistributed profits on its balance sheet. That was eleven times as much as the paid-in share capital at the <strong>end of 1938</strong>. In short, until its liquidation, Pectacon was an extremely profitable company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Aryanisation</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>22 October 1940</strong>: promulgation of&nbsp;<em>Verordnung &uuml;ber die Anmeldung von Unternehmen</em> (VO 189/40), published <strong>26 October 1940</strong>. This regulation required Jewish owners to register their businesses. It was the first step in the so-called <em>Wirtschaftsentjudung</em> (business &#39;aryanisation&#39;).</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>23 October 1940</strong>: because Otto Frank was managing director of Pectacon and to have an alternative in the wings in case of forced aryanisation, La Synth&egrave;se was founded with Kugler as managing director and Jan Gies as supervisory director. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, this firm adopted the name N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies &amp; Co. Its objective and operations were similar to those of Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"09dde\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to its own statement, it was decided at the shareholders&#39; meeting on <strong>13 February 1941</strong> to place the shares still in the portfolio worth NLG 8,000. On<strong> 4 April 1941</strong>, the founders Kleiman and Dunselman paid NLG 5,000 and NLG 3,000 respectively in this context.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-5\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> As a result, Otto&#39;s share in the share capital dropped to 20 per cent. This meant that his share thus fell below the crucial limit of 25 per cent, which was the criterion for a &#39;Jewish&#39; company and thus for registration with the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>New interim certificates for the newly issued shares were issued on <strong>4 April 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>12 September 1941</strong>: K.O.M. Wolters was appointed administrator of Pectacon under section 7 of the <em>Ordinance for the Removal of Jews from Business</em>, with instructions to liquidate the company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Kleiman and Otto went to Wolters&#39; office to discuss the matter. Wolters agreed to Kleiman&#39;s proposal to initiate liquidation&nbsp;himself within eight to 10 days. This allowed Kleiman and Otto to channel machinery and stock to Gies &amp; Co, then still in Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> They sold almost everything at a loss to Gies &amp; Co. Only the office inventory made a profit; they sold it to Wolters himself.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-6\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The loss made during the liquidation was 14,000 guilders.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The balance after liquidation was 18,000 guilders. Kleiman received 5,000 guilders and Dunselman 3,000 guilders. The remaining 10,000 guilders, after deducting 2,300 guilders for the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>, was deposited at the bank Lippmann-Rosenthal-Sarphatistraat. Gies &amp; Co. moved to Prinsengracht 263; Pectacon was located at Rokin 6, Wolters&#39; office (the Peek &amp; Cloppenburg building on Dam Square in Amsterdam) during the liquidation phase.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Moreover, the distribution of the liquidation value went against Wolters&#39; proposal. The latter had in fact proposed to divide the remaining balance in proportion to share ownership, i.e. 50 per cent to Kleiman, 30 per cent to Dunselman and the remaining 20 per cent to Lippman, Rosenthal &amp; co Sarphatistraat, in favour of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-7\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In practice, Kleiman and Dunselman only received their <strong>April 1941 </strong>deposit back, with no profit sharing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz, Pectacon was revived.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Restorative justice</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>After <strong>May 1945</strong>, Pectacon was among the companies that could be ex officio re-registered in the Commercial Register pursuant to the London government&#39;s decisions.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>August 1945</strong>, Pectacon was still an &#39;empty shell&#39;, a company without capital. However, Otto wanted the company to produce, among other things, an anti-diarrhoeal agent, an anti-fungal agent and a cleaning agent, all three based on pectin. This was still based on the idea of overcoming seasonal fluctuations in Opekta sales.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>November 1945</strong>, Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman were listed as directors. Sole proxy was Victor Kugler, with general power of attorney: &#39;<em>As also granted to the director according to the articles of association&#39; .&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Otto wrote in <strong>June 1947</strong> that he was struggling in business. He wanted to do something in textiles and artificial silk, but the established businesses did not tolerate newcomers. He then restricted himself to chemicals and foodstuffs, Pectacon&#39;s core products.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>February 1951</strong>: Kugler and Otto Frank were no longer listed for Pectacon in the Trade Register. Kleiman was sole director and Jeanne Kwakernaak secretary with general power of attorney.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1952</strong>, Ton Dunselman was still a supervisory director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"egeux\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1954</strong>, Otto Frank owned NLG&nbsp;2,000 worth of shares in Pectacon (and NLG&nbsp;20,000 worth of Opekta shares and NLG&nbsp;9,000 worth of shares in Gies &amp; Co).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>March 1955</strong>, Pectacon paid J. Dikker commission for February, on which turnover tax was paid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1959</strong>: After Kleiman&#39;s death, J. Dikker became director of Pectacon. He established contacts with manufacturers of ice cream (including Davino, De Hoop, Mari&euml;ndaal) and chocolate (including Verkade, Rademakers). He also established contacts with companies in pudding production and bakery ingredients.</li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>April 1959</strong>: When negotiations were held in <strong>1959 </strong>leading to Opekta&#39;s takeover by Opekta-Keulen, Pectacon was left out of this share transaction. According to Ms Kwakernaak, besides Opekta, &#39;Cologne&#39; was also keen to take over Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A son of Joop Hofhuis wanted to buy Opekta in <strong>1959</strong>, but missed out. Years later, he met Kleiman&#39;s successor, J. Dikker, at Pectacon and subsequently took over the company after all. <sup data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> This was around <strong>1977</strong>. In an interview with Dineke Stam, dated <strong>10 December 1997</strong>, Hofhuis said he bought Pectacon &quot;20 years ago&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> Pectacon continued to exist as Hofhuis F.I.A. Pectacon BV, with the Chamber of Commerce number 31019094.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nWhen and how Otto disposed of his Pectacon shares is unclear at the moment, in the absence of sources.<br />\r\n<br />\r\n<em>Addresses</em>: Singel 400, Amsterdam; Prinsengracht 263, Amsterdam; Rokin 6 (Wolters office), Amsterdam.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2><strong>Footnotes</strong></h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938. De kosten van de oprichting bedroegen fl. 245,40. Passeren van de akte: fl. 125,--. Registratierechten: fl. 50,--. Publicatie Staatscourant fl. 40,40. Honorarium Dunselman fl. 30,-- (rekening Dunselman, 10 juni 1938).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20nod\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-4\">d</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-5\">e</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-6\">f</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-7\">g</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Facsimile afdruk Pectacons registratie bij Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle 27 november 1940 in: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 13.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: Opekta jaarverslag 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qes54\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis, Hilversum:&nbsp;Bewijs van Registratie (bij Van der Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Merkenbureau), 26 mei 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_001: &#39;Biblioraftus&#39; met doorslagen van rekeningen firma M.P. van Jinnelt. Alle bovenstaande transacties staan hierin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>G.M.T. Trienekens, <em>Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940-1945</em>, Utrecht: Matrijs, 1985.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"09dde\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij (Archief Opekta), toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 3.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag (NL-HaNA), Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging (CABR), inv. nr. 76428: Schrijven Secretaris-generaal Handel, Nijverheid en Scheepvaart aan Kamer van Koophandel, 29 september 1941.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"stmej\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, CABR, inv. nr. 76428: Getuigenverklaringen Otto Frank en Kleiman inzake Wolters&rsquo; naoorlogse strafzaak.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, Archief Opekta: toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), ref. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_085: Otto Frank aan Joseph Spronz, 17 juni 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Afschrift Handelsregsiter, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"egeux\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis:&nbsp;Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 januari 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 005_A_Kleiman_I_05.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_021, 17 maart 1955. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_075A: W. Kwakernaak aan Otto Frank, 8 april 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis: Verslag interview met F. Hofhuis jr., afgenomen door Yt Stoker op 13 maart 2002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telefonische informatie Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, 18 oktober 2008.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De pectinehandel van Opekta was seizoensgebonden omdat fruit alleen in de zomer en nazomer verkrijgbaar was. Om de omzetfluctuaties die hier het gevolg van waren af te vlakken, zocht&nbsp;Otto Frank andere producten. Die&nbsp;vond&nbsp;hij&nbsp;in <strong>1938</strong> bij&nbsp;Pectacon, handelsonderneming in specerijen en conserveermiddelen, dat hij vlak na oprichting overnam&nbsp;van Johannes Kleiman en Antonius Dunselman.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Oprichting</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>1 juni 1938</strong>: Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., een bedrijf voor handel en fabricatie van chemische producten en levensmiddelen, werd&nbsp;opgericht door Jo Kleiman en Ton&nbsp;Dunselman bij notaris E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Al op <strong>21 oktober 1938</strong> nam&nbsp;Otto Frank de aandelen over van de oprichters.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Grondstoffen importeerde&nbsp;Pectacon uit Hongarije en Belgi&euml;; naar Belgi&euml; vond&nbsp;ook afzet plaats.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In het jaarverslag van <strong>1939</strong> maakte&nbsp;Opekta melding van de samenwerking met Pectacon. De handel van Pectacon was, in tegenstelling tot die van Opekta, voornamelijk in de wintermaanden geconcentreerd. Opekta hoopte het volgende jaar van de samenwerking te kunnen profiteren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Omvang en aard van de handel</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>mei &#39;41</strong> registreerde&nbsp;Pectacon een beeldmerk met daarbij de toelichting:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Soort der waren: kruiden en specerijen en vervangingsmiddelen voor kruiden en specerijen; chemische producten en smaakstoffen (aroma&#39;s) voor het aromatiseeren en/of conserveeren van voedings- en genotmiddelen en dranken; pharmaceutische producten, medicijnen, chemische producten voor medische en hygi&euml;nische doeleinden; drogerijen; graan- en meelproducten; zetmeel en zetmeelproducten; zoetstoffen; reuk- en smaakessences; thee, koffie, cacao, honing en vervangingsstoffen voor deze waren; sappen, bouillon en extracten van vleesch, visch, week- en schaaldieren, planten, zaden en vruchten in vloeibaren-, vasten- en pastavorm; kleurstoffen voor voedings- en genotmiddelen en dranken; soepen en soeppreparaten; gist en gistpreparaten, rijsmiddelen, bakkerijcr&ecirc;mes, bakpoeders; puddingpoeders, saus- en juspreparaten, geconserveerde plantendeelen (zooals gember, angelique, sucade); mout, moutextract en andere moutproducten, voedings- en genotmiddelen en dranken, die in hoofdzaak bestaan uit mout, moutextract of moutproducten; di&euml;tische voedingsmiddelen, vitaminepreparaten; pectine, bindmiddelen; poets-, polijst-, schuur- en reinigingsmiddelen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qes54\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Pectacon deed&nbsp;onder meer zaken met makelaar in specerijen Van Jinnelt. In <strong>september </strong>en<strong> oktober &#39;39</strong> kwamen via deze zakenpartner de volgende goederen binnen:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>10 balen witte Batavia Muntok peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>4 balen Ambon nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>27/2 (?) kisten Siauw nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>5 balen Java nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 balen Lampong peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>10 balen Menado nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>3 kisten Banda foeliegruis.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 balen Cassia Lignea (kaneel).</li>\r\n\t<li>10 balen zwarte Lampong peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>37 balen Siauw nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>Ca. 1 ton witte Muntok peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 balen Jamaica piment.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 balen Java nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Sommige van deze goederen verkocht&nbsp;het bedrijf meteen door. Andere werden eerst verwerkt. In deze periode leverde&nbsp;Pectacon aan de kruideniersketen SPAR:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>110 x 1 kg witte peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>225&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; zwarte peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>149&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; gemalen kaneel.</li>\r\n\t<li>25&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; gemalen nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; gemalen piment.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>januari &#39;41</strong> kwam er nog eens 1000 kg Marokkaanse koriander.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>oktober &#39;41</strong> verkocht Pectacon aan worstkruidenhandel EFWEKA:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>20 kg kruidnagelaroma, f 2,- p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg peperaroma, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>50 kg nootmuskaataroma, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg nootmuskaatemulsie, f 8,50 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>200 kg citroenzuur, f 1,30 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>450 kg boorzuurschubben, f 0,36 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>245 kg soeparoma, f 2,05 p/kg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Hier waren al de eerste surrogaatproducten in opkomst.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In eerste instantie profiteerde&nbsp;het bedrijf van de&nbsp;hervorming van de Nederlandse voedselvoorziening. De reductie van de veestapel stimuleerde&nbsp;de vleesverwerkende industrie, waarvoor Pectacon kruidenmengels produceerde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In tegenstelling tot Opekta vonden er voor dit bedrijf wel productieactiviteiten plaats in het pand. Daarvoor schafte Pectacon <strong>begin 1941</strong>&nbsp;bij&nbsp;Peppink twee specerijmolens aan, die het bij de &#39;arisering&#39; weer doorverkocht aan Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op&nbsp;<strong>25 maart 1942</strong>&nbsp;ging&nbsp;de tenaamstelling van de vergunning over op Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>september&nbsp;1941</strong>&nbsp;had&nbsp;het bedrijf al meer dan 22.000 gulden aan onverdeelde winsten op de balans staan. Dat was&nbsp;elf&nbsp;maal zoveel als het ingelegde aandelenkapitaal van <strong>eind 1938</strong>. Kortom, tot aan de liquidatie was&nbsp;Pectacon een uitermate winstgevende onderneming.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Arisering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>22 oktober 1940:</strong> afkondiging <em>Verordnung &uuml;ber die Anmeldung von Unternehmen</em> (VO 189/40), gepubliceerd <strong>26 oktober 1940</strong>. Deze verordening verplichtte Joodse eigenaren hun bedrijven aan te melden. Het was de eerste stap in de zogenaamde <em>Wirtschaftsentjudung</em>&nbsp;(bedrijfseconomische &#39;arisering&#39;).</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>23 oktober 1940:</strong> omdat Otto Frank directeur was&nbsp;van Pectacon en om bij gedwongen arisering een alternatief achter de hand te hebben&nbsp;werd&nbsp;La Synth&egrave;se opgericht&nbsp;met Kugler als directeur en Jan Gies als commissaris. Op <strong>8 mei 1941</strong> nam&nbsp;deze firma de naam N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies &amp; Co&nbsp;aan. De doelstelling en de werkzaamheden waren gelijk aan die van Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"09dde\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens eigen opgave werd op de aandeelhoudersvergadering van&nbsp;<strong>13&nbsp;februari 1941</strong> besloten de&nbsp;zich nog in portefeuille bevindende aandelen terwaarde van fl. 8.000 te plaatsen. Op <strong>4 april 1941</strong>&nbsp;stortten de oprichters Kleiman en Dunselman hiertoe respectievelijk fl. 5.000 en fl. 3.000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-5\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Als gevolg hiervan zakte Otto&#39;s aandeel in het aandelenkapitaal naar 20 procent.&nbsp;Dat betekende dat zijn aandeel daarmee&nbsp;onder de cruciale grens van 25 procent kwam, die gold als criterium van een &#39;Joodse&#39; onderneming en zodoende voor aanmelding bij de <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>4 april 1941 </strong>werden nieuwe interimbewijzen voor de nieuw uitgegeven aandelen verstrekt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>12 september 1941:</strong> K.O.M. Wolters werd&nbsp;op grond van paragraaf 7 van de&nbsp;<em>Verordening tot verwijdering van joden uit het bedrijfsleven</em>&nbsp;tot bewindvoerder van Pectacon aangesteld, met de opdracht het bedrijf te liquideren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kleiman en Otto gingen naar Wolters&rsquo; kantoor om de zaak te bespreken. Wolters ging&nbsp;akkoord met Kleimans voorstel om zelf in&nbsp;acht tot&nbsp;tien dagen tot liquidatie over te gaan. Daardoor hadden Kleiman en Otto de mogelijkheid machines en voorraden door te sluizen naar Gies &amp; Co., toen nog in Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Ze verkochten vrijwel&nbsp;alles met verlies aan Gies &amp; Co. Alleen op de kantoorinventaris&nbsp;werd&nbsp;winst gemaakt; die verkochten ze aan Wolters zelf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-6\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het gemaakte verlies tijdens de liquidatie bedroeg 14.000 gulden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het saldo na liquidatie bedroeg 18.000 gulden. Kleiman kreeg&nbsp;5.000 gulden en Dunselman 3.000 gulden. De resterende 10.000 gulden werd&nbsp;na aftrek van 2.300 gulden voor de <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>, gestort bij de bank Lippmann-Rosenthal-Sarphatistraat. Gies &amp; Co. verhuisde&nbsp;naar Prinsengracht 263; Pectacon was tijdens de liquidatiefase&nbsp;gevestigd op&nbsp;Rokin 6, Wolters&rsquo; kantoor (het Peek &amp; Cloppenburg-gebouw op de Dam in Amsterdam).<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> De verdeling van de liquidatiewaarde ging overigens in tegen het voorstel van Wolters. Die had namelijk voorgesteld het resterende saldo naar rato van het aandelenbezit te verdelen, d.w.z.&nbsp;50 procent naar Kleiman, 30 procent naar Dunselman en de resterende 20 procent&nbsp;naar&nbsp;Lippman, Rosenthal &amp; co Sarphatistraat, ten gunste van Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-7\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; In praktijk ontvingen Kleiman en Dunselman alleen hun inleg uit <strong>april 1941</strong> retour, zonder winstdeling.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen Otto Frank uit Auschwitz terugkwam werd&nbsp;Pectacon nieuw leven ingeblazen.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Rechtsherstel</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Na <strong>mei 1945</strong> behoorde&nbsp;Pectacon tot de bedrijven die ingevolge de besluiten van de Londense regering ambtshalve in het Handelsregister kunnen worden heringeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>augustus 1945</strong>&nbsp;was Pectacon nog een &#39;lege huls&#39;, een bedrijf zonder kapitaal&nbsp;Otto wilde met het bedrijf echter onder meer een anti-diarreemiddel, een anti-schimmelmiddel en een schoonmaakmiddel produceren, alle drie op pectine gebaseerd. Dit nog steeds vanuit de gedachte om de seizoensfluctuaties van de Opekta-omzet te ondervangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>november 1945</strong> stonden&nbsp;Otto Frank en Jo Kleiman&nbsp;als directeur&nbsp;vermeld. Enig procuratiehouder was&nbsp;Victor Kugler, met algemene volmacht: &#39;Z<em>oals deze ook aan de directeur volgens de statuten is toegekend.&#39;&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Otto schreef in <strong>juni 1947</strong> dat hij het zakelijk moeilijk had. Hij wilde iets in textiel en kunstzijde doen, maar de gevestigde bedrijven duldden geen nieuwkomers. Hij beperkte zich toen&nbsp;maar tot&nbsp;chemicali&euml;n en levensmiddelen, de kernproducten van Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>Februari 1951:</strong> Kugler en Otto Frank stonden niet meer voor Pectacon in het Handelsregister. Kleiman was&nbsp;enig directeur en Jeanne Kwakernaak secretaresse met algemene volmacht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>januari 1952</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;Ton Dunselman nog altijd commissaris.<sup data-footnote-id=\"egeux\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In<strong>&nbsp;januari 1954&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;bezat Otto Frank voor fl.&nbsp;2.000 gulden aandelen in Pectacon (en fl. 20.000 gulden aandelen Opekta en fl.&nbsp;9.000 gulden aandelen in Gies &amp; Co).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In<strong> maart 1955&nbsp;</strong><strong> </strong>betaalde&nbsp;Pectacon J. Dikker provisie over februari, waarover omzetbelasting betaald werd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>Januari&nbsp; 1959:</strong> Na het overlijden van Kleiman werd&nbsp;J. Dikker directeur van Pectacon. Hij legde&nbsp;contacten met&nbsp;ijs- (o.a. Davino, De Hoop, Mari&euml;ndaal) en chocoladefabrikanten (o.a. Verkade, Rademakers). Ook legde&nbsp;hij contacten met bedrijven in puddingproductie en bakkerijgrondstoffen.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>April 1959: </strong>Toen in&nbsp;1959 onderhandelingen gevoerd werden die leidden tot de overname van Opekta&nbsp;door&nbsp;Opekta-Keulen,&nbsp;werd&nbsp;Pectacon buiten deze aandelentransactie gehouden.&nbsp;Volgens mw. Kwakernaak wilde &#39;Keulen&#39;, naast Opekta, ook graag Pectacon overnemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Een zoon van Joop Hofhuis wilde in <strong>1959 </strong>Opekta kopen, maar viste achter het net. Jaren later kwam&nbsp;hij Kleimans opvolger, J. Dikker, bij Pectacon tegen en nam&nbsp;het bedrijf vervolgens alsnog over. <sup data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;Dit was rond <strong>1977</strong>. In een interview met Dineke Stam, d.d. 10 december 1997, zei Hofhuis dat hij Pectacon &ldquo;20 jaar geleden&rdquo; kocht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup>&nbsp;Pectacon bestond voort als Hofhuis F.I.A. Pectacon BV, met als KvK-nummer 31019094.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nWanneer en hoe Otto zijn Pectacon-aandelen van de hand deed, is op dit moment bij gebrek aan bronnen niet te zeggen.<br />\r\n<br />\r\n<em>Adressen</em><strong>:&nbsp;</strong>Singel 400, Amsterdam;&nbsp;Prinsengracht 263, Amsterdam;&nbsp;Rokin 6 (kantoor Wolters), Amsterdam.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938. De kosten van de oprichting bedroegen fl. 245,40. Passeren van de akte: fl. 125,--. Registratierechten: fl. 50,--. Publicatie Staatscourant fl. 40,40. Honorarium Dunselman fl. 30,-- (rekening Dunselman, 10 juni 1938).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20nod\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-4\">d</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-5\">e</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-6\">f</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-7\">g</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Facsimile afdruk Pectacons registratie bij Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle 27 november 1940 in: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 13.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: Opekta jaarverslag 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qes54\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis, Hilversum:&nbsp;Bewijs van Registratie (bij Van der Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Merkenbureau), 26 mei 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_001: &#39;Biblioraftus&#39; met doorslagen van rekeningen firma M.P. van Jinnelt. Alle bovenstaande transacties staan hierin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>G.M.T. Trienekens, <em>Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940-1945</em>, Utrecht: Matrijs, 1985.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"09dde\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij (Archief Opekta), toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 3.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag (NL-HaNA), Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging (CABR), inv. nr. 76428: Schrijven Secretaris-generaal Handel, Nijverheid en Scheepvaart aan Kamer van Koophandel, 29 september 1941.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"stmej\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, CABR, inv. nr. 76428: Getuigenverklaringen Otto Frank en Kleiman inzake Wolters&rsquo; naoorlogse strafzaak.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, Archief Opekta: toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), ref. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_085: Otto Frank aan Joseph Spronz, 17 juni 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Afschrift Handelsregsiter, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"egeux\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis:&nbsp;Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 januari 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 005_A_Kleiman_I_05.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_021, 17 maart 1955. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_075A: W. Kwakernaak aan Otto Frank, 8 april 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis: Verslag interview met F. Hofhuis jr., afgenomen door Yt Stoker op 13 maart 2002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telefonische informatie Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, 18 oktober 2008.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Opekta&#39;s pectin business was seasonal, as fruit was only available in the summer and late summer. To smooth out the sales fluctuations that resulted from this, Otto Frank looked for other products. He found these in <strong>1938</strong> at Pectacon, a trading company in spices and preservatives, which he took over from Johannes Kleiman and Antonius Dunselman shortly after its foundation.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Founding</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong><strong>1 June 1938</strong>: </strong>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., a company for trading and manufacturing chemical products and foodstuffs, was founded by Jo Kleiman and Ton Dunselman before notary E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> As early as <strong>21 October 1938</strong>, Otto Frank took over the shares from the founders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Pectacon imported raw materials from Hungary and Belgium; sales were also made to Belgium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn its <strong>1939 </strong>annual report, Opekta noted its cooperation with Pectacon. Pectacon&#39;s trade, unlike Opekta&#39;s, was mainly concentrated in the winter months. Opekta hoped to benefit from the cooperation the following year.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Volume and nature of trade</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>May &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon registered a logo with the explanation:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Type of goods: herbs and spices and substitutes for herbs and spices; chemicals and flavourings (aromas) for flavouring and/or preserving food and beverages; pharmaceuticals, medicines, chemicals for medical and hygienic purposes; drying agents; cereal and flour products; starches and starch products; sweeteners; odouriferous substances and flavourings; tea, coffee, cocoa, honey and substitutes for these products; juices, broths and extracts of meat, fish, molluscs and crustaceans, plants, seeds and fruits in liquid, solid or paste form food or beverage colours; soups and soup preparations; yeast and yeast substitutes, raising agents, baking creams, baking powders; custard powders, sauce or gravy preparations, preserved vegetables (for example, ginger, angelica, sucade) malt, malt extract and other malt products, food preparations and beverages consisting essentially of malt, malt extract or malt products; dietetic foodstuffs, vitamin preparations; pectin, binders; polishing, scouring and cleaning preparations.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qes54\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Pectacon&nbsp;did business with spice broker Van Jinnelt, among other parties. In <strong>September </strong>and <strong>October &#39;39</strong>, the following goods arrived through this business partner:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of white Batavia Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>4 bales of Ambon nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>27/2 (?) crates of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>5 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of Menado nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>3 crates of Banda mace.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Cassia Lignea (cinnamon).</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of black Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>37 bales of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>About 1 tonne of white Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Jamaica allspice.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Some of these goods the company sold on immediately. Others were processed first. During this period, Pectacon supplied grocery chain SPAR:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>110 x 1 kg white pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>225 &quot; black pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>149 &quot; ground cinnamon.</li>\r\n\t<li>25 &quot; ground nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>12 &quot; ground allspice.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Another 1,000 kg of Moroccan coriander arrived in <strong>January &#39;41</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>October &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon sold to sausage seasoning business EFWEKA:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>20 kg clove flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2&nbsp;p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg pepper flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>50 kg nutmeg flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg nutmeg emulsion, NLG&nbsp;8.50 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>200 kg citric acid, NLG&nbsp;1.30 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>450 kg boric acid scales, NLG&nbsp;0.36 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>245 kg of soup flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2.05 p/kg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Here we see&nbsp;the first surrogate products already emerging.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Initially, the company benefitted from the reform of the Dutch food supply. The reduction in livestock boosted the meat processing industry, for which Pectacon produced spice mixes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Unlike Opekta, production activities for this company took place on the premises. To this end, Pectacon purchased two spice mills from Peppink in <strong>early 1941</strong>, which it resold to Gies &amp; Co when it was &#39;aryanised&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 March 1942</strong>, the ascription of the licence passed to Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>By <strong>September 1941</strong>, the company already had more than 22,000 guilders in undistributed profits on its balance sheet. That was eleven times as much as the paid-in share capital at the <strong>end of 1938</strong>. In short, until its liquidation, Pectacon was an extremely profitable company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Aryanisation</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>22 October 1940</strong>: promulgation of&nbsp;<em>Verordnung &uuml;ber die Anmeldung von Unternehmen</em> (VO 189/40), published <strong>26 October 1940</strong>. This regulation required Jewish owners to register their businesses. It was the first step in the so-called <em>Wirtschaftsentjudung</em> (business &#39;aryanisation&#39;).</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>23 October 1940</strong>: because Otto Frank was managing director of Pectacon and to have an alternative in the wings in case of forced aryanisation, La Synth&egrave;se was founded with Kugler as managing director and Jan Gies as supervisory director. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, this firm adopted the name N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies &amp; Co. Its objective and operations were similar to those of Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"09dde\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to its own statement, it was decided at the shareholders&#39; meeting on <strong>13 February 1941</strong> to place the shares still in the portfolio worth NLG 8,000. On<strong> 4 April 1941</strong>, the founders Kleiman and Dunselman paid NLG 5,000 and NLG 3,000 respectively in this context.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-5\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> As a result, Otto&#39;s share in the share capital dropped to 20 per cent. This meant that his share thus fell below the crucial limit of 25 per cent, which was the criterion for a &#39;Jewish&#39; company and thus for registration with the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>New interim certificates for the newly issued shares were issued on <strong>4 April 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>12 September 1941</strong>: K.O.M. Wolters was appointed administrator of Pectacon under section 7 of the <em>Ordinance for the Removal of Jews from Business</em>, with instructions to liquidate the company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Kleiman and Otto went to Wolters&#39; office to discuss the matter. Wolters agreed to Kleiman&#39;s proposal to initiate liquidation&nbsp;himself within eight to 10 days. This allowed Kleiman and Otto to channel machinery and stock to Gies &amp; Co, then still in Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> They sold almost everything at a loss to Gies &amp; Co. Only the office inventory made a profit; they sold it to Wolters himself.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-6\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The loss made during the liquidation was 14,000 guilders.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The balance after liquidation was 18,000 guilders. Kleiman received 5,000 guilders and Dunselman 3,000 guilders. The remaining 10,000 guilders, after deducting 2,300 guilders for the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>, was deposited at the bank Lippmann-Rosenthal-Sarphatistraat. Gies &amp; Co. moved to Prinsengracht 263; Pectacon was located at Rokin 6, Wolters&#39; office (the Peek &amp; Cloppenburg building on Dam Square in Amsterdam) during the liquidation phase.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Moreover, the distribution of the liquidation value went against Wolters&#39; proposal. The latter had in fact proposed to divide the remaining balance in proportion to share ownership, i.e. 50 per cent to Kleiman, 30 per cent to Dunselman and the remaining 20 per cent to Lippman, Rosenthal &amp; co Sarphatistraat, in favour of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-7\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In practice, Kleiman and Dunselman only received their <strong>April 1941 </strong>deposit back, with no profit sharing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz, Pectacon was revived.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Restorative justice</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>After <strong>May 1945</strong>, Pectacon was among the companies that could be ex officio re-registered in the Commercial Register pursuant to the London government&#39;s decisions.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>August 1945</strong>, Pectacon was still an &#39;empty shell&#39;, a company without capital. However, Otto wanted the company to produce, among other things, an anti-diarrhoeal agent, an anti-fungal agent and a cleaning agent, all three based on pectin. This was still based on the idea of overcoming seasonal fluctuations in Opekta sales.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>November 1945</strong>, Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman were listed as directors. Sole proxy was Victor Kugler, with general power of attorney: &#39;<em>As also granted to the director according to the articles of association&#39; .&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Otto wrote in <strong>June 1947</strong> that he was struggling in business. He wanted to do something in textiles and artificial silk, but the established businesses did not tolerate newcomers. He then restricted himself to chemicals and foodstuffs, Pectacon&#39;s core products.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>February 1951</strong>: Kugler and Otto Frank were no longer listed for Pectacon in the Trade Register. Kleiman was sole director and Jeanne Kwakernaak secretary with general power of attorney.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1952</strong>, Ton Dunselman was still a supervisory director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"egeux\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1954</strong>, Otto Frank owned NLG&nbsp;2,000 worth of shares in Pectacon (and NLG&nbsp;20,000 worth of Opekta shares and NLG&nbsp;9,000 worth of shares in Gies &amp; Co).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>March 1955</strong>, Pectacon paid J. Dikker commission for February, on which turnover tax was paid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1959</strong>: After Kleiman&#39;s death, J. Dikker became director of Pectacon. He established contacts with manufacturers of ice cream (including Davino, De Hoop, Mari&euml;ndaal) and chocolate (including Verkade, Rademakers). He also established contacts with companies in pudding production and bakery ingredients.</li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>April 1959</strong>: When negotiations were held in <strong>1959 </strong>leading to Opekta&#39;s takeover by Opekta-Keulen, Pectacon was left out of this share transaction. According to Ms Kwakernaak, besides Opekta, &#39;Cologne&#39; was also keen to take over Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A son of Joop Hofhuis wanted to buy Opekta in <strong>1959</strong>, but missed out. Years later, he met Kleiman&#39;s successor, J. Dikker, at Pectacon and subsequently took over the company after all. <sup data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> This was around <strong>1977</strong>. In an interview with Dineke Stam, dated <strong>10 December 1997</strong>, Hofhuis said he bought Pectacon &quot;20 years ago&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> Pectacon continued to exist as Hofhuis F.I.A. Pectacon BV, with the Chamber of Commerce number 31019094.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nWhen and how Otto disposed of his Pectacon shares is unclear at the moment, in the absence of sources.<br />\r\n<br />\r\n<em>Addresses</em>: Singel 400, Amsterdam; Prinsengracht 263, Amsterdam; Rokin 6 (Wolters office), Amsterdam.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2><strong>Footnotes</strong></h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938. De kosten van de oprichting bedroegen fl. 245,40. Passeren van de akte: fl. 125,--. Registratierechten: fl. 50,--. Publicatie Staatscourant fl. 40,40. Honorarium Dunselman fl. 30,-- (rekening Dunselman, 10 juni 1938).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20nod\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-4\">d</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-5\">e</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-6\">f</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-7\">g</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Facsimile afdruk Pectacons registratie bij Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle 27 november 1940 in: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 13.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: Opekta jaarverslag 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qes54\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis, Hilversum:&nbsp;Bewijs van Registratie (bij Van der Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Merkenbureau), 26 mei 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_001: &#39;Biblioraftus&#39; met doorslagen van rekeningen firma M.P. van Jinnelt. Alle bovenstaande transacties staan hierin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>G.M.T. Trienekens, <em>Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940-1945</em>, Utrecht: Matrijs, 1985.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"09dde\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij (Archief Opekta), toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 3.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag (NL-HaNA), Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging (CABR), inv. nr. 76428: Schrijven Secretaris-generaal Handel, Nijverheid en Scheepvaart aan Kamer van Koophandel, 29 september 1941.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"stmej\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, CABR, inv. nr. 76428: Getuigenverklaringen Otto Frank en Kleiman inzake Wolters&rsquo; naoorlogse strafzaak.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, Archief Opekta: toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), ref. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_085: Otto Frank aan Joseph Spronz, 17 juni 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Afschrift Handelsregsiter, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"egeux\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis:&nbsp;Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 januari 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 005_A_Kleiman_I_05.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_021, 17 maart 1955. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_075A: W. Kwakernaak aan Otto Frank, 8 april 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis: Verslag interview met F. Hofhuis jr., afgenomen door Yt Stoker op 13 maart 2002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telefonische informatie Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, 18 oktober 2008.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Pectacon, trading company in spices and preservatives, was one of Otto Frank's enterprises.",
                        "summary_nl": "Pectacon, handelsonderneming in specerijen en conserveermiddelen, was een van de ondernemingen van Otto Frank.",
                        "summary_en": "Pectacon, trading company in spices and preservatives, was one of Otto Frank's enterprises.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124419,
                        "files": []
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                "name": "Tokita Product Companies",
                "name_nl": "Tokita Product Ondernemingen",
                "name_en": "Tokita Product Companies",
                "uuid": "ceacea5d-5d1a-4618-9cdc-de7c26765040",
                "content": "<p><strong>Address</strong>:&nbsp;Eerste&nbsp;Weteringdwarsstraat 16, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wwsxa\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Since <strong>1934</strong>, S.J. Roozendaal Tokita managed this cannery and preserving factory, where&nbsp;pickles, sauces, and canned fish, chicken, rabbit and the like were produced.<sup data-footnote-id=\"awwmq\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Commercial intelligence from the Van der Graaf company shows that Tokita wanted to establish business ties with Pectacon. Van der Graaf was not entirely positive about Roozendaal and advised to ensure good guarantees.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In an interview Henk van Beusekom claims that there was collaboration with a food factory in the Weteringstraat area in the <strong>late 1930s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Bep Voskuijl also knew Tokita employees.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t60o9\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>During the war years, Tokita&#39;s activities came to an end. Supplies, vehicles and machinery became dispersed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"52tq8\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne Frank writes in her diary that Mr. Rozendaal from Tokita was arrested because he did not have a &#39;<em>J</em>&#39; in his passport.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dpwbw\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wwsxa\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek der stad Amsterdam. 85ste jaargang,&nbsp;</em>1938-1939, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp; Co., p. 2328.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"awwmq\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Forumlier van Vander Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Sneldienst, 5 oktober 1938 en diverse advertenties, o.a. in <em>Het Vaderland</em>, 21 november 1941 (avondeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Formulier van Van der Graaf &amp; Co&rsquo;s Sneldienst, 5 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t60o9\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 26 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"52tq8\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Nederlands Beheersinstituut): Beheersdossiers, nummer toegang 2.09.16, inv. nr. 158508: Verklaring J. Engels, 28 januari 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dpwbw\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A ,&nbsp;6 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>:&nbsp;Eerste&nbsp;Weteringdwarsstraat 16, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wwsxa\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Sinds <strong>1934 </strong>runde S.J. Roozendaal Tokita deze&nbsp;inblikkerij en conservenfabriek, waar&nbsp;ingelegde zuren, sauzen, en ingeblikte vis, kip, konijn en dergelijke werden geproduceerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"awwmq\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; Handelsinlichtingen van de firma Van der Graaf tonen aan dat Tokita zakelijke banden wilde aanknopen met Pectacon. Van der Graaf was niet onverdeeld positief over Roozendaal en adviseerde voor goede borgstellingen te zorgen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Henk van Beusekom zegt in een interview dat er <strong>eind jaren dertig</strong> met een levensmiddelenfabriek uit de omgeving van de Weteringstraat is samengewerkt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Ook Bep Voskuijl kende personeelsleden van Tokita.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t60o9\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In de oorlogsjaren kwam er een einde aan de activiteiten van Tokita.&nbsp;Voorraden, wagen- en machinepark raakten verspreid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"52tq8\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne Frank schrijft in haar dagboek dat <em>meneer Rozendaal</em> van Tokita is opgepakt omdat hij geen &#39;<em>J&#39;</em> &nbsp;in zijn paspoort had.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dpwbw\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wwsxa\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek der stad Amsterdam. 85ste jaargang,&nbsp;</em>1938-1939, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp; Co., p. 2328.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"awwmq\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Forumlier van Vander Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Sneldienst, 5 oktober 1938 en diverse advertenties, o.a. in <em>Het Vaderland</em>, 21 november 1941 (avondeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Formulier van Van der Graaf &amp; Co&rsquo;s Sneldienst, 5 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t60o9\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 26 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"52tq8\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Nederlands Beheersinstituut): Beheersdossiers, nummer toegang 2.09.16, inv. nr. 158508: Verklaring J. Engels, 28 januari 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dpwbw\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A ,&nbsp;6 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address</strong>:&nbsp;Eerste&nbsp;Weteringdwarsstraat 16, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wwsxa\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Since <strong>1934</strong>, S.J. Roozendaal Tokita managed this cannery and preserving factory, where&nbsp;pickles, sauces, and canned fish, chicken, rabbit and the like were produced.<sup data-footnote-id=\"awwmq\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Commercial intelligence from the Van der Graaf company shows that Tokita wanted to establish business ties with Pectacon. Van der Graaf was not entirely positive about Roozendaal and advised to ensure good guarantees.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In an interview Henk van Beusekom claims that there was collaboration with a food factory in the Weteringstraat area in the <strong>late 1930s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Bep Voskuijl also knew Tokita employees.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t60o9\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>During the war years, Tokita&#39;s activities came to an end. Supplies, vehicles and machinery became dispersed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"52tq8\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne Frank writes in her diary that Mr. Rozendaal from Tokita was arrested because he did not have a &#39;<em>J</em>&#39; in his passport.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dpwbw\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wwsxa\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek der stad Amsterdam. 85ste jaargang,&nbsp;</em>1938-1939, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp; Co., p. 2328.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"awwmq\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Forumlier van Vander Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Sneldienst, 5 oktober 1938 en diverse advertenties, o.a. in <em>Het Vaderland</em>, 21 november 1941 (avondeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lgvcz\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Formulier van Van der Graaf &amp; Co&rsquo;s Sneldienst, 5 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t60o9\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 26 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"52tq8\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Nederlands Beheersinstituut): Beheersdossiers, nummer toegang 2.09.16, inv. nr. 158508: Verklaring J. Engels, 28 januari 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dpwbw\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A ,&nbsp;6 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88841 52.36208)",
                "summary": "Tokita was a preserving and canning factory.",
                "summary_nl": "Tokita was een inblikkerij en conservenfabriek.",
                "summary_en": "Tokita was a preserving and canning factory.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Eerste Weteringdwarsstraat 16",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
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                "latitude": "52.381209",
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                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1000,
                            "uuid": "3c794774-9b7d-457f-b7a6-1076b02d3105",
                            "name": "Melding luchtgevecht op posthuis Centraal Station",
                            "title": "Melding luchtgevecht op posthuis Centraal Station",
                            "alt": "Stadsarchief Amsterdam. Archief Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/SAA_5225-1991_Centraal_Station_3-4_mei_43.PNG",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "Rapport van posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/56c0611c-724e-4cee-a2df-b80110e52f12/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/3c23b216-9276-456b-b53d-370173d568f8"
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                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb"
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/798debcb-55ed-40c0-bbd6-cc0442c7bd04",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "56c0611c-724e-4cee-a2df-b80110e52f12",
                        "name": "A fierce air battle",
                        "name_nl": "Een hevig luchtgevecht",
                        "name_en": "A fierce air battle",
                        "content": "<p>&quot;I witnessed a terrific air battle between German and British planes&quot;, Anne wrote in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"abozb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was not the only one who mistook the New Zealanders for British. That misunderstanding made no difference for what happened next.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the late afternoon, the squadron of the 487th Squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force flew in from England. By an unfortunate coincidence, the Luftwaffe was able to attack them as early as the coast, knocking fighters and bombers out of formation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Shot down by German fighters, planes crashed in the Grote IJpolder, the Kometensingel and in the Van Bossestraat, barely a kilometer from the Secret Annexe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Several others exploded in mid-flight and wing sections, exploded and unexploded shells, cockpit turrets and other debris landed in various parts of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Outside Amsterdam, planes crashed in Haarlem, Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and in the North Sea.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There were many victims among the New Zealanders, twelve were buried in Amsterdam. Some Amsterdam citizens were also killed.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Various police stations and post offices reported the crash, explosions, casualties and debris in various ways.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> But the policeman in the post office at Central Station was the first to use the same word as Anne: <em>an air battle</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abozb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 18 May 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. In her diary, this entry was dated 4 May and later for unknown reasons changed to 18 May.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>The London Gazette</em>, supplement 37486, 1 maart 1946, p. 1179 (thegazette.co.uk).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zquan\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Studiegroep Luchtoorlog 1939 - 1945,&nbsp;<em>Verliesregister 1939 - 1945. Alle militaire vliegtuigverliezen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Den Haag, 2008, p. 72 (online raadpleegbaar).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Onder andere: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1991, rapport posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>&#39;Ik ben toeschouwster geweest van een hevig luchtgevecht tussen Duitse en Engelse vliegers&#39;, schreef Anne in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"abozb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Zij was niet de enige die de Nieuw-Zeelanders aanzag voor Britten. Voor het vervolg maakte dat misverstand ook geen verschil.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Aan het einde van de&nbsp;&nbsp;middag kwam het eskader van het 487th Squadron van de Royal New Zealand Air Force vanuit Engeland aanvliegen. Door een ongelukkige samenloop van omstandigheden was de Luftwaffe in staat ze al bij de kust aan te vallen, waardoor gevechtsvliegtuigen en bommenwerpers uit formatie raakten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Neergeschoten door Duitse jagers stortten er vliegtuigen neer in de Grote IJpolder, de Kometensingel&nbsp;en in de Van Bossestraat, nauwelijks een kilometer&nbsp;van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Enkele anderen explodeerden in volle vlucht en vleugeldelen, wel of niet ontplofte granaten, cockpitkoepels en andere brokstukken kwamen in verschillende delen van de stad terecht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Buiten Amsterdam stortten nog vliegtuigen neer in Haarlem, Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen&nbsp;en in de Noordzee.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Onder de Nieuw-Zeelanders vielen veel slachtoffers, twaalf werden er in Amsterdam begraven. Ook onder de Amsterdamse burgerij vielen doden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Diverse politiebureaus en posthuizen maakten op uiteenlopende wijze melding van het neerstorten, de explosies, de slachtoffers en de brokstukken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Maar de politieman in het posthuis op het Centraal Station gebruikte als eerste hetzelfde woord als Anne: een <em>luchtgevecht</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abozb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;B, 18 mei 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013. In haar manuscript dateerde ze deze passage op 4 mei, en veranderde dat later om onbekende redenen in 18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>The London Gazette</em>, supplement 37486, 1 maart 1946, p. 1179 (thegazette.co.uk).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zquan\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Studiegroep Luchtoorlog 1939 - 1945,&nbsp;<em>Verliesregister 1939 - 1945. Alle militaire vliegtuigverliezen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Den Haag, 2008, p. 72 (online raadpleegbaar).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Onder andere: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1991, rapport posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>&quot;I witnessed a terrific air battle between German and British planes&quot;, Anne wrote in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"abozb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was not the only one who mistook the New Zealanders for British. That misunderstanding made no difference for what happened next.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the late afternoon, the squadron of the 487th Squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force flew in from England. By an unfortunate coincidence, the Luftwaffe was able to attack them as early as the coast, knocking fighters and bombers out of formation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Shot down by German fighters, planes crashed in the Grote IJpolder, the Kometensingel and in the Van Bossestraat, barely a kilometer from the Secret Annexe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Several others exploded in mid-flight and wing sections, exploded and unexploded shells, cockpit turrets and other debris landed in various parts of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Outside Amsterdam, planes crashed in Haarlem, Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and in the North Sea.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There were many victims among the New Zealanders, twelve were buried in Amsterdam. Some Amsterdam citizens were also killed.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Various police stations and post offices reported the crash, explosions, casualties and debris in various ways.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> But the policeman in the post office at Central Station was the first to use the same word as Anne: <em>an air battle</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abozb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 18 May 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. In her diary, this entry was dated 4 May and later for unknown reasons changed to 18 May.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>The London Gazette</em>, supplement 37486, 1 maart 1946, p. 1179 (thegazette.co.uk).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zquan\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Studiegroep Luchtoorlog 1939 - 1945,&nbsp;<em>Verliesregister 1939 - 1945. Alle militaire vliegtuigverliezen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Den Haag, 2008, p. 72 (online raadpleegbaar).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Onder andere: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1991, rapport posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1943-05-03",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "On 3 May 1943, a squadron of New Zealand aircraft attempted to bomb the Westergasfabriek. That went fairly wrong.",
                        "summary_nl": "Op 3 mei 1943 probeerde een eskader Nieuw-Zeelandse vliegtuigen de Westergasfabriek te bombarderen. Dat ging behoorlijk mis.",
                        "summary_en": "On 3 May 1943, a squadron of New Zealand aircraft attempted to bomb the Westergasfabriek. That went fairly wrong.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [],
                "related_locations": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/798debcb-55ed-40c0-bbd6-cc0442c7bd04/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Van Bossestraat",
                "name_nl": "Van Bossestraat",
                "name_en": null,
                "uuid": "798debcb-55ed-40c0-bbd6-cc0442c7bd04",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.86866 52.381209)",
                "summary": "On 3 May 1943, a plane crashed on Van Bossestraat, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_nl": "In de Van Bossestraat, Amsterdam, stortte op 3 mei 1943 een vliegtuig neer.",
                "summary_en": "On 3 May 1943, a plane crashed on Van Bossestraat, Amsterdam.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Van Bossestraat",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    304
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        }
    ]
}