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                            "uuid": "a424f31d-1d1d-4776-9fc0-1d5ea7673381",
                            "name": "Voor Joden Verboden",
                            "title": "Houten bord met 'Voor Joden Verboden'",
                            "alt": "Collectie: Anne Frank Stichting",
                            "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/1c1c3c60-3e2d-8227-14a4-301ad5554079.jpg",
                            "path": null,
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                            "description": "Houten bord met 'Voor Joden Verboden'.",
                            "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                            "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/15419b29-aadf-4c4d-af00-a6973b460f9a/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "15419b29-aadf-4c4d-af00-a6973b460f9a",
                        "name": "Anti-Jewish measures restrict the Frank family's life",
                        "name_nl": "Anti-Joodse maatregelen beperken het leven van de familie Frank",
                        "name_en": "Anti-Jewish measures restrict the Frank family's life",
                        "description": "<p>The set of provisions and rules introduced by the German authorities to identify, isolate, deport and eventually kill the Jewish population group forms the subject of the&nbsp;<em>anti-Jewish measures</em> in this article. The Frank family and their peers also faced these measures, of course, which eventually forced them to go into hiding. Anne Frank describes several of them in her diary.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Life in Germany and the Netherlands</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the Netherlands, the occupying power took measures stemming from the persecution of Jews in Germany. There, Jews had been targeted by National Socialist racial politics since Hitler&#39;s rise to power in <strong>1933</strong>. The nationwide boycott of <strong>April 1933</strong> had been waged strongly in the banking city of Frankfurt against Jews active in the banking sector. The Frank family&#39;s bank may have already gone under, but they were among the group targeted. Initially, many decrees in Germany were regional or local. The Frank family already emigrated to the Netherlands in the course of <strong>1933</strong>, even before a centralised approach was established. As to the reason for this departure, Otto Frank stated in 1946: &#39;<em>Since I was a Jew, I went to the Netherlands after Hitler came to power in 1933</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"9lv2i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In the <strong>summer of 1937</strong>, the Van Pels family came to Amsterdam and, after <em>Kristallnacht</em>, so did Fritz Pfeffer. Some 33,000 Jewish refugees fled to the Netherlands between <strong>1933</strong> and <strong>1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v49rk\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the first part of her diary, Anne lists a series of measures taken by the German authorities from the point&nbsp;they started to exercise&nbsp;power in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> She mistakenly mentions food distribution, as it had been instituted by the Dutch government eight months before the German invasion. Furthermore, she mainly mentions things that restricted her immediate freedom of movement: staying indoors from eight to six, not playing sports, not going to the cinema or theatre, going to a separate school. In the later diary entries, some of this comes up retrospectively. These notes sometimes distort the picture; the measures that barred her from public transport dated from <strong>30 June 1942</strong> - just one week before she went into hiding. School segregation, the sports ban and wearing a &quot;yellow badge&quot; were things she did have to deal with for a longer period of time.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Among the Jewish population in the Netherlands, the initial reaction to the German invasion was wide-ranging. Although there were attempts to flee to England and there were also a large number of suicides, the majority took a wait-and-see approach. Discriminatory measures were introduced very gradually. For German Jews (or rather Jews from Germany, like the Van Pels family who did have Dutch nationality), the situation was difficult. By their speech and mannerisms, they were recognisable, and less able to keep a low profile.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The banning of Jews from air raid shelters on <strong>15 July 1940</strong> is considered the first anti-Jewish measure in the Netherlands. From 5 August there was a ban on ritual slaughter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Although it was not presented as an anti-Jewish measure, in practice it amounted to one. An important follow-up step was the Aryan declaration. All Dutch officials were summoned in <strong>October 1940</strong> to testify to their racial origin. In effect, Jewish officials were asked to identify themselves.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jo38t\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Dismissal soon followed. The measure did meanwhile require the German occupying forces to define &#39;the Jew&#39;. On <strong>22 October</strong>, Ordinance VO 189/1940 was brought in for this purpose.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa35e\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> This regulation listed the following criteria for being a Jew:</p>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li><em>A Jew is anyone who descends from at least three racially full-Jewish grandparents.</em></li>\r\n\t<li><em>Also classified as a Jew is anyone&nbsp;descended from two full-Jewish grandparents and:<br />\r\n\tEither belonged to the Jewish-church congregation on May 9, 1940, or was included in it after that date.<br />\r\n\tOr was married to a Jew on May 9, 1940, or married a Jew after that moment.</em></li>\r\n\t<li value=\"3\"><em>A grandparent is considered full-Jewish if he or she belonged to the Jewish-church congregation.</em></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n\r\n<p>This was followed by steps to exclude Jews and deprive them of their property. VO 189/1940 required Jewish businesses to register with the <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle</em>. This institution decided on the further confiscation or liquidation of these enterprises. Otto Frank suffered the consequences of this with Opekta and Pectacon. From <strong>10 January 1941</strong>, pursuant to VO 6/1941, all persons of &#39;wholly or partly Jewish blood&#39; had to register as such with the Population Register of their place of residence.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4ld7c\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> The measure was barely evaded, including by the Frank family. This was later evidenced, among other things, by the fact that Margot Frank received a call up to report for labour.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q09m6\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>June 1941</strong>, a decision was taken that Jews would have a &#39;J&#39; stamped on their identity cards as a mark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ydz49\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Building on these registrations, a variety of regulations were issued in <strong>1941</strong>, which further isolated the Jewish population. With the establishment of the <em>Jewish Council for Amsterdam</em> in February, the occupying forces created a body to impose discriminatory provisions on the Jewish population.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vb3ky\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the summer of that year, Anne and Margot Frank were directly affected when they both had to attend Jewish education. There, they were taught exclusively by Jewish teachers. In Amsterdam, the municipality&#39;s Education Department implemented this segregation, and not the Jewish Council as often thought.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gj4jq\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1941</strong>, when Jews were excluded from many areas of social life, including sports, Margot also had to leave her rowing club.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rppbw\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The ban on using public swimming pools was announced in <strong>June 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"50q4q\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne writes to her grandmother <strong>in late June</strong>:<em> &#39;I don&#39;t have much chance to get a tan because we are not allowed in the pool (...).&#39; </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"cr2nz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup><em> </em> On <strong>25 November 1941</strong>, all German Jews living outside Germany were stripped of their German nationality. This general&nbsp;measure thus affected the Franks and Pfeffer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m27in\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> Unlike the Van Pels family, who remained Dutch, they continued to go through life stateless. Anne mentions this status:<em> &#39;Nice people, those Germans, and actually I am one of them too! But no, Hitler made us stateless a long time ago (...).&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"t86jr\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The compulsory &quot;yellow badge&quot; followed on <strong>3 May 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"59g9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> On <strong>21 May 1942</strong>, the measure was brought in that Jews had to turn in all their property and assets above the value of two hundred and fifty guilders to Lippmann-Rosenthal bank by <strong>30 June</strong>. Other valuables also had to be handed in. Among other things, Otto Frank handed in a considerable amount of cash and silverware.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne mentions the mandatory handing in of bicycles:<em> &#39;Jews must hand in their bicycles.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> It is true that between <strong>20 and 22 July 1942,</strong> Amsterdam Jews had to hand in their bicycles. So the Frank family had not been affected by this since they were already in hiding by then. Anne no longer had a bicycle because it had been stolen<sup data-footnote-id=\"ew3xg\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> and Otto had placed his wife&#39;s with acquaintances.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6izhv\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Margot was therefore still able to cycle to Prinsengracht on <strong>6 July</strong>, the day she went into hiding. In response to the accumulation of measures in <strong>June 1942</strong>, Anne quotes her friend Jacqueline van Maarsen, who said:<em> &#39;I don&#39;t dare do anything anymore because I&#39;m afraid it&#39;s not allowed</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Presser also pointed to the opacity of the set of measures. He wrote that there was sometimes more than a week between the imposition of a ban and its publication. Nevertheless, the German authority punished people who violated such bans, of which they were unaware.<sup data-footnote-id=\"816ad\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The series of anti-Jewish measures in the period from <strong>January 1941</strong> to the <strong>summer of 1942</strong> resulted in the isolation of Dutch Jews. In <strong>June 1941</strong>, there was a raid in Amsterdam-Zuid, following a bombing of a Wehrmacht building. Among the more than 300 men rounded up were acquaintances of the Frank family: a son of the Lewkowitz family and a boarder of the Ledermann family.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dkqx\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> They perished in Mauthausen, as did many of their peers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7fgi1\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Given the social contacts with these families, this brought the threat to the Frank family closer.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The call for Margot Frank to report for work in Germany arrived on <strong>5 July 1942</strong>. Margot was thus among the first group of Jews to be called up for labour deployment. As in many cases, this personal danger was decisive in the decision to go into hiding immediately. For the first time, they evaded German measures, something that many other Jews were unable to do. This was unusual, as only one in seven Jews in the Netherlands even attempted to go into hiding.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9dygm\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>While in hiding </strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Particularly in the period in late <strong>September 1942</strong> and early <strong>October 1942</strong>, anti-Jewish politics clearly kept Anne busy, as she wrote&nbsp;about them regularly. In <strong>July and August 1942,</strong> several large raids took place in Amsterdam. She wondered if her friends Lies and Ilse were still there and wrote on <strong>14</strong> <strong>October 1942</strong> about her fear that Peter Schiff had already been killed. She heard from Bep Voskuijl that classmate Betty Bloemendal had been sent to Poland with her family. Van Pels, Pfeffer and Miep told them about the round-ups in her old neighborhood and the scenes that accompanied them. Pharmacist Arthur Lewinsohn, who was regularly in the building to carry out experiments with Kugler, telephoned under the name &#39;M&uuml;ller&#39;, according to Anne, because he was not allowed to call&nbsp;&#39;Christian people&#39;.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s arrival in November was surprising in itself. After all, to the outside world, he was lawfully married to Charlotte Kaletta. That this was not so in reality meant that he lacked the relative protection of a mixed marriage. This was due to the fact that the marriage could not take place in Germany because of the Nuremberg laws and in the Netherlands because of international treaties.<sup data-footnote-id=\"al4aa\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Otto Frank later stated that he only heard about Pfeffer&#39;s situation from Miep Gies when he was in the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2e1hb\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> In her A-version, Anne did not mention the background of Pfeffer&#39;s status at all. The B-version reads:<em> &#39;He lives with a much younger and nice Christian woman, whom he is probably not married to, but that is a side issue.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"dw8u2\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup><em> </em>It is plausible that Anne, too, only gradually learned the true facts.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>During the first months of hiding, Anne writes several times about Westerbork and the Jewish Council. Both Westerbork and the Jewish Council were important in implementing anti-Jewish policies in the Netherlands. Westerbork had been established in <strong>1939</strong> to receive Jewish refugees from Germany, but on <strong>1 July 1942</strong> it was designated as a <em>Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager</em>. In <strong>October 1942</strong>, Anne wrote that conditions in Westerbork were terrible.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7myjr\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> She could know this because the Wronker couple, acquaintances of the family, were allowed to return to Amsterdam at that time after staying in the camp.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ou8q9\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> Miep had visited them and she would have conveyed messages.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Extermination</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>It was known in the summer of <strong>1942</strong> that hardships awaited Jews after deportation. Anne was afraid and assumed the worst. She wrote:<em> &#39;If it is already so bad in Holland how will they live in the distant and barbaric regions where they will be sent. We assume that most of them will be murdered. The English radio talks about gassing: perhaps that is the quickest method of death.&#39;</em> The date of this quote is <strong>9 October 1942</strong>, but since the note is from the B version, it is certain that Anne did not actually write it before <strong>May 1944</strong>. Nevertheless, it is true that Anglo-Saxon media were reporting&nbsp;mass killings in <strong>June</strong> <strong>1942</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"smze2\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup> including through gas<sup data-footnote-id=\"mwaok\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup>, and this thus became widely known. From that month, remarks about gassing also appeared more than incidentally in diaries of Dutch people.<sup data-footnote-id=\"51q8m\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup> In <strong>February 1944</strong>, Anne wrote again that in eastern Europe:<em> &#39;millions and more millions&#39; </em>were gassed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el7b\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup> Poland as a fearful deportation destination recurred several times in her notes from <strong>September 1942</strong> onwards.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pp678\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The general liquidation of the last remnants of the Jewish Council followed on <strong>29 September 1943</strong>. The only ones left behind were some specific groups, such as the mixed married people.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1ww56\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup> And the people in hiding, the exact number of which group has been subject to varying estimates. However, they were effectively hunted down and the number of those arrested&nbsp;ran into the thousands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"atvhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup> The hiding attempt in the Secret Annex did not have a happy ending. How it ended is well enough known: the <em>Sicherheitdienst</em> got wind of the matter in a way as yet unknown, and on <strong>4 August 1944</strong> a raid and arrest followed. Seven of the eight people in hiding did not survive deportation.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9lv2i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Nederlands Beheersinstituut (NBI): Beheersdossiers, nummer toegang 2.09.16,&nbsp; inv. nr. 134994:&nbsp;Otto Frank aan NBI, 31 januari 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v49rk\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bob Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden. De nazi-vervolging van de Joden in Nederland, </em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1998, p. 46.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"44s30\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, undated Thursday (July 1942), in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jo38t\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden</em>, p. 72.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa35e\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied </em>1940, p. 548.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4ld7c\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied </em>1941, p. 19.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q09m6\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ydz49\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Presser,&nbsp;<em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965, deel <em> </em>I, p. 67.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vb3ky\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>L. de Jong, <em>Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Deel 4: mei &#39;40 - maart &#39;41: tweede helft</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff, 1972, p. 884.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gj4jq\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam 1941-1943, </em>Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 16.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rppbw\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085:&nbsp;Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"50q4q\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De bekendmaking inzake badplaatsen enz.&rdquo;, <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 27 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cr2nz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18:&nbsp;Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, eind juni 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m27in\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaarten leden familie Frank en Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t86jr\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 9 October1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"59g9f\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Bekendmaking&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 29 april 1942, avondeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ew3xg\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr.&nbsp; 6650:&nbsp;Rapporten Pieter Aertszstraat, 14 april 1942, mut. 15.10 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6izhv\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 24 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"816ad\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Presser, <em>Ondergang</em>, deel I, p. 111, 212.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dkqx\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Joodsche Raad voor Amsterdam, inv. nr. 263:&nbsp;Lijst van op 11 juni 1941 gearresteerden.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7fgi1\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, DienstBevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten Ernst Kaufmann (1911) en Karl Lewkowitz (1922).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9dygm\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden</em>, p. 182.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"al4aa\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Duitse Jodenwet stuit huwelijk in Nederland&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 17 september 1935, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2e1hb\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015. &#39;Erkl&auml;rung&#39; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dw8u2\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 November 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7myjr\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 26 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ou8q9\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 22 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"smze2\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Massacre of jews&rdquo;, <em>The Times</em>, 30 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mwaok\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Greatest massacre in the world&rsquo;s history&rdquo;, <em>Queensland Times</em>, 26 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"51q8m\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bart van der Boom, <em>&ldquo;Wij weten niets van hun lot.&rdquo; Gewone Nederlanders en de Holocaust, </em>Amsterdam: Boom, 2012, p. 488-515.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el7b\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pp678\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September, 14 and 20 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1ww56\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Presser, <em>Ondergang, </em>deel&nbsp; I, p. 385-386.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"atvhc\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sytze van der Zee, <em>Vogelvrij. De jacht op de Joodse onderduiker, </em>Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 2010, p. 118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het geheel van&nbsp;bepalingen en regels die de Duitse autoriteiten invoerden om de Joodse bevolkingsgroep te identificeren, te isoleren, te deporteren en uiteindelijk om te brengen vormt hier het onderwerp&nbsp;<em>anti-Joodse maatregelen</em>. De familie Frank en hun lotgenoten werden uiteraard ook geconfronteerd met deze maatregelen, die uiteindelijk dwongen tot onderduiken. Anne Frank beschrijft er verschillende in haar dagboek.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Leven in Duitsland en Nederland</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Nederland nam&nbsp;de bezettende macht maatregelen die voortvloeiden uit de Jodenvervolging in Duitsland. Daar waren de Joden sinds de machtsovername van Hitler in <strong>1933</strong> doelwit van de nationaal-socialistische rassenpolitiek. De landelijke boycot van <strong>april &rsquo;33</strong>&nbsp;was in de bankenstad Frankfurt tegen de in die sector actieve joden scherp gevoerd. De bank van de familie Frank was dan weliswaar al te gronde gegaan, maar zij behoorden tot de groep die op de korrel werd&nbsp;genomen. Aanvankelijk waren veel decreten in Duitsland regionaal of plaatselijk. Al in de loop van <strong>1933</strong> week&nbsp;de familie Frank naar Nederland uit, nog voor er centrale aanpak tot stand kwam. Over de reden van dit vertrek verklaarde&nbsp;Otto Frank in 1946: &#39;&nbsp;<em>Daar ik Jood was, ben ik na het aan bewind komen van Hitler in 1933 naar Nederland gegaan</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"9lv2i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In de <strong>zomer van 1937</strong> kwam&nbsp;de familie Van Pels naar Amsterdam en na de <em>Kristallnacht</em> ook Fritz Pfeffer. Tussen <strong>1933</strong> en <strong>1939</strong> weken circa 33.000 Joodse vluchtelingen naar Nederland uit.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v49rk\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In het eerste deel van haar dagboek somt Anne een reeks maatregelen op die de Duitse autoriteiten namen sinds zij in Nederland de macht uitoefenden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Ze noemt ten onrechte de voedseldistributie, die was&nbsp;namelijk acht maanden voor de Duitse inval door de Nederlandse regering ingesteld.&nbsp;Verder noemt ze vooral dingen die haar beperkten in de directe bewegingsvrijheid: van acht tot zes binnen blijven, niet sporten, niet naar de bioscoop of theater, naar een aparte school. In de latere dagboeknotities komt een en ander retrospectief nog aan de orde. Deze notities vertekenen soms het beeld; de maatregelen die haar uit het openbaar vervoer weerden, dateerden van <strong>30 juni 1942</strong> &ndash; slechts &eacute;&eacute;n week voor haar onderduik. De schoolsegregatie, het sportverbod en de Jodenster waren&nbsp;zaken waar ze wel langduriger mee te maken had.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Onder de Joodse bevolkingsgroep in Nederland was de aanvankelijke reactie op de Duitse inval divers. Hoewel er pogingen waren om naar Engeland te vluchten en er ook een groot aantal zelfmoorden waren, keek&nbsp;het merendeel de kat uit de boom. Discriminerende maatregelen werden zeer geleidelijk ingevoerd. Voor Duitse Joden (of beter: Joden uit Duitsland, zoals de familie Van Pels die wel de Nederlandse nationaliteit had) was de situatie lastig. Aan hun spraak en manier van doen waren ze herkenbaar, en minder in staat een&nbsp;<em>low profile</em>&nbsp;te houden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wering van de Joden uit de luchtbescherming op <strong>15 juli 1940</strong> wordt als de eerste anti-Joodse maatregel in Nederland beschouwd. Per 5 augustus gold&nbsp;er een verbod op ritueel slachten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Hoewel het niet als een anti-Joodse maatregel werd&nbsp;gepresenteerd, kwam&nbsp;het er in de praktijk wel op neer. Een belangrijke vervolgstap was de Ari&euml;rverklaring. Alle Nederlandse ambtenaren werden in <strong>oktober 1940</strong> opgeroepen om getuigenis af te leggen van hun raciale afkomst. In feite werd&nbsp;Joodse ambtenaren gevraagd zichzelf te identificeren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jo38t\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Spoedig volgde&nbsp;ontslag. De maatregel noodzaakte de Duitse bezetter inmiddels wel een definitie van &lsquo;de Jood&rsquo; te geven. Op <strong>22 oktober</strong> werd&nbsp;daartoe de verordening VO 189/1940 afgekondigd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa35e\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Deze verordening noemde&nbsp;de volgende criteria voor het Jood-zijn:</p>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li><em>Jood is een ieder, die uit ten minste drie naar ras voljoodse grootouders stamt.</em></li>\r\n\t<li><em>Als Jood wordt ook aangemerkt hij die uit twee voljoodse grootouders stamt en:<br />\r\n\tHetzij zelf op de negende mei 1940 tot de Jood-kerkelijke gemeente heeft behoord of na die datum daarin wordt opgenomen.<br />\r\n\tHetzij op de negende mei 1940 met een Jood is gehuwd of na dat ogenblik met een Jood in het huwelijk treedt.</em></li>\r\n\t<li value=\"3\"><em>Een grootouder wordt als voljoods aangemerkt, wanneer deze tot de Joods-kerkelijke gemeenschap heeft behoord.</em></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n\r\n<p>Hierop volgden stappen om de Joden uit te sluiten en ze hun bezit te ontnemen. VO 189/1940 verplichtte Joodse ondernemingen tot aanmelding bij de <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle</em>. Deze instelling besliste over de verdere inbeslagname of liquidatie van deze ondernemingen. Otto Frank ondervond&nbsp;hier met Opekta en Pectacon de gevolgen van. Vanaf <strong>10 januari 1941</strong> moesten alle personen van &lsquo;geheel of gedeeltelijk Joodschen bloede&rsquo; zich ingevolge VO 6/1941 bij het Bevolkingsregister van hun woonplaats als zodanig aanmelden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4ld7c\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> De maatregel werd&nbsp;nauwelijks ontdoken, ook niet door de familie Frank. Dit blijkt later onder meer uit het feit dat Margot Frank een oproep kreeg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q09m6\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>juni &lsquo;41</strong> viel&nbsp;het besluit dat Joden een &lsquo;J&rsquo; als merkteken op hun persoonsbewijs gestempeld kregen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ydz49\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Voortbordurend op deze registraties werden er in <strong>1941</strong> allerlei verordeningen uitgevaardigd, die het Joodse bevolkingsdeel in een verder isolement brachten. Met de oprichting van de <em>Joodsche Raad voor Amsterdam</em>&nbsp;in februari cre&euml;erde&nbsp;de bezetter een lichaam dat de discriminerende bepalingen moest overbrengen naar de Joodse bevolking.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vb3ky\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de zomer van dat jaar werden Anne en Margot Frank direct getroffen toen ze allebei naar het Joods onderwijs moeten. Daar kregen ze uitsluitend les van Joodse leerkrachten. In Amsterdam voerde&nbsp;de afdeling Onderwijs van de gemeente deze segregatie uit, en niet zoals vaak gedacht de Joodsche Raad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gj4jq\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen Joden in <strong>september &rsquo;41</strong> worden uitgesloten van allerlei onderdelen van het maatschappelijk leven, waaronder sportbeoefening, moest Margot ook haar roeiclub verlaten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rppbw\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het verbod om gebruik te maken van openbare zwembaden werd&nbsp;in <strong>juni &rsquo;41</strong> bekend gemaakt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"50q4q\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne schrijft <strong>eind juni</strong> aan haar oma: &#39;<em>Om bruin te worden heb ik niet veel kans omdat wij niet in het zwembad mogen (&hellip;).&#39;&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"cr2nz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em> Op <strong>25 november 1941</strong> werd&nbsp;aan alle Duitse Joden die buiten Duitsland woonden de Duitse nationaliteit ontnomen. Deze generieke maatregel trof&nbsp;dus de Franks en Pfeffer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m27in\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> In tegenstelling tot de familie Van Pels, die Nederlands bleet&nbsp;gingen zij verder stateloos door het leven. Anne maakt melding van deze status: &#39;<em>Fraai volk die Duitsers en daar behoor ik eigenlijk ook nog toe! Maar nee, Hitler heeft ons allang statenloos gemaakt (...).&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"t86jr\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De verplichte Jodenster volgde&nbsp;op <strong>3 mei 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"59g9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> Op <strong>21 mei 1942</strong> werd&nbsp;de maatregel afgekondigd dat Joden voor <strong>30 juni</strong> al hun bezit en vermogen boven de waarde van&nbsp;tweehonderdvijftig gulden moesten inleveren bij Lippmann-Rosenthal bank. Ook andere kostbaarheden dienden te worden ingeleverd. Otto Frank leverde&nbsp;onder meer een aanzienlijke hoeveelheid geld en zilverwerk in.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne noemt het verplicht inleveren van fietsen: &#39;<em>Joden moeten hun fietsen afgeven.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het klopt dat de Amsterdamse Joden tussen <strong>20 en 22 juli 1942</strong> hun fiets moesten inleveren. De familie Frank had&nbsp;hier dus geen hinder van gehad aangezien zij toen al ondergedoken waren. Anne had&nbsp;geen fiets meer omdat die was gestolen<sup data-footnote-id=\"ew3xg\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> en Otto had&nbsp;die van zijn vrouw bij kennissen ondergebracht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6izhv\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Margot kon op <strong>6 juli</strong>,de dag van de onderduik, dan ook nog gewoon naar de Prinsengracht fietsen. Naar aanleiding van de opeenstapeling van maatregelen in <strong>juni &lsquo;42</strong> haalt&nbsp;Anne haar vriendinnetje Jacqueline van Maarsen aan, die zei: &#39;<em>Ik durf niets meer te doen, want ik ben bang dat het niet mag</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Ook Presser wees&nbsp;op de ondoorzichtigheid van het geheel aan maatregelen. Hij schreef&nbsp;dat tussen het instellen van een verbod en de bekendmaking daarvan soms meer dan een week zat. Desondanks strafte het Duitse gezag mensen die een dergelijk - hen niet bekend - verbod overtraden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"816ad\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De reeks van anti-Joodse maatregelen in de periode van <strong>januari 1941</strong> tot de <strong>zomer van 1942</strong> resulteerde&nbsp;in een isolement van de Nederlandse Joden. In <strong>juni &rsquo;41</strong>&nbsp;was er een razzia in Amsterdam-Zuid, naar aanleiding van een bomaanslag op een Wehrmachtgebouw. Onder de ruim&nbsp;driehonderd mannen die werden opgepakt, waren bekenden van de familie Frank: een zoon van de familie Lewkowitz en een kostganger van de familie Ledermann.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dkqx\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> Zij kwamen om in Mauthausen, net als veel van hun lotgenoten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7fgi1\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Gezien de sociale contacten met deze gezinnen bracht dit&nbsp;de dreiging voor de familie Frank dichterbij.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De oproep voor Margot Frank om zich te melden voor werk in Duitsland kwam&nbsp;op <strong>5 juli 1942</strong> binnen. Margot behoorde&nbsp;daarmee tot de eerste groep Joden die opgeroepen werd&nbsp;voor arbeidsinzet. Zoals in veel gevallen was dit persoonlijke gevaar doorslaggevend bij het besluit om direct onder te duiken. Voor het eerst onttrokken zij zich aan de Duitse maatregelen, iets wat voor veel andere Joden niet weggelegd was. Dit is bijzonder daar in Nederland slechts een op de zeven Joden zelfs maar een poging deed&nbsp;om onder te duiken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9dygm\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tijdens de onderduik </strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Met name in de periode eind <strong>september 1942</strong> en begin <strong>oktober 1942 </strong>hield&nbsp;de anti-Joodse politiek Anne duidelijk bezig, aangezien ze er regelmatig over schrijft. In <strong>juli en augustus 1942</strong> vonden er enkele grote razzia&rsquo;s plaats in Amsterdam. Ze vraagt zich af of haar vriendinnen Lies en Ilse er nog zijn en schrijft op <strong>14 oktober 1942</strong> over haar angst dat Peter Schiff al is omgekomen. Ze hoorde&nbsp;van Bep Voskuijl dat klasgenootje Betty Bloemendal met haar familie naar Polen was gestuurd. Van Pels, Pfeffer en Miep vertelden over de ophaalacties in haar oude woonomgeving en de taferelen die daar bij hoorden. Apotheker Arthur Lewinsohn, die regelmatig in het pand was om met Kugler experimenten uit te voeren, telefoneerde&nbsp;volgens Anne onder de naam &lsquo;M&uuml;ller&rsquo; omdat hij bij &#39;christenmensen&#39; &nbsp;niet mag opbellen.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De komst van Fritz Pfeffer in november was&nbsp;op zichzelf verrassend. Voor de buitenwereld was hij immers wettig met Charlotte Kaletta getrouwd. Dat dit in werkelijkheid niet zo was, wil zeggen dat hij de betrekkelijke bescherming van een gemengd huwelijk ontbeerde. Dit was een gevolg van het feit dat het huwelijk in Duitsland vanwege de Neurenberger wetten&nbsp;en in Nederland&nbsp;vanwege internationale verdragen niet kon worden voltrokken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"al4aa\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank verklaarde&nbsp;later dat hij pas toen&nbsp;hij in het Achterhuis zat van Miep Gies hoorde&nbsp;over Pfeffers situatie.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2e1hb\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Anne repte in haar A-versie met geen woord over de achtergrond van Pfeffers status. In de B-versie heet het: &#39;<em>Hij leeft samen met een veel jongere en leuke Christenvrouw, waar hij waarschijnlijk niet mee getrouwd is, maar dat is bijzaak.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"dw8u2\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup><em> </em>Aannemelijk is dat ook Anne pas gaandeweg de ware toedracht leerde&nbsp;kennen.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Tijdens de eerste maanden van de onderduik schrijft Anne enkele keren over Westerbork en de Joodsche Raad. Zowel Westerbork en de Joodse Raad waren&nbsp;belangrijk bij de uitvoering van de anti-Joodse politiek in Nederland. Westerbork was in <strong>1939</strong> opgericht voor de opvang van Joodse vluchtelingen uit Duitsland, maar op <strong>1 juli 1942</strong> werd&nbsp;het aangewezen als <em>Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager</em>. In <strong>oktober &lsquo;42</strong> schrijft Anne dat de omstandigheden in Westerbork vreselijk waren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7myjr\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Dit kon ze weten doordat het echtpaar Wronker, kennissen van de familie, in die tijd na een verblijf in het kamp terug naar Amsterdam mochten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ou8q9\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> Miep was bij hen langs geweest en ze zal berichten hebben overgebracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Uitroeiing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Het was in de <strong>zomer van 1942</strong> bekend dat de Joden na deportatie ontberingen stonden te wachten. Anne was bang en ging&nbsp;van het ergste uit. Ze schrijft: &#39;<em>Als &rsquo;t in Holland al zo erg is hoe zullen ze dan in de verre en barbaarse streken leven, waar ze heengezonden worden. Wij nemen aan dat de meesten vermoord worden. De Engelse radio spreekt van vergassing: misschien is dat wel de vlugste sterfmethode.&#39;</em> De datum van dit citaat is <strong>9 oktober 1942</strong>, maar omdat de notitie uit de B-versie afkomstig is, is zeker dat Anne deze niet voor <strong>mei &rsquo;44</strong> werkelijk heeft geschreven. Toch staat vast dat Angelsaksische media in <strong>juni &rsquo;42</strong> berichten over massamoorden,<sup data-footnote-id=\"smze2\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup> onder andere door middel van gas,<sup data-footnote-id=\"mwaok\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> wereldkundig makkten. Vanaf die maand verschenen ook meer dan incidenteel opmerkingen over vergassing in dagboeken van Nederlanders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"51q8m\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup> In <strong>februari &rsquo;44</strong> schrijft Anne nog eens dat in het oosten van Europa: &#39;<em>millioenen en nog eens millioenen&#39;&nbsp;</em>zijn vergast.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el7b\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup> Polen als vreesaanjagende deportatiebestemming kwam&nbsp;vanaf <strong>september &lsquo;42</strong> meerdere keren in haar notities terug.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pp678\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>29 september 1943</strong> volgde&nbsp;de algehele liquidatie van de laatste resten van de Joodsche Raad. De enigen die achterbleven waren enkele specifieke groepen, zoals de gemengd gehuwden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1ww56\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup> En de onderduikers, een groep waarvan het precieze aantal verschillend werd&nbsp;ingeschat. Er werd&nbsp;echter effectief jacht op hen gemaakt en het aantal alsnog gearresteerden liep&nbsp;in de duizenden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"atvhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup> De onderduikpoging in het Achterhuis was uiteindelijk geen succesverhaal. Hoe het afliep&nbsp;is genoegzaam bekend: de <em>Sicherheitdienst</em>&nbsp;kreeg&nbsp;op nog onbekende wijze lucht van de zaak en op <strong>4 augustus 1944</strong> volgen inval en arrestatie. Zeven van de acht onderduikers overleefen de deportatie niet.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9lv2i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Nederlands Beheersinstituut (NBI): Beheersdossiers, nummer toegang 2.09.16,&nbsp; inv. nr. 134994:&nbsp;Otto Frank aan NBI, 31 januari 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v49rk\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bob Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden. De nazi-vervolging van de Joden in Nederland, </em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1998, p. 46.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"44s30\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, ongedateerde donderdag (juli 1942), in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jo38t\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden</em>, p. 72.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa35e\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied </em>1940, p. 548.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4ld7c\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied </em>1941, p. 19.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q09m6\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 8 juli 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ydz49\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Presser,&nbsp;<em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965, deel <em> </em>I, p. 67.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vb3ky\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>L. de Jong, <em>Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Deel 4: mei &#39;40 - maart &#39;41: tweede helft</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff, 1972, p. 884.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gj4jq\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam 1941-1943, </em>Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 16.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rppbw\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085:&nbsp;Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"50q4q\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De bekendmaking inzake badplaatsen enz.&rdquo;, <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 27 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cr2nz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18:&nbsp;Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, eind juni 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m27in\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaarten leden familie Frank en Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t86jr\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 9 oktober1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"59g9f\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Bekendmaking&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 29 april 1942, avondeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ew3xg\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr.&nbsp; 6650:&nbsp;Rapporten Pieter Aertszstraat, 14 april 1942, mut. 15.10 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6izhv\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 24 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"816ad\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Presser, <em>Ondergang</em>, deel I, p. 111, 212.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dkqx\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Joodsche Raad voor Amsterdam, inv. nr. 263:&nbsp;Lijst van op 11 juni 1941 gearresteerden.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7fgi1\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, DienstBevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten Ernst Kaufmann (1911) en Karl Lewkowitz (1922).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9dygm\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden</em>, p. 182.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"al4aa\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Duitse Jodenwet stuit huwelijk in Nederland&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 17 september 1935, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2e1hb\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015. &#39;Erkl&auml;rung&#39; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dw8u2\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 november 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7myjr\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 26 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ou8q9\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 22 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"smze2\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Massacre of jews&rdquo;, <em>The Times</em>, 30 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mwaok\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Greatest massacre in the world&rsquo;s history&rdquo;, <em>Queensland Times</em>, 26 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"51q8m\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bart van der Boom, <em>&ldquo;Wij weten niets van hun lot.&rdquo; Gewone Nederlanders en de Holocaust, </em>Amsterdam: Boom, 2012, p. 488-515.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el7b\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pp678\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september, 14 en 20 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1ww56\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Presser, <em>Ondergang, </em>deel&nbsp; I, p. 385-386.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"atvhc\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sytze van der Zee, <em>Vogelvrij. De jacht op de Joodse onderduiker, </em>Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 2010, p. 118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The set of provisions and rules introduced by the German authorities to identify, isolate, deport and eventually kill the Jewish population group forms the subject of the&nbsp;<em>anti-Jewish measures</em> in this article. The Frank family and their peers also faced these measures, of course, which eventually forced them to go into hiding. Anne Frank describes several of them in her diary.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Life in Germany and the Netherlands</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the Netherlands, the occupying power took measures stemming from the persecution of Jews in Germany. There, Jews had been targeted by National Socialist racial politics since Hitler&#39;s rise to power in <strong>1933</strong>. The nationwide boycott of <strong>April 1933</strong> had been waged strongly in the banking city of Frankfurt against Jews active in the banking sector. The Frank family&#39;s bank may have already gone under, but they were among the group targeted. Initially, many decrees in Germany were regional or local. The Frank family already emigrated to the Netherlands in the course of <strong>1933</strong>, even before a centralised approach was established. As to the reason for this departure, Otto Frank stated in 1946: &#39;<em>Since I was a Jew, I went to the Netherlands after Hitler came to power in 1933</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"9lv2i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In the <strong>summer of 1937</strong>, the Van Pels family came to Amsterdam and, after <em>Kristallnacht</em>, so did Fritz Pfeffer. Some 33,000 Jewish refugees fled to the Netherlands between <strong>1933</strong> and <strong>1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v49rk\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the first part of her diary, Anne lists a series of measures taken by the German authorities from the point&nbsp;they started to exercise&nbsp;power in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> She mistakenly mentions food distribution, as it had been instituted by the Dutch government eight months before the German invasion. Furthermore, she mainly mentions things that restricted her immediate freedom of movement: staying indoors from eight to six, not playing sports, not going to the cinema or theatre, going to a separate school. In the later diary entries, some of this comes up retrospectively. These notes sometimes distort the picture; the measures that barred her from public transport dated from <strong>30 June 1942</strong> - just one week before she went into hiding. School segregation, the sports ban and wearing a &quot;yellow badge&quot; were things she did have to deal with for a longer period of time.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Among the Jewish population in the Netherlands, the initial reaction to the German invasion was wide-ranging. Although there were attempts to flee to England and there were also a large number of suicides, the majority took a wait-and-see approach. Discriminatory measures were introduced very gradually. For German Jews (or rather Jews from Germany, like the Van Pels family who did have Dutch nationality), the situation was difficult. By their speech and mannerisms, they were recognisable, and less able to keep a low profile.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The banning of Jews from air raid shelters on <strong>15 July 1940</strong> is considered the first anti-Jewish measure in the Netherlands. From 5 August there was a ban on ritual slaughter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Although it was not presented as an anti-Jewish measure, in practice it amounted to one. An important follow-up step was the Aryan declaration. All Dutch officials were summoned in <strong>October 1940</strong> to testify to their racial origin. In effect, Jewish officials were asked to identify themselves.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jo38t\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Dismissal soon followed. The measure did meanwhile require the German occupying forces to define &#39;the Jew&#39;. On <strong>22 October</strong>, Ordinance VO 189/1940 was brought in for this purpose.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa35e\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> This regulation listed the following criteria for being a Jew:</p>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li><em>A Jew is anyone who descends from at least three racially full-Jewish grandparents.</em></li>\r\n\t<li><em>Also classified as a Jew is anyone&nbsp;descended from two full-Jewish grandparents and:<br />\r\n\tEither belonged to the Jewish-church congregation on May 9, 1940, or was included in it after that date.<br />\r\n\tOr was married to a Jew on May 9, 1940, or married a Jew after that moment.</em></li>\r\n\t<li value=\"3\"><em>A grandparent is considered full-Jewish if he or she belonged to the Jewish-church congregation.</em></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n\r\n<p>This was followed by steps to exclude Jews and deprive them of their property. VO 189/1940 required Jewish businesses to register with the <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle</em>. This institution decided on the further confiscation or liquidation of these enterprises. Otto Frank suffered the consequences of this with Opekta and Pectacon. From <strong>10 January 1941</strong>, pursuant to VO 6/1941, all persons of &#39;wholly or partly Jewish blood&#39; had to register as such with the Population Register of their place of residence.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4ld7c\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> The measure was barely evaded, including by the Frank family. This was later evidenced, among other things, by the fact that Margot Frank received a call up to report for labour.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q09m6\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>June 1941</strong>, a decision was taken that Jews would have a &#39;J&#39; stamped on their identity cards as a mark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ydz49\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Building on these registrations, a variety of regulations were issued in <strong>1941</strong>, which further isolated the Jewish population. With the establishment of the <em>Jewish Council for Amsterdam</em> in February, the occupying forces created a body to impose discriminatory provisions on the Jewish population.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vb3ky\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the summer of that year, Anne and Margot Frank were directly affected when they both had to attend Jewish education. There, they were taught exclusively by Jewish teachers. In Amsterdam, the municipality&#39;s Education Department implemented this segregation, and not the Jewish Council as often thought.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gj4jq\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1941</strong>, when Jews were excluded from many areas of social life, including sports, Margot also had to leave her rowing club.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rppbw\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The ban on using public swimming pools was announced in <strong>June 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"50q4q\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne writes to her grandmother <strong>in late June</strong>:<em> &#39;I don&#39;t have much chance to get a tan because we are not allowed in the pool (...).&#39; </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"cr2nz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup><em> </em> On <strong>25 November 1941</strong>, all German Jews living outside Germany were stripped of their German nationality. This general&nbsp;measure thus affected the Franks and Pfeffer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m27in\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> Unlike the Van Pels family, who remained Dutch, they continued to go through life stateless. Anne mentions this status:<em> &#39;Nice people, those Germans, and actually I am one of them too! But no, Hitler made us stateless a long time ago (...).&#39;</em> <sup data-footnote-id=\"t86jr\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The compulsory &quot;yellow badge&quot; followed on <strong>3 May 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"59g9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> On <strong>21 May 1942</strong>, the measure was brought in that Jews had to turn in all their property and assets above the value of two hundred and fifty guilders to Lippmann-Rosenthal bank by <strong>30 June</strong>. Other valuables also had to be handed in. Among other things, Otto Frank handed in a considerable amount of cash and silverware.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne mentions the mandatory handing in of bicycles:<em> &#39;Jews must hand in their bicycles.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> It is true that between <strong>20 and 22 July 1942,</strong> Amsterdam Jews had to hand in their bicycles. So the Frank family had not been affected by this since they were already in hiding by then. Anne no longer had a bicycle because it had been stolen<sup data-footnote-id=\"ew3xg\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> and Otto had placed his wife&#39;s with acquaintances.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6izhv\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Margot was therefore still able to cycle to Prinsengracht on <strong>6 July</strong>, the day she went into hiding. In response to the accumulation of measures in <strong>June 1942</strong>, Anne quotes her friend Jacqueline van Maarsen, who said:<em> &#39;I don&#39;t dare do anything anymore because I&#39;m afraid it&#39;s not allowed</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"44s30\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Presser also pointed to the opacity of the set of measures. He wrote that there was sometimes more than a week between the imposition of a ban and its publication. Nevertheless, the German authority punished people who violated such bans, of which they were unaware.<sup data-footnote-id=\"816ad\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The series of anti-Jewish measures in the period from <strong>January 1941</strong> to the <strong>summer of 1942</strong> resulted in the isolation of Dutch Jews. In <strong>June 1941</strong>, there was a raid in Amsterdam-Zuid, following a bombing of a Wehrmacht building. Among the more than 300 men rounded up were acquaintances of the Frank family: a son of the Lewkowitz family and a boarder of the Ledermann family.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dkqx\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> They perished in Mauthausen, as did many of their peers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7fgi1\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Given the social contacts with these families, this brought the threat to the Frank family closer.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The call for Margot Frank to report for work in Germany arrived on <strong>5 July 1942</strong>. Margot was thus among the first group of Jews to be called up for labour deployment. As in many cases, this personal danger was decisive in the decision to go into hiding immediately. For the first time, they evaded German measures, something that many other Jews were unable to do. This was unusual, as only one in seven Jews in the Netherlands even attempted to go into hiding.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9dygm\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>While in hiding </strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Particularly in the period in late <strong>September 1942</strong> and early <strong>October 1942</strong>, anti-Jewish politics clearly kept Anne busy, as she wrote&nbsp;about them regularly. In <strong>July and August 1942,</strong> several large raids took place in Amsterdam. She wondered if her friends Lies and Ilse were still there and wrote on <strong>14</strong> <strong>October 1942</strong> about her fear that Peter Schiff had already been killed. She heard from Bep Voskuijl that classmate Betty Bloemendal had been sent to Poland with her family. Van Pels, Pfeffer and Miep told them about the round-ups in her old neighborhood and the scenes that accompanied them. Pharmacist Arthur Lewinsohn, who was regularly in the building to carry out experiments with Kugler, telephoned under the name &#39;M&uuml;ller&#39;, according to Anne, because he was not allowed to call&nbsp;&#39;Christian people&#39;.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s arrival in November was surprising in itself. After all, to the outside world, he was lawfully married to Charlotte Kaletta. That this was not so in reality meant that he lacked the relative protection of a mixed marriage. This was due to the fact that the marriage could not take place in Germany because of the Nuremberg laws and in the Netherlands because of international treaties.<sup data-footnote-id=\"al4aa\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Otto Frank later stated that he only heard about Pfeffer&#39;s situation from Miep Gies when he was in the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2e1hb\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> In her A-version, Anne did not mention the background of Pfeffer&#39;s status at all. The B-version reads:<em> &#39;He lives with a much younger and nice Christian woman, whom he is probably not married to, but that is a side issue.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"dw8u2\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup><em> </em>It is plausible that Anne, too, only gradually learned the true facts.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>During the first months of hiding, Anne writes several times about Westerbork and the Jewish Council. Both Westerbork and the Jewish Council were important in implementing anti-Jewish policies in the Netherlands. Westerbork had been established in <strong>1939</strong> to receive Jewish refugees from Germany, but on <strong>1 July 1942</strong> it was designated as a <em>Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager</em>. In <strong>October 1942</strong>, Anne wrote that conditions in Westerbork were terrible.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7myjr\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> She could know this because the Wronker couple, acquaintances of the family, were allowed to return to Amsterdam at that time after staying in the camp.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ou8q9\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> Miep had visited them and she would have conveyed messages.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Extermination</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>It was known in the summer of <strong>1942</strong> that hardships awaited Jews after deportation. Anne was afraid and assumed the worst. She wrote:<em> &#39;If it is already so bad in Holland how will they live in the distant and barbaric regions where they will be sent. We assume that most of them will be murdered. The English radio talks about gassing: perhaps that is the quickest method of death.&#39;</em> The date of this quote is <strong>9 October 1942</strong>, but since the note is from the B version, it is certain that Anne did not actually write it before <strong>May 1944</strong>. Nevertheless, it is true that Anglo-Saxon media were reporting&nbsp;mass killings in <strong>June</strong> <strong>1942</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"smze2\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup> including through gas<sup data-footnote-id=\"mwaok\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup>, and this thus became widely known. From that month, remarks about gassing also appeared more than incidentally in diaries of Dutch people.<sup data-footnote-id=\"51q8m\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup> In <strong>February 1944</strong>, Anne wrote again that in eastern Europe:<em> &#39;millions and more millions&#39; </em>were gassed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el7b\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup> Poland as a fearful deportation destination recurred several times in her notes from <strong>September 1942</strong> onwards.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pp678\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The general liquidation of the last remnants of the Jewish Council followed on <strong>29 September 1943</strong>. The only ones left behind were some specific groups, such as the mixed married people.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1ww56\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup> And the people in hiding, the exact number of which group has been subject to varying estimates. However, they were effectively hunted down and the number of those arrested&nbsp;ran into the thousands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"atvhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup> The hiding attempt in the Secret Annex did not have a happy ending. How it ended is well enough known: the <em>Sicherheitdienst</em> got wind of the matter in a way as yet unknown, and on <strong>4 August 1944</strong> a raid and arrest followed. Seven of the eight people in hiding did not survive deportation.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9lv2i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Nederlands Beheersinstituut (NBI): Beheersdossiers, nummer toegang 2.09.16,&nbsp; inv. nr. 134994:&nbsp;Otto Frank aan NBI, 31 januari 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v49rk\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bob Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden. De nazi-vervolging van de Joden in Nederland, </em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1998, p. 46.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"44s30\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, undated Thursday (July 1942), in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jo38t\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden</em>, p. 72.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa35e\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied </em>1940, p. 548.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4ld7c\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied </em>1941, p. 19.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q09m6\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ydz49\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Presser,&nbsp;<em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965, deel <em> </em>I, p. 67.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vb3ky\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>L. de Jong, <em>Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Deel 4: mei &#39;40 - maart &#39;41: tweede helft</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff, 1972, p. 884.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gj4jq\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam 1941-1943, </em>Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 16.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rppbw\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085:&nbsp;Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"50q4q\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De bekendmaking inzake badplaatsen enz.&rdquo;, <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 27 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cr2nz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18:&nbsp;Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, eind juni 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m27in\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaarten leden familie Frank en Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t86jr\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 9 October1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"59g9f\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Bekendmaking&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 29 april 1942, avondeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ew3xg\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr.&nbsp; 6650:&nbsp;Rapporten Pieter Aertszstraat, 14 april 1942, mut. 15.10 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6izhv\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 24 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"816ad\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Presser, <em>Ondergang</em>, deel I, p. 111, 212.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dkqx\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Joodsche Raad voor Amsterdam, inv. nr. 263:&nbsp;Lijst van op 11 juni 1941 gearresteerden.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7fgi1\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, DienstBevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten Ernst Kaufmann (1911) en Karl Lewkowitz (1922).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9dygm\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Moore, <em>Slachtoffers en overlevenden</em>, p. 182.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"al4aa\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Duitse Jodenwet stuit huwelijk in Nederland&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 17 september 1935, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2e1hb\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015. &#39;Erkl&auml;rung&#39; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dw8u2\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 November 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7myjr\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 26 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ou8q9\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 22 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"smze2\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Massacre of jews&rdquo;, <em>The Times</em>, 30 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mwaok\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Greatest massacre in the world&rsquo;s history&rdquo;, <em>Queensland Times</em>, 26 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"51q8m\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bart van der Boom, <em>&ldquo;Wij weten niets van hun lot.&rdquo; Gewone Nederlanders en de Holocaust, </em>Amsterdam: Boom, 2012, p. 488-515.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el7b\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pp678\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September, 14 and 20 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1ww56\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Presser, <em>Ondergang, </em>deel&nbsp; I, p. 385-386.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"atvhc\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Sytze van der Zee, <em>Vogelvrij. De jacht op de Joodse onderduiker, </em>Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 2010, p. 118.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Frank family and their peers faced numerous anti-Jewish measures during the German occupation that eventually forced them into hiding.",
                        "summary_nl": "De familie Frank en hun lotgenoten werden tijdens de Duitse bezetting geconfronteerd met tal van anti-Joodse maatregelen die hen uiteindelijk dwongen tot onderduiken.",
                        "summary_en": "The Frank family and their peers faced numerous anti-Jewish measures during the German occupation that eventually forced them into hiding.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/18915"
                        ],
                        "parent": 396124660,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
                        "files": []
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                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                "name_en": "Oase",
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                "content": "<p>Lunchroom and ice cream buffet located at Geleenstraat 1, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The case was registered at the Chamber of Commerce on <strong>4 May 1940</strong> by Max Gallasch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Oase was one of the catering establishments in Amsterdam South where Jews could continue to go.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpl0e\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;In the evening of <strong>May 21, 1941</strong>, members of the <em>Hitlerjugend</em> and NSB wanted to invade the shop. Six police officers managed to prevent this.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jo8gf\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister, Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, dossiernr. 33054185; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 428.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpl0e\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 30 June and 8 July 1942; Diary Version B, 20 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jo8gf\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2959: Rapport bureau Pieter Aertszstraat, 22 mei 1941, 22.30.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Lunchroom en IJsbuffet gevestigd op de Geleenstraat 1, Amsterdam.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:416,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:637,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1815}\" data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;De zaak werd op <strong>4 mei 1940</strong>&nbsp;bij de Kamer van Koophandel ingeschreven door Max Gallasch.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:969,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1190,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1815}\" data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Oase</em>&nbsp;was&nbsp;een van de horecazaken in Amsterdam-Zuid waar Joden naar toe konden blijven gaan.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:494,&quot;y&quot;:46,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:715,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1839}\" data-footnote-id=\"rpl0e\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de avond van <strong>21&nbsp;mei 1941</strong> wilden leden van de <em>Hitlerjugend</em> en NSB&nbsp;de zaak binnenvallen. Zes politieagenten wisten dat te voorkomen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:249,&quot;y&quot;:70,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:470,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1863}\" data-footnote-id=\"jo8gf\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:20,&quot;y&quot;:105,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:142,&quot;abs_x&quot;:241,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1898}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:35,&quot;y&quot;:122,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:256,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1915}\">\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister, Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, dossiernr. 33054185; Bianca Stigter,<em> Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 428.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpl0e\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 30 juni en 8 juli 1942; Dagboek B, 20 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jo8gf\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2959: Rapport bureau Pieter Aertszstraat, 22 mei 1941, 22.30.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Lunchroom and ice cream buffet located at Geleenstraat 1, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The case was registered at the Chamber of Commerce on <strong>4 May 1940</strong> by Max Gallasch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Oase was one of the catering establishments in Amsterdam South where Jews could continue to go.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpl0e\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;In the evening of <strong>May 21, 1941</strong>, members of the <em>Hitlerjugend</em> and NSB wanted to invade the shop. Six police officers managed to prevent this.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jo8gf\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"okfe3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister, Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, dossiernr. 33054185; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 428.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpl0e\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 30 June and 8 July 1942; Diary Version B, 20 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jo8gf\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2959: Rapport bureau Pieter Aertszstraat, 22 mei 1941, 22.30.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89508 52.34451)",
                "summary": "Oase was one of the catering establishments in Amsterdam-Zuid where Jews could continue to go.",
                "summary_nl": "Oase was een van de horecazaken in Amsterdam-Zuid waar Joden naar toe konden blijven gaan.",
                "summary_en": "Oase was one of the catering establishments in Amsterdam-Zuid where Jews could continue to go.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Geleenstraat 1",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 219,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1067,
                    "uuid": "1b111a6e-b12b-438b-9fdd-c01845673bbc",
                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_055.132",
                    "title": "Ansichtkaart van het Merwedeplein in jaren '30 die Anne in haar fotoalbum plakte. Rechts heeft ze met een streepje aangegeven waar ze woonde.",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/A_AFrank_III_055_132verkleind.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "Foto op p.50 in het album 'Blanco Monster Electro Huishoudboek 1937'. Anne Frank heeft dit album (in ieder geval gedeeltelijk) tijdens de onderduikperiode samengesteld. \r\nAnsichtkaart met opschrift: 'Z. 1 Merwedeplein Amsterdam-Z.' Bijschrift in handschrift Anne: 'Merwedeplein 37.' Rechts bij nr 37 heeft Anne met een streepje haar huis aangegeven.",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                },
                "latitude": "52.34561",
                "longitude": "4.90114",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 289,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/ea1f03f1-fa75-4f7c-a953-4a1abe17815f/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/ad82d2cb-9ea8-42a8-9ea5-f6e58c26eae8"
                        ],
                        "persons": [],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/88db758b-1dac-4579-86c6-33cc2bdc5273",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "ea1f03f1-fa75-4f7c-a953-4a1abe17815f",
                        "name": "Razzia on Merwedeplein",
                        "name_nl": "Razzia op het Merwedeplein",
                        "name_en": "Razzia on Merwedeplein",
                        "content": "<p>This was a reprisal for attacks on buildings used by the Wehrmacht. 310 men, including friends and neighbors of the Frank family, were arrested and deported to Mauthausen via Camp Schoorl on <strong>26 June 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"83hdu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"83hdu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rian Verheoeven,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/second-raid-amsterdam/\" target=\"_blank\">The second raid in Amsterdam</a>, Website Anne Frank Stichting (geraadpleegd 1 december 2023).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Dit was een represaille voor aanslagen op gebouwen die in gebruik waren bij de Wehrmacht. Hierbij werden 310 mannen, waaronder vrienden en buurtgenoten van de familie Frank,&nbsp; opgepakt en via Kamp Schoorl op <strong>26 juni 1941</strong> gedeporteerd naar Mauthausen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yxkwl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yxkwl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rian Verhoeven, <a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/de-tweede-razzia-amsterdam/\" target=\"_blank\">De tweede razzia in Amsterdam</a>, Website Anne Frank Stichting (geraadpleegd 1 december 2023).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>This was a reprisal for attacks on buildings used by the Wehrmacht. 310 men, including friends and neighbors of the Frank family, were arrested and deported to Mauthausen via Camp Schoorl on <strong>26 June 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"83hdu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"83hdu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rian Verheoeven,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/second-raid-amsterdam/\" target=\"_blank\">The second raid in Amsterdam</a>, Website Anne Frank Stichting (geraadpleegd 1 december 2023).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1941-06-11",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "On 11 June 1941, a razzia took place on Merwedeplein and in other parts of Amsterdam South.",
                        "summary_nl": "Op 11 juni 1941 vond er een razzia plaats op het Merwedeplein en in andere delen van Amsterdam-Zuid.",
                        "summary_en": "On 11 June 1941, a razzia took place on Merwedeplein and in other parts of Amsterdam South.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
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                "name": "Merwedeplein",
                "name_nl": "Merwedeplein",
                "name_en": "Merwedeplein",
                "uuid": "88db758b-1dac-4579-86c6-33cc2bdc5273",
                "content": "<p>As part of the construction of <em>Plan-Zuid</em>&nbsp;(South Plan), the Amsterdam city council took the decision on <strong>16 February 1927</strong> to name the square, bordered by Waalstraat, Jekerstraat and Roerstraat, Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qn221\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The square has become well known because of the home of Otto Frank and his family, located at number 37 II. They lived there from <strong>1933</strong> until they went into hiding in <strong>July 1942</strong>. But they were not the only Jewish families on this square and in this neighbourhood. In addition to the many Dutch Jewish families, many foreign Jews lived on this square, many of them German Jewish refugees.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dgkmm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The half-Jewish son of the famous German comedian Rudolf Nelson lived at number 23. And at number 59 II lived Michel Velleman with his family. Velleman, better known by the stage name Ben Ali Libi, was a Dutch magician and illusionist. The family of Anne Frank&#39;s friend Hanneli Goslar moved into an apartment on Merwedeplein in <strong>February 1933</strong> and Fritzi Markovitz, Otto Frank&#39;s second wife, also lived on Merwedeplein before the war with her&nbsp;then husband Erich Geiringer, son Heinz and daughter Eva.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h9shf\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank referred to the square twice in her diary as &#39;the Merry&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8sxpv\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Daily life in her old neighbourhood provided many memories. She missed&nbsp;the old life on Merwedeplein for all kinds of reasons, but also because of the comfort: she preferred central heating to smoky stoves.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vve4f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qn221\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merwedeplein\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merwedeplein</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dgkmm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Harri&euml;t Salm, &#39;Wie waren de buren van Anne Frank? Historica Rian Verhoeven zocht het uit&#39;, in: <em>Trouw</em>, 28 november 2019.&nbsp;Zie ook: Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen. Het Merwedeplein 1933-1945</em>. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h9shf\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor de lotgevalllen van een aantal bewoners van het Merwedeplein, zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8sxpv\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B,&nbsp; 8 November 1943 and 7 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vve4f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 7 November 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>In het kader van de aanleg van Plan-Zuid&nbsp;nam de Amsterdamse gemeenteraad op <strong>16 februari 1927</strong> het besluit om het Plein, begrensd door de Waalstraat, de Jekerstraat en de Roerstraat de naam Merwedeplein te geven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qn221\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het plein is overbekend geworden vanwege het op nummer 37 II gevestigde woonhuis van Otto Frank en zijn gezin. Zij woonden daar van <strong>1933</strong> tot hun onderduik in <strong>juli 1942</strong>. Maar zij waren niet de enige Joodse gezinnen aan dit plein en in deze buurt. Naast de vele Nederlands-Joodse gezinnen woonden er veel buitenlandse Joden op dit plein, voor een groot deel Duitse-Joodse vluchtelingen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dgkmm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Op nummer 23 woonde de half Joodse zoon van de beroemde Duitse cabaretier Rudolf Nelson. En op nummer 59 II Michel Velleman met zijn gezin. Velleman, beter bekend onder de artiestennaam Ben Ali Libi, was een Nederlandse goochelaar en illusionist. De familie van Anne Franks vriendinnetje Hanneli Goslar betrok in <strong>februari 1933</strong> een appartement aan het Merwedeplein en ook Fritzi Markovitz, de tweede vrouw van Otto Frank, woonde voor de oorlog met Erich Geiringer, haar toenmalige echtgenoot, zoon Heinz en dochter Eva aan het Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2aw1f\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank duidde het plein in haar dagboek twee keer aan als &lsquo;het Merry&rsquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8sxpv\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het dagelijks leven in haar oude buurt leverde&nbsp;veel herinneringen.&nbsp;Ze miste het oude leven op het Merwedeplein om allerlei redenen, maar mede vanwege het comfort: ze had&nbsp;liever centrale verwarming dan rokerige kachels.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vve4f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qn221\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merwedeplein\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merwedeplein</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dgkmm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Harri&euml;t Salm, &#39;Wie waren de buren van Anne Frank? Historica Rian Verhoeven zocht het uit&#39;, in: <em>Trouw</em>, 28 november 2019.&nbsp;Zie ook: Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen. Het Merwedeplein 1933-1945</em>. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2aw1f\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor de lotgevalllen van een aantal bewoners van het Merwedeplein, zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8sxpv\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Dagboek B,&nbsp; 8 november 1943 en 7 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, AMsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vve4f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 7 november 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>As part of the construction of <em>Plan-Zuid</em>&nbsp;(South Plan), the Amsterdam city council took the decision on <strong>16 February 1927</strong> to name the square, bordered by Waalstraat, Jekerstraat and Roerstraat, Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qn221\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The square has become well known because of the home of Otto Frank and his family, located at number 37 II. They lived there from <strong>1933</strong> until they went into hiding in <strong>July 1942</strong>. But they were not the only Jewish families on this square and in this neighbourhood. In addition to the many Dutch Jewish families, many foreign Jews lived on this square, many of them German Jewish refugees.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dgkmm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The half-Jewish son of the famous German comedian Rudolf Nelson lived at number 23. And at number 59 II lived Michel Velleman with his family. Velleman, better known by the stage name Ben Ali Libi, was a Dutch magician and illusionist. The family of Anne Frank&#39;s friend Hanneli Goslar moved into an apartment on Merwedeplein in <strong>February 1933</strong> and Fritzi Markovitz, Otto Frank&#39;s second wife, also lived on Merwedeplein before the war with her&nbsp;then husband Erich Geiringer, son Heinz and daughter Eva.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h9shf\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank referred to the square twice in her diary as &#39;the Merry&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8sxpv\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Daily life in her old neighbourhood provided many memories. She missed&nbsp;the old life on Merwedeplein for all kinds of reasons, but also because of the comfort: she preferred central heating to smoky stoves.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vve4f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qn221\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merwedeplein\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merwedeplein</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dgkmm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Harri&euml;t Salm, &#39;Wie waren de buren van Anne Frank? Historica Rian Verhoeven zocht het uit&#39;, in: <em>Trouw</em>, 28 november 2019.&nbsp;Zie ook: Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen. Het Merwedeplein 1933-1945</em>. Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h9shf\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor de lotgevalllen van een aantal bewoners van het Merwedeplein, zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8sxpv\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B,&nbsp; 8 November 1943 and 7 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vve4f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 7 November 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.90114 52.34561)",
                "summary": "Merwedeplein is located in the heart of Amsterdam's River District.",
                "summary_nl": "Het Merwedeplein ligt in het hart van de Amsterdamse Rivierenbuurt.",
                "summary_en": "Merwedeplein is located in the heart of Amsterdam's River District.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "in",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    289
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 243,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.345664",
                "longitude": "4.901817",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/e48c8d0c-8825-4c34-bd22-8c2a28adb089/",
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                "name": "Merwedeplein 3",
                "name_nl": "Merwedeplein 3",
                "name_en": "Merwedeplein 3",
                "uuid": "e48c8d0c-8825-4c34-bd22-8c2a28adb089",
                "content": "<p>Ruth Offenstadt (9 September 1911 &ndash; 27 April&nbsp;2010) was married to Fritz Toby. Their daughter Hannah was born in <strong>1934</strong>. After their emigration to the Netherlands they divorced, and in <strong>1937</strong> Ruth went to live with Hannah on Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4x8k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In Amsterdam she met Max Nussbaum, a young rabbi from Berlin. They married on <strong>7 July 1938</strong> in Amsterdam and moved to Berlin. They fled to the United States in <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z9ifp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4x8k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 75.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z9ifp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen,</em> p.304.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Ruth Offenstadt (<strong>9 september 1911 - 27 april 2010</strong>) was getrouwd met Fritz Toby. Hun dochter Hannah werd in <strong>1934</strong> geboren. Na hun emigratie naar Nederland scheidden ze, en in <strong>1937</strong> ging Ruth met Hannah op het Merwedeplein wonen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9igdu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In Amsterdam leerde ze Max Nussbaum kennen, een jonge rabbijn uit Berlijn. Ze trouwden op <strong>7 Juli 1938</strong> in Amsterdam en verhuisden naar Berlijn. Ze vluchtten in <strong>1940</strong> naar de Verenigde Staten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8tr84\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9igdu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 75.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8tr84\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen,</em> p.304.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Ruth Offenstadt (9 September 1911 &ndash; 27 April&nbsp;2010) was married to Fritz Toby. Their daughter Hannah was born in <strong>1934</strong>. After their emigration to the Netherlands they divorced, and in <strong>1937</strong> Ruth went to live with Hannah on Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4x8k\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In Amsterdam she met Max Nussbaum, a young rabbi from Berlin. They married on <strong>7 July 1938</strong> in Amsterdam and moved to Berlin. They fled to the United States in <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z9ifp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4x8k\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 75.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z9ifp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen,</em> p.304.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.901817 52.345664)",
                "summary": "Home of Ruth Offenstadt and her daughter Hannah Toby, with whom Anne Frank and her friends sometimes played. Ruth Offenstadt took two photos of this.",
                "summary_nl": "Woning van Ruth Offenstadt en haar dochter Hannah Toby, bij wie Anne Frank en haar vriendinnen speelden. Ruth Offenstadt heeft hiervan twee foto's gemaakt.",
                "summary_en": "Home of Ruth Offenstadt and her daughter Hannah Toby, with whom Anne Frank and her friends sometimes played. Ruth Offenstadt took two photos of this.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Merwedeplein 3",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
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                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1194,
                    "uuid": "2260855c-6137-4e85-be40-391b3ff0ce64",
                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_029",
                    "title": "Foto van Eva Goldberg, Sanne Ledermann en Anne Frank, Merwedeplein, Amsterdam, 1936",
                    "alt": "Vervaadiger: Helene Goldberg-Wechsler. Fotocollectie: Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/d44b1418-2605-6e30-9708-078e42411214.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor het publiek",
                    "copyright": "In copyright (rechten Derden)"
                },
                "latitude": "52.345354",
                "longitude": "4.900997",
                "events": [
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                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1194,
                            "uuid": "2260855c-6137-4e85-be40-391b3ff0ce64",
                            "name": "A_AFrank_III_029",
                            "title": "Foto van Eva Goldberg, Sanne Ledermann en Anne Frank, Merwedeplein, Amsterdam, 1936",
                            "alt": "Vervaadiger: Helene Goldberg-Wechsler. Fotocollectie: Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                            "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/d44b1418-2605-6e30-9708-078e42411214.jpg",
                            "path": null,
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "",
                            "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor het publiek",
                            "copyright": "In copyright (rechten Derden)"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/362d0c5b-56b7-4ad4-933c-ec2241251e97/",
                        "subjects": [],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/af9532f3-5c37-4d80-91c8-98a0e489cec8",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ee61e5a6-41f3-4089-8e1d-18d7d3d0c866"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/9c7b897a-5803-4d3a-a810-d05792a6ff5f",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "362d0c5b-56b7-4ad4-933c-ec2241251e97",
                        "name": "Anne Frank plays with Sanne Ledermann and Eva Goldberg",
                        "name_nl": "Anne Frank speelt met Sanne Ledermann en Eva Goldberg",
                        "name_en": "Anne Frank plays with Sanne Ledermann and Eva Goldberg",
                        "content": "<p>Sisters Annemarie and Henri&euml;tte Wechsler lived in the ground-floor apartment at 33 Merwedeplein from <strong>March 1934</strong>. When they visited their niece Eva Goldberg, a daughter of their sister Helene, they brought her into contact with Anne Frank and Sanne Ledermann. She could also talk German with them. In <strong>July 1936</strong>, Helene Goldberg-Wechsler took a photo of the three girls.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Before Eva and her parents emigrated to America, they came to Amsterdam once more in <strong>January 1939</strong>. On that occasion, Anne and Sanne both wrote a verse in Eva&#39;s poetry&nbsp;album.</p>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In het benedenhuis Merwedeplein 33 woonden vanaf <strong>maart 1934</strong> de zussen Annemarie en Henri&euml;tte Wechsler. Toen zij hun nichtje Eva Goldberg, een dochter van hun zus Helene, op bezoek hadden brachten ze haar in contact met Anne Frank en Sanne Ledermann. Daar kon ze ook Duits mee praten. In <strong>juli 1936</strong> maakte Helene Goldberg - Wechsler een foto van de drie meisjes.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Voor Eva en haar ouders naar Amerika uitweken, kwamen ze in <strong>januari 1939</strong> nog een keer naar Amsterdam. Bij die gelegenheid schreven Anne en Sanne allebei een versje in Eva&#39;s poesiealbum.</p>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Sisters Annemarie and Henri&euml;tte Wechsler lived in the ground-floor apartment at 33 Merwedeplein from <strong>March 1934</strong>. When they visited their niece Eva Goldberg, a daughter of their sister Helene, they brought her into contact with Anne Frank and Sanne Ledermann. She could also talk German with them. In <strong>July 1936</strong>, Helene Goldberg-Wechsler took a photo of the three girls.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Before Eva and her parents emigrated to America, they came to Amsterdam once more in <strong>January 1939</strong>. On that occasion, Anne and Sanne both wrote a verse in Eva&#39;s poetry&nbsp;album.</p>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1936-07-01",
                        "date_end": "1936-07-31",
                        "summary": "Between 1936 and 1939, Anne and Sanne met Eva Goldberg several times.",
                        "summary_nl": "Tussen 1936 en 1939 ontmoetten Anne Frank en Sanne Ledermann Eva Goldberg enkele keren.",
                        "summary_en": "Between 1936 and 1939, Anne and Sanne met Eva Goldberg several times.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                        "parent": 396124553,
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                "published": true,
                "name": "Merwedeplein 33-hs",
                "name_nl": "Merwedeplein 33-hs",
                "name_en": "Merwedeplein 33-hs",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.900997 52.345354)",
                "summary": "Home of Henriëtte and Annemarie Wechsler, immigrants from Berlin. They were Eva Goldberg's aunts, and the girl used to play with Anne Frank and Sanne Ledermann whenever she was visiting.",
                "summary_nl": "Woning van Henriëtte en Annemarie Wechsler, migranten uit Berlijn. Zij waren tantes van Eva Goldberg, die met Anne Frank en Sanne Ledermann speelde als zij daar op bezoek was.",
                "summary_en": "Home of Henriëtte and Annemarie Wechsler, immigrants from Berlin. They were Eva Goldberg's aunts, and the girl used to play with Anne Frank and Sanne Ledermann whenever she was visiting.",
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                "street": "Merwedeplein 33-hs",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
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                "land": "Nederland",
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                    "title": "Wolkenkrabber met links de Zuider Amstellaan, rond 1940",
                    "alt": "Collectie N.V. De Arbeiderspers. Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
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                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5ea902c2-a419-4311-bd4b-7b1519c94f23",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/2d652d29-bf54-4283-83c6-be573e061363",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/228fad8f-c9f9-46d1-88d7-18f4e36c68ac",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/706075d4-d796-4db8-a33b-69c1e2a7e1bc",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/72f4aea2-7604-4373-bf0b-ac9bb24dc45d"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/5c9289eb-d4f6-46b8-afe7-5c15df9164c3",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f6f94542-1e37-4eb9-a670-dfce1eb7824a",
                        "name": "The Goslar family in Amsterdam",
                        "name_nl": "Familie Goslar in Amsterdam",
                        "name_en": "The Goslar family in Amsterdam",
                        "content": "<p>Together with Franz Ledermann, Goslar started a consultancy for German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5kcz2\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5kcz2\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33-35.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Samen met Franz Ledermann begon Goslar een adviesbureau&nbsp;voor Duitse Joden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b8bse\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b8bse\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Together with Franz Ledermann, Goslar started a consultancy for German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5kcz2\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5kcz2\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33-35.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1933-12-20",
                        "date_end": "1943-06-20",
                        "summary": "Hans Goslar lived in Amsterdam from December 1933 on. In February 1934 he and his family moved into a house on Merwedeplein.",
                        "summary_nl": "Hans Goslar woont sinds december 1933 in Amsterdam. In februari 1934 betrekt hij met zijn familie een huis aan het Merwedeplein.",
                        "summary_en": "Hans Goslar lived in Amsterdam from December 1933 on. In February 1934 he and his family moved into a house on Merwedeplein.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124556,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
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                "name": "Goslar family home | Zuider Amstellaan 16",
                "name_nl": "Woning familie Goslar | Zuider Amstellaan 16",
                "name_en": "Goslar family home | Zuider Amstellaan 16",
                "uuid": "5c9289eb-d4f6-46b8-afe7-5c15df9164c3",
                "content": "<p>In the context of the construction of <em>Plan-Zuid</em>, the Amsterdam city council decided on <strong>March 22, 1923,</strong> to call this avenue the Zuider Amstellaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k6ohl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hanneli Goslar and Hello Silberberg, among others, lived on the Zuider Amstellaan.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>May 8, 1946</strong>, the name was changed to Rooseveltlaan, after American president F.D. Roosevelt.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k6ohl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten, inv. nr. 432,&nbsp;tabblad.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>In het kader van de aanleg van <em>Plan-Zuid</em>&nbsp;besloot&nbsp;de Amsterdamse gemeenteraad op <strong>22 maart 1923</strong> deze laan de Zuider Amstellaan te noemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k6ohl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op de Zuider Amstellaan woonden onder meer Hanneli Goslar en Hello Silberberg.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>8 mei 1946</strong> werd&nbsp;de naam veranderd in Rooseveltlaan, naar de in <strong>1945</strong> overleden Amerikaanse president F.D. Roosevelt.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k6ohl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten, inv. nr. 432,&nbsp;tabblad.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>In the context of the construction of <em>Plan-Zuid</em>, the Amsterdam city council decided on <strong>March 22, 1923,</strong> to call this avenue the Zuider Amstellaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"k6ohl\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hanneli Goslar and Hello Silberberg, among others, lived on the Zuider Amstellaan.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>May 8, 1946</strong>, the name was changed to Rooseveltlaan, after American president F.D. Roosevelt.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k6ohl\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten, inv. nr. 432,&nbsp;tabblad.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.902198 52.345393)",
                "summary": "Second address of the Goslar family. The Van Pels family and Hello Silberberg also lived on this street.",
                "summary_nl": "Tweede adres van de familie Goslar. Aan deze straat woonden onder andere ook de familie Van Pels en Hello Silberberg.",
                "summary_en": "Second address of the Goslar family. The Van Pels family and Hello Silberberg also lived on this street.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Zuider Amstellaan 16",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
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                            "name": "",
                            "title": "Advertentie van het adviesbureau van Goslar en Ledermann in het Nieuw Israelitisch Weekblad, 5 januari 1934.",
                            "alt": "www.delpher.nl",
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                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/ddd_010874879_mpeg21_p008_crop.jpg",
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                            "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/f8e51b67-6114-460e-b996-d6f0e5b95ddd/",
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/04bc398b-9132-421d-be07-26d89aecf727",
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                        "name": "Goslar and Ledermann start a consultancy firm",
                        "name_nl": "Goslar en Ledermann beginnen een adviesbureau",
                        "name_en": "Goslar and Ledermann start a consultancy firm",
                        "content": "<p>Both settled in Amsterdam with their families in late <strong>1933</strong>. From <strong>January 1934</strong>, they worked together as consultants on economic, financial and legal matters on behalf of German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udxid\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Initially they did so from an office building on Rokin. They placed an advertisement in the <em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em> on <strong>5 January 1934</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4tmb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Later, they established their office in Goslar&#39;s home on Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> When the Goslar family moved, the firm moved with them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mmh5l\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Their focus included exchanging houses, mortgages and businesses in the Netherlands for manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers in Germany.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vzpix\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Furthermore, they represented companies in the British Mandate area of Palestine, such as the long-established &#39;Palestine Land Development Company Ltd.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"r1e4d\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> and the &#39;Industrial and Financial Corporation of Palestine Ltd.&#39; (&#39;Ifico&#39;).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ruth Goslar-Klee had studied&nbsp;ancient and modern languages, and therefore picked up Dutch quickly. She was in charge of the firm&#39;s secretariat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oq6fj\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udxid\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4tmb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &quot;Bemiddeling&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>, 5 januari 1934, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Palestijnsche effectenkoersen&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Centraal Blad voor Isra&euml;lieten</em>, 30 januari 1936, p. 9.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mmh5l\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Palestijnsche effectenkoersen&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Centraal Blad voor Isra&euml;lieten</em>, 1 juli1937, p. 7.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vzpix\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &ldquo;Tausch mit Deutschland&rdquo;,&nbsp;<em>Limburger Koerier</em>, 4 mei 1936, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r1e4d\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &ldquo;Palestine Land Development Company Ltd.&rdquo;,&nbsp;<em>Nieuw Isra&euml;litisch Weekblad</em>, 26 februari 1937, p. .</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oq6fj\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenverhalen Goslar: interview met Hanneli Pick-Goslar door David de Jongh en Teresien da Silva in Jeruzalem, 6 mei 2009, tijdcode 15:42:54 - 15:44:42.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Beiden vestigden zich eind <strong>1933</strong> met hun gezinnen in Amsterdam. Vanaf <strong>januari 1934</strong> werkten zij samen als adviseurs in economische, financi&euml;le en juridische zaken ten behoeve van Duitse Joden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"khcm0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Aanvankelijk deden ze dat vanuit een kantoorpand aan het Rokin.&nbsp;Op <strong>5 januari 1934</strong> plaatsten zij een advertentie in het <em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4tmb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Later vestigden zij hun bureau in de woning van Goslar aan het Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen het gezin Goslar verhuisde, verhuisde het bureau mee.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mmh5l\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze richtten zich onder meer op het ruilen van huizen, hypotheken en bedrijven in Nederland tegen fabrieken, grossiers- en detailbedrijven in Duitsland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vzpix\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Verder vertegenwoordigden zij bedrijven in het Britse mandaatgebied Palestina, zoals de al langer bestaande&nbsp;&#39;Palestine Land Development Company Ltd.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"r1e4d\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;en de &#39;Industrial and Financial Corporation of Palestine Ltd.&#39;&nbsp;(&#39;Ifico&#39;).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ruth Goslar-Klee was geschoold in oude en moderne talen, en pikte daardoor het Nederlands snel op. Zij verzorgde het secretariaat van het bureau.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oq6fj\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"khcm0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4tmb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &quot;Bemiddeling&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>, 5 januari 1934, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Palestijnsche effectenkoersen&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Centraal Blad voor Isra&euml;lieten</em>, 30 januari 1936, p. 9.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mmh5l\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Palestijnsche effectenkoersen&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Centraal Blad voor Isra&euml;lieten</em>, 1 juli1937, p. 7.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vzpix\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &ldquo;Tausch mit Deutschland&rdquo;,&nbsp;<em>Limburger Koerier</em>, 4 mei 1936, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r1e4d\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &ldquo;Palestine Land Development Company Ltd.&rdquo;,&nbsp;<em>Nieuw Isra&euml;litisch Weekblad</em>, 26 februari 1937, p. .</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oq6fj\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenverhalen Goslar: interview met Hanneli Pick-Goslar door David de Jongh en Teresien da Silva in Jeruzalem, 6 mei 2009, tijdcode 15:42:54 - 15:44:42.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Both settled in Amsterdam with their families in late <strong>1933</strong>. From <strong>January 1934</strong>, they worked together as consultants on economic, financial and legal matters on behalf of German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udxid\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Initially they did so from an office building on Rokin. They placed an advertisement in the <em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em> on <strong>5 January 1934</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4tmb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Later, they established their office in Goslar&#39;s home on Merwedeplein.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> When the Goslar family moved, the firm moved with them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mmh5l\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Their focus included exchanging houses, mortgages and businesses in the Netherlands for manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers in Germany.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vzpix\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Furthermore, they represented companies in the British Mandate area of Palestine, such as the long-established &#39;Palestine Land Development Company Ltd.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"r1e4d\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> and the &#39;Industrial and Financial Corporation of Palestine Ltd.&#39; (&#39;Ifico&#39;).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ruth Goslar-Klee had studied&nbsp;ancient and modern languages, and therefore picked up Dutch quickly. She was in charge of the firm&#39;s secretariat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oq6fj\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udxid\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4tmb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &quot;Bemiddeling&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>, 5 januari 1934, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ma08a\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Palestijnsche effectenkoersen&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Centraal Blad voor Isra&euml;lieten</em>, 30 januari 1936, p. 9.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mmh5l\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Palestijnsche effectenkoersen&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Centraal Blad voor Isra&euml;lieten</em>, 1 juli1937, p. 7.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vzpix\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &ldquo;Tausch mit Deutschland&rdquo;,&nbsp;<em>Limburger Koerier</em>, 4 mei 1936, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r1e4d\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &ldquo;Palestine Land Development Company Ltd.&rdquo;,&nbsp;<em>Nieuw Isra&euml;litisch Weekblad</em>, 26 februari 1937, p. .</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oq6fj\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenverhalen Goslar: interview met Hanneli Pick-Goslar door David de Jongh en Teresien da Silva in Jeruzalem, 6 mei 2009, tijdcode 15:42:54 - 15:44:42.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1934-01-05",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Franz Ledermann and Hans Goslar were both from Berlin and worked together in various fields in Amsterdam.",
                        "summary_nl": "Franz Ledermann en Hans Goslar waren allebei uit Berlijn afkomstig en werkten in Amsterdam op verschillende terreinen samen.",
                        "summary_en": "Franz Ledermann and Hans Goslar were both from Berlin and worked together in various fields in Amsterdam.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                "name": "Adviesbureau Goslar en Ledermann (Goslar & Ledermann Consultancy)",
                "name_nl": "Adviesbureau Goslar en Ledermann",
                "name_en": "Adviesbureau Goslar en Ledermann (Goslar & Ledermann Consultancy)",
                "uuid": "04bc398b-9132-421d-be07-26d89aecf727",
                "content": "<p>They provided advice in economic, financial and legal matters to German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7mrkt\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7mrkt\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Zij gaven advies in economische, financi&euml;le en juridische zaken aan Duitse Joden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oc0uf\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oc0uf\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>They provided advice in economic, financial and legal matters to German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7mrkt\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7mrkt\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.894688 52.374584)",
                "summary": "This consultancy was later located at Merwedeplein 31 and Zuider-Amstellaan 16, Amsterdam, Hans Goslar's residential addresses.",
                "summary_nl": "Dit adviesbureau was later gevestigd op Merwedeplein 31 en Zuider-Amstellaan 16, Amsterdam, de woonadressen van Hans Goslar.",
                "summary_en": "This consultancy was later located at Merwedeplein 31 and Zuider-Amstellaan 16, Amsterdam, Hans Goslar's residential addresses.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Damrak 69/70",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": [
                    119
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 58,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 947,
                    "uuid": "fdf86d28-e578-455b-995c-b737faf5a880",
                    "name": "312297_Scan1_0001",
                    "title": "Sanne Ledermann met nichtjes voor Noorder Amstellaan 35-37.",
                    "alt": "Foto: onbekend. Fotocollectie familie Rodbell",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/312297_Scan1_0001.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "De drie meisjes zitten op het hek van de opgangtrap naar het portiek. Rechts het naamschild met beroep van Franz Ledermann.",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                },
                "latitude": "52.346377",
                "longitude": "4.900374",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 118,
                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1035,
                            "uuid": "eed65f04-e7a0-444a-ad3b-616700cd80da",
                            "name": "USHMM_Ledermann-Balkon.jpg",
                            "title": "Het gezin Ledermann-Citroen op hun balkon in Amsterdam.",
                            "alt": "Fotocollectie: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum/courtesy family Rodbell",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/USHMM_Ledermann-Balkon.jpg",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Status onduidelijk."
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/92a90439-fd8b-4a39-a087-ce16e19570ff/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5ea902c2-a419-4311-bd4b-7b1519c94f23",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/33e28b71-10bd-42c4-b577-534b07cd58f0",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/0d9ec16a-477c-45db-b33b-410e0d9c1306",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/64b06ab5-3490-46dc-9272-e33e03fa3279",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ee61e5a6-41f3-4089-8e1d-18d7d3d0c866"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/aab06445-fe04-4578-9fba-19e679b65d6d",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "92a90439-fd8b-4a39-a087-ce16e19570ff",
                        "name": "The Ledermann family lives in Amsterdam",
                        "name_nl": "Familie Ledermann woont in Amsterdam",
                        "name_en": "The Ledermann family lives in Amsterdam",
                        "content": "<p>Together with Hans Goslar, Ledermann started a consultancy for German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m4yus\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m4yus\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 28-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Samen met Hans Goslar richtte Ledermann een adviesbureau voor Duitse Joden op.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r3c0\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4r3c0\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 28-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Together with Hans Goslar, Ledermann started a consultancy for German Jews.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m4yus\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m4yus\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 28-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1933-12-14",
                        "date_end": "1943-06-20",
                        "summary": "Before that, they lived briefly in Zandvoort.",
                        "summary_nl": "Hiervoor woonden ze kort in Zandvoort.",
                        "summary_en": "Before that, they lived briefly in Zandvoort.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124556,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/aab06445-fe04-4578-9fba-19e679b65d6d/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Ledermann family home",
                "name_nl": "Woning familie Ledermann",
                "name_en": "Ledermann family home",
                "uuid": "aab06445-fe04-4578-9fba-19e679b65d6d",
                "content": "<p>They lived in Amsterdam since <strong>December 1933</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"162wc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"162wc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 28-30.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Zij woonden sinds <strong>december 1933</strong> in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"92c8z\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"92c8z\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 28-30.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>They lived in Amsterdam since <strong>December 1933</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"162wc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"162wc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 28-30.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.900374 52.346377)",
                "summary": "Noorder Amstellaan 37-III (after 1945: Churchilllaan), Amsterdam",
                "summary_nl": "Noorder Amstellaan 37-III (na 1945: Churchilllaan), Amsterdam",
                "summary_en": "Noorder Amstellaan 37-III (after 1945: Churchilllaan), Amsterdam",
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                    {
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
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                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124556,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/e8477cf1-0664-404d-a851-fe6a97e01e47",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/7d0da592-ac93-4786-b1c3-932a0fd9dcf5",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/aa7d60c3-6d94-4f52-a729-96440eeb4d5f",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2ff53ce1-d866-4190-a138-16c32a9eca43"
                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/903ba158-f1e0-4d0f-b613-eae91df2893e/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Geiringer family's address | Merwedeplein 46-I",
                "name_nl": "Woning familie Geiringer | Merwedeplein 46-I",
                "name_en": "Geiringer family's address | Merwedeplein 46-I",
                "uuid": "903ba158-f1e0-4d0f-b613-eae91df2893e",
                "content": "<p>After being separated for a while, the family was reunited here.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yaafw\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yaafw\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 117.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Na een tijd gescheiden te zijn geweest, kwam de familie hier weer bij elkaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zh8xk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zh8xk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 117.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>After being separated for a while, the family was reunited here.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yaafw\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yaafw\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven,&nbsp;<em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 117.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.90058 52.34601)",
                "summary": "The Geiringer family lived at this address from April 1940 until they went into hiding in July 1942.",
                "summary_nl": "De familie Geiringer woonde vanaf april 1940 op dit adres, totdat zij in juli 1942 onderdoken.",
                "summary_en": "The Geiringer family lived at this address from April 1940 until they went into hiding in July 1942.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Merwedeplein 46-I",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
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        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 59,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.345366",
                "longitude": "4.901085",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124556,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/b6bed785-6178-42d2-9f90-a90e7730c21e/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Goslar family home | Merwedeplein 31-I",
                "name_nl": "Woning familie Goslar | Merwedeplein 31-I",
                "name_en": "Goslar family home | Merwedeplein 31-I",
                "uuid": "b6bed785-6178-42d2-9f90-a90e7730c21e",
                "content": "<p>There the Goslar family became friends with the Frank family.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qvy1p\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qvy1p\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33-35.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Daar raakte de familie Goslar bevriend met de familie Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"amim2\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"amim2\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33-35.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>There the Goslar family became friends with the Frank family.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qvy1p\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qvy1p\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie Rian Verhoeven, <em>Anne Frank was niet alleen: het Merwedeplein, 1933-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2019, p. 33-35.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.901085 52.345366)",
                "summary": "The Goslar family moved into a flat on Merwedeplein in February 1934.",
                "summary_nl": "De familie Goslar betrok In februari 1934 een appartement aan het Merwedeplein.",
                "summary_en": "The Goslar family moved into a flat on Merwedeplein in February 1934.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Merwedeplein 31-I",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": []
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            "score": 1.3162779
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        {
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            "instance": {
                "id": 22,
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                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1068,
                    "uuid": "4bee3012-f5c2-4896-a55c-5f4faeb9fc6d",
                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_026",
                    "title": "Anne Frank kijkt uit het raam van Merwedeplein 37-II, Amsterdam, 22 juli 1941",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/1dd17715-9779-a5ab-2daa-8af16c4caab1.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "Twee stills (filmbeelden) uit de huwelijksfilm van het echtpaar Van Kalken-Burger waarbij Anne uit het raam kijkt. In handschrift Otto Frank (?) aan de achterkant: 'Hochzeit Kalken-Burger Merwedeplein 37' 22 juli 1941. Het beeld is gespiegeld. De film is gemaakt op 22 juli 1941, toen het buurmeisje van Merwedeplein 39-II van de Franks, Tine Burger, in het huwelijk trad met Van Kalken.",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor het publiek",
                    "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                },
                "latitude": "52.345283",
                "longitude": "4.900967",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 61,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/e4ce2df8-3a2f-4dc9-b3a9-5c44696c0785/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5ea902c2-a419-4311-bd4b-7b1519c94f23",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/89469df2-3208-41fd-9879-91b89fde3a21",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
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                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5166e05f-5950-486d-bb13-160b2a586fd5",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/e4a1ba76-6838-4779-9853-b332dcee8815",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/803597b3-a883-402c-874f-f8e78a843fc5"
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/838a9a83-171f-44ec-8a97-0024ebf8b5b6",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "e4ce2df8-3a2f-4dc9-b3a9-5c44696c0785",
                        "name": "The Frank family lives at Merwedeplein",
                        "name_nl": "De familie Frank woont op het Merwedeplein in Amsterdam",
                        "name_en": "The Frank family lives at Merwedeplein",
                        "content": "<p>Otto Frank was registered at Merwedeplein from <strong>5 December 1933</strong>, and the rest of his family from <strong>7 December</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kfix7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> However, it was not until mid-February that they were all reunited in their new home.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In a letter from November, addressed to a former neighbour from Frankfurt, Otto wrote that they had found a house.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1mtsw\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> From <strong>spring 1934</strong> on, a number of household helps, subtenants, relatives and acquaintances lived with the family for shorter or longer periods.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>From <strong>24 March 1939 </strong>to <strong>29 January 1942</strong>, Edith&#39;s mother, Rosalie Holl&auml;nder &mdash; Stern, lived with the family.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kfix7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 230: Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1mtsw\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief: Trenz-Neumann, Gertrud, reg.code A_Getuigen_I_081, A_Getuigen_I_083, A_Getuigen_I_084.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Vanaf <strong>5 december 1933 </strong>was Otto Frank op het Merwedeplein ingeschreven, de rest van zijn gezin vanaf de zevende.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kfix7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Het duurde echter nog tot midden februari voordat allen daadwerkelijk in de nieuwe woning herenigd waren.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In een brief uit november, gericht aan een vroeger buurmeisje uit Frankfurt, schreef Otto dat zij een woning hadden gevonden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1mtsw\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Vanaf het <strong>voorjaar van 1934</strong> woonden er achtereenvolgens nog een aantal huishoudelijke hulpen, onderhuurder, familieleden en bekenden korter of langer bij het gezin.&nbsp;Van <strong>24 maart 1939</strong> tot <strong>29 januari 1942</strong> woonde Ediths moeder, Rosalie Holl&auml;nder - Stern, bij het gezin.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kfix7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 230: Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1mtsw\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief: Trenz-Neumann, Gertrud, reg.code A_Getuigen_I_081, A_Getuigen_I_083, A_Getuigen_I_084.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Otto Frank was registered at Merwedeplein from <strong>5 December 1933</strong>, and the rest of his family from <strong>7 December</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kfix7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> However, it was not until mid-February that they were all reunited in their new home.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In a letter from November, addressed to a former neighbour from Frankfurt, Otto wrote that they had found a house.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1mtsw\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> From <strong>spring 1934</strong> on, a number of household helps, subtenants, relatives and acquaintances lived with the family for shorter or longer periods.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>From <strong>24 March 1939 </strong>to <strong>29 January 1942</strong>, Edith&#39;s mother, Rosalie Holl&auml;nder &mdash; Stern, lived with the family.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kfix7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 230: Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1mtsw\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief: Trenz-Neumann, Gertrud, reg.code A_Getuigen_I_081, A_Getuigen_I_083, A_Getuigen_I_084.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1933-12-05",
                        "date_end": "1942-07-06",
                        "summary": "Otto Frank and Edith Frank lived at Merwedeplein 37-II from 5 December 1933. Later that month Margot joined them, and in February 1934 Anne came to Amsterdam.",
                        "summary_nl": "Otto Frank en Edith Frank woonden vanaf 5 december 1933 op het adres Merwedeplein 37-II. Later die maand kwam Margot, en in februari 1934 kwam Anne naar Amsterdam.",
                        "summary_en": "Otto Frank and Edith Frank lived at Merwedeplein 37-II from 5 December 1933. Later that month Margot joined them, and in February 1934 Anne came to Amsterdam.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 293,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/6a0a8a86-70c8-4e33-ab2e-742026e78b04/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/9f136fe9-87fc-481d-b94b-b69a41654c68",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/242f1ce6-77c3-42cf-b8b4-754be782ef1c"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5166e05f-5950-486d-bb13-160b2a586fd5",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/fee45840-1768-451a-86b4-a10dfd3eaabc",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/e4a1ba76-6838-4779-9853-b332dcee8815",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/803597b3-a883-402c-874f-f8e78a843fc5",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/6cea18cc-b7cf-4a97-9a35-52b95d33f453"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/838a9a83-171f-44ec-8a97-0024ebf8b5b6",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "6a0a8a86-70c8-4e33-ab2e-742026e78b04",
                        "name": "Oma Holländer in the Netherlands",
                        "name_nl": "Oma Holländer in Nederland",
                        "name_en": "Oma Holländer in the Netherlands",
                        "content": "<p>In the late summer of <strong>1938</strong>, Edith Frank-Holl&auml;nder and her husband applied to the Dutch government for her mother&#39;s admission to the Netherlands. However, in <strong>May </strong>of that year, the government had closed the borders and the application was rejected. Only because of the so-called <em>November pogrom</em>, also known as <em>Kristallnacht</em>, an additional seven thousand refugees were granted permission to come to the Netherlands. On <strong>17 November 1938</strong>, Rosa Holl&auml;nder received her permit, albeit on the condition that her sons Julius and Walter would not try to join her in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4q037\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Since she did not want to leave Germany before her sons were safe, it was not until the end of <strong>March </strong>of the following year before she moved to the Netherlands. On <strong>24 March 1939</strong>, she entered the Netherlands at Simpelveld train station.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j1ezy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;She lived with her daughter&#39;s family until she died on <strong>29 January 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8vsqn\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4q037\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, (NL-HaNA), Rijksvreemdelingendienst en rechtsvoorgangers, toegangsnr. 2.09.45, inv. nr. 227: secretaris-generaal van Justitie Van Angeren aan Procureur-Generaal, 17 november 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j1ezy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, Rijksvreemdelingendienst, inv. nr. 227:&nbsp;Otto Frank aan Bureau Grensbewaking, 22 maart 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8vsqn\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238: Archiefkaart R.S. Stern.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In de nazomer van <strong>1938</strong> diende Edith Frank - Holl&auml;nder met haar man bij de Nederlandse regering een verzoek in tot toelating van haar moeder tot Nederland. De regering had echter in <strong>mei</strong> van dat jaar de grenzen gesloten en wees het verzoek daarom af. Het was de zogenaamde <em>Novemberpogrom</em>, ook wel <em>Kristallnacht</em>, waardoor een extra zevenduizend vluchtelingen toegang tot Nederland kregen. Op <strong>17 november 1938&nbsp;</strong>kreeg Rosa Holl&auml;nder alsnog toestemming, zij het onder de voorwaarde dat niet ook haar zoons Julius en Walter naar Nederland zouden proberen te komen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4q037\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Omdat zij Duitsland niet wilde verlaten voor haar zoons veilig waren, duurde het nog tot eind <strong>maart</strong> van het volgende jaar voor zij daadwerkelijk kwam. Op <strong>24 maart 1939&nbsp;</strong>kwam zij bij station Simpelveld Nederland binnen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j1ezy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze woonde bij het gezin van haar dochter tot ze op&nbsp;<strong>29 januari 1942&nbsp;</strong>overleed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8vsqn\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4q037\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, (NL-HaNA), Rijksvreemdelingendienst en rechtsvoorgangers, toegangsnr. 2.09.45, inv. nr. 227: secretaris-generaal van Justitie Van Angeren aan Procureur-Generaal, 17 november 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j1ezy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, Rijksvreemdelingendienst, inv. nr. 227:&nbsp;Otto Frank aan Bureau Grensbewaking, 22 maart 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8vsqn\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238: Archiefkaart R.S. Stern.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>In the late summer of <strong>1938</strong>, Edith Frank-Holl&auml;nder and her husband applied to the Dutch government for her mother&#39;s admission to the Netherlands. However, in <strong>May </strong>of that year, the government had closed the borders and the application was rejected. Only because of the so-called <em>November pogrom</em>, also known as <em>Kristallnacht</em>, an additional seven thousand refugees were granted permission to come to the Netherlands. On <strong>17 November 1938</strong>, Rosa Holl&auml;nder received her permit, albeit on the condition that her sons Julius and Walter would not try to join her in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4q037\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Since she did not want to leave Germany before her sons were safe, it was not until the end of <strong>March </strong>of the following year before she moved to the Netherlands. On <strong>24 March 1939</strong>, she entered the Netherlands at Simpelveld train station.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j1ezy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;She lived with her daughter&#39;s family until she died on <strong>29 January 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8vsqn\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4q037\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, (NL-HaNA), Rijksvreemdelingendienst en rechtsvoorgangers, toegangsnr. 2.09.45, inv. nr. 227: secretaris-generaal van Justitie Van Angeren aan Procureur-Generaal, 17 november 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j1ezy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, Rijksvreemdelingendienst, inv. nr. 227:&nbsp;Otto Frank aan Bureau Grensbewaking, 22 maart 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8vsqn\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten, toegang 30238: Archiefkaart R.S. Stern.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1938-09-14",
                        "date_end": "1942-01-29",
                        "summary": "In March 1939, Rosalie Holländer-Stern, Anne and Margot Frank's grandmother, came to live with the family at Merwedeplein in Amsterdam. She stayed with them until her death in January 1942.",
                        "summary_nl": "In maart 1939 kwam de oma van Anne en Margot Frank, Rosalie Holländer-Stern, bij hen wonen op het Merwedeplein in Amsterdam. Ze bleef tot ze in januari 1942 overleed.",
                        "summary_en": "In March 1939, Rosalie Holländer-Stern, Anne and Margot Frank's grandmother, came to live with the family at Merwedeplein in Amsterdam. She stayed with them until her death in January 1942.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 313,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/dd82fa2f-943e-4be3-9d8f-5e72245f7990/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/15419b29-aadf-4c4d-af00-a6973b460f9a",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5f313320-29fb-4364-a148-5b9111f12e47"
                        ],
                        "persons": [],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/838a9a83-171f-44ec-8a97-0024ebf8b5b6",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "dd82fa2f-943e-4be3-9d8f-5e72245f7990",
                        "name": "Margot Frank receives a call-up",
                        "name_nl": "Margot Frank krijgt een oproep",
                        "name_en": "Margot Frank receives a call-up",
                        "content": "<p>Margot received a call-up to report for transport to Germany on <strong>5 July 1942</strong>. Anne wrote&nbsp;in her diary: &#39;<em>(...)&nbsp;At three o&#39;clock&nbsp;the doorbell rang (...)&nbsp;A little while later Margot appeared in the kitchen doorway looking very agitated. &quot;Father has received a call-up notice from the SS</em>&quot;<em>.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"nsklu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em>According to Ilse Ledermann-Citroen, the recipients of these call-ups had to report to&nbsp;the Gestapo the next day<strong> (6 July 1942</strong>) between eight and nine o&#39;clock, where they were given notice to come to the train station (it&#39;s not clear which one) on the 15th at 2.30 in the morning.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rymn1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> This call-up prompted the Frank family to immediately go into hiding.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9nljp\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Preparations for this had already been made.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep Gies took Margot to Prinsengracht by bicycle in the early morning of <strong>6</strong> <strong>July 1942</strong>. The sources on this show slight differences between them:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Diary A: &#39;<em>Margot went too with a satchel on her bicycle&nbsp;(...)&#39;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Diary B: &#39;<em>Margot stuffed her schoolbag with schoolbooks, went to get her bicycle and, with Miep leading the way, rode off into the great unknown</em>&#39;<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"kvjfe\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em>That Margot still had her own bike is very likely.</li>\r\n\t<li>Miep Gies in an interview: At seven o&#39;clock she picked up Margot. Around seven-thirty they were at the Opekta office. They put the bicycles inside and went upstairs. She opened the door of the Secret Annex and pushed Margot inside.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9vl85\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Miep Gies in her book: She picked up Margot around 7.30 in the morning and took her via Waalstraat, Noorder Amstellaan, Ferdinand Bolstraat, Vijzelstraat, Rokin, Dam and Raadhuisstraat to Prinsengracht. She took her to the Secret Annex and left her there. Kleiman came a little later and took Margot&#39;s bike somewhere.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3fy0l\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nsklu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rymn1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ilse Ledermann-Citroen aan Paul en Lientje, in:&nbsp;<em>Letters from the Ledermanns</em>, eigen beheer m.m.v. Yad Vashem,&nbsp;2016, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9nljp\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Menno Metselaar, &#39;The day before going into hiding&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine</em> 1999, p. 14-17.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank en overige familie, 8 juni 1945. Otto schrijft 6 juli, maar hij vergist zich een dag.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvjfe\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 8 July 1942, in: <em>VThe Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9vl85\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz: Interview met Miep Gies, 1992, deel 3, p. 17.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3fy0l\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Aison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 92-94.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Margot kreeg&nbsp;op <strong>5 juli 1942</strong> een oproep zich te melden voor&nbsp;transport naar Duitsland. Anne schrijft in haar dagboek: &#39;<em>(...)&nbsp;om ongeveer 3 uur kwam een politieagent bij moeder die riep beneden in de deur, mej. Margot Frank, moeder ging naar beneden en kreeg van die agent een kaart, waar opstond dat Margot Frank zich moest melden bij de S.S.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"nsklu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em>Volgens Ilse Ledermann-Citroen moesten de ontvangers van deze oproepen de volgende dag (<strong>6 juli 1942</strong>) tussen acht en negen uur bij de Gestapo verschijnen, waar ze de aanzegging kregen de vijftiende om half drie &#39;s nachts naar het treinstation (niet duidelijk welk) te komen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rymn1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Deze oproep was de aanleiding voor de familie Frank om meteen onder te duiken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6jcbq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Voorbereidingen daartoe waren al getroffen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep Gies bracht Margot met de fiets in de vroege ochtend van <strong>6</strong> <strong>juli 1942 </strong>naar de Prinsengracht. De bronnen hierover vertonen kleine onderlinge verschillen:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Dagboek A: &#39;<em>Margot ging ook met een schooltas op de fiets (...)&#39;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Dagboek B: &#39;<em>Margot stopte haar schooltas vol met schoolboeken, haalde haar fiets uit de stalling en reed achter Miep aan weg.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"kvjfe\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em>Dat Margot haar eigen fiets nog had is heel waarschijnlijk.</li>\r\n\t<li>Miep Gies in een interview:&nbsp;Om zeven uur haalde&nbsp;ze&nbsp;Margot op. Rond half acht waren zij in het Opekta-kantoor. Ze zetten de fietsen binnen en gingen naar boven. Ze&nbsp;maakte de deur van het Achterhuis open en duwde&nbsp;Margot naar binnen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9vl85\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Miep Gies in haar boek:&nbsp;Ze&nbsp;haalde&nbsp;Margot rond half acht &#39;s morgens op en&nbsp;bracht haar via Waalstraat, Noorder Amstellaan, Ferdinand Bolstraat, Vijzelstraat, Rokin, Dam en Raadhuisstraat naar de Prinsengracht. Ze&nbsp;bracht haar naar het Achterhuis en litet haar daar achter. Kleiman kwam&nbsp;iets later en bracht Margots fiets ergens heen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3fy0l\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nsklu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 8 juli 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rymn1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ilse Ledermann-Citroen aan Paul en Lientje, in:&nbsp;<em>Letters from the Ledermanns</em>, eigen beheer m.m.v. Yad Vashem,&nbsp;2016, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6jcbq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Menno Metselaar, &#39;De dag voor de onderduik&#39;, in <em>Anne Frank Magazine</em> 1999, p. 14-17.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank en overige familie, 8 juni 1945. Otto schrijft 6 juli, maar hij vergist zich een dag.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvjfe\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 8 juli 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9vl85\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz: Interview met Miep Gies, 1992, deel 3, p. 17.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3fy0l\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Aison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 92-94.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Margot received a call-up to report for transport to Germany on <strong>5 July 1942</strong>. Anne wrote&nbsp;in her diary: &#39;<em>(...)&nbsp;At three o&#39;clock&nbsp;the doorbell rang (...)&nbsp;A little while later Margot appeared in the kitchen doorway looking very agitated. &quot;Father has received a call-up notice from the SS</em>&quot;<em>.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"nsklu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em>According to Ilse Ledermann-Citroen, the recipients of these call-ups had to report to&nbsp;the Gestapo the next day<strong> (6 July 1942</strong>) between eight and nine o&#39;clock, where they were given notice to come to the train station (it&#39;s not clear which one) on the 15th at 2.30 in the morning.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rymn1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> This call-up prompted the Frank family to immediately go into hiding.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9nljp\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Preparations for this had already been made.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Miep Gies took Margot to Prinsengracht by bicycle in the early morning of <strong>6</strong> <strong>July 1942</strong>. The sources on this show slight differences between them:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Diary A: &#39;<em>Margot went too with a satchel on her bicycle&nbsp;(...)&#39;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Diary B: &#39;<em>Margot stuffed her schoolbag with schoolbooks, went to get her bicycle and, with Miep leading the way, rode off into the great unknown</em>&#39;<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"kvjfe\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup><em>&nbsp;</em>That Margot still had her own bike is very likely.</li>\r\n\t<li>Miep Gies in an interview: At seven o&#39;clock she picked up Margot. Around seven-thirty they were at the Opekta office. They put the bicycles inside and went upstairs. She opened the door of the Secret Annex and pushed Margot inside.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9vl85\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Miep Gies in her book: She picked up Margot around 7.30 in the morning and took her via Waalstraat, Noorder Amstellaan, Ferdinand Bolstraat, Vijzelstraat, Rokin, Dam and Raadhuisstraat to Prinsengracht. She took her to the Secret Annex and left her there. Kleiman came a little later and took Margot&#39;s bike somewhere.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3fy0l\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nsklu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rymn1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ilse Ledermann-Citroen aan Paul en Lientje, in:&nbsp;<em>Letters from the Ledermanns</em>, eigen beheer m.m.v. Yad Vashem,&nbsp;2016, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9nljp\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Menno Metselaar, &#39;The day before going into hiding&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine</em> 1999, p. 14-17.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4r6r6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank en overige familie, 8 juni 1945. Otto schrijft 6 juli, maar hij vergist zich een dag.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvjfe\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 8 July 1942, in: <em>VThe Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9vl85\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Santrouschitz: Interview met Miep Gies, 1992, deel 3, p. 17.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3fy0l\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Aison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 92-94.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1942-07-05",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Margot received a call-up to report for transport to Germany. This prompted the Frank family to immediately go into hiding.",
                        "summary_nl": "Margot kreeg een oproep zich te melden voor transport naar Duitsland. Dit was de aanleiding voor de familie Frank om meteen onder te duiken.",
                        "summary_en": "Margot received a call-up to report for transport to Germany. This prompted the Frank family to immediately go into hiding.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 267,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/69aaeacb-5a34-4de8-94c4-bceb4abcda21/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/facb8e53-713e-4ac3-bc29-12e1e3fcebe6",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5f313320-29fb-4364-a148-5b9111f12e47"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/838a9a83-171f-44ec-8a97-0024ebf8b5b6",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "69aaeacb-5a34-4de8-94c4-bceb4abcda21",
                        "name": "Anne Frank separated from Moortje",
                        "name_nl": "Anne Frank neemt afscheid van Moortje",
                        "name_en": "Anne Frank separated from Moortje",
                        "content": "<p>In the Secret Annex, Anne thought about Moortje often. &quot;There&#39;s always a tiny black cat roaming around the yard and it reminds me of my dear sweet Moortje.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3gzx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> But in her hiding place, Anne would meet four other cats in the more than two years she spent there.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3gzx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 30 September 1942,&nbsp;in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In het Achterhuis denkt Anne nog regelmatig aan Moortje. &lsquo;<em>In de tuin, loopt nu altijd zo&#39;n klein zwart poesje, dat doet mij dan weer aan mijn moortje denken, o, die schat</em>.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3gzx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Maar in de schuilplaats zou Anne in de ruim twee jaar dat zij daar ondergedoken zat nog vier andere katten tegenkomen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3gzx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 30 september 1942,&nbsp;in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>In the Secret Annex, Anne thought about Moortje often. &quot;There&#39;s always a tiny black cat roaming around the yard and it reminds me of my dear sweet Moortje.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3gzx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> But in her hiding place, Anne would meet four other cats in the more than two years she spent there.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3gzx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 30 September 1942,&nbsp;in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1942-07-06",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "When Anne went into hiding on 6 July 1942, her cat Moortje had to stay behind.",
                        "summary_nl": "Toen Anne op 6 juli 1942 ging onderduiken moest poes Moortje achterblijven.",
                        "summary_en": "When Anne went into hiding on 6 July 1942, her cat Moortje had to stay behind.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124417,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/89469df2-3208-41fd-9879-91b89fde3a21/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "89469df2-3208-41fd-9879-91b89fde3a21",
                        "name": "Guests and staff of the Frank family",
                        "name_nl": "Gasten en personeel van de familie Frank",
                        "name_en": "Guests and staff of the Frank family",
                        "description": "<p>The first residents of Merwedeplein 37-II moved into the then new house in <strong>1931</strong>. Otto Frank was the fourth main resident <strong>by the end of 1933</strong>. The construction and management company of the entire block was the N.V. Bouw en Exploitatie Maatschappij Hilwis and the rent was seventy guilders. That included twenty guilders for the hot water supply and central heating provided by the heating cellar of the nearby so-called &#39;Wolkenkrabber&#39; (Skyscraper), the residential tower that is still part of the complex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0vyb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Domestic workers</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Apart from the Frank family, numerous other Germans, including many Jews, came to the Netherlands after Adolf Hitler and his NSDAP came to power. Organisations that had long been active in helping Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe responded to these new developments. For example, the Committee for Jewish Refugees created jobs in domestic service to give women and girls opportunities to settle in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"msosn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the Frank family home, some of these women found work or shelter for shorter or longer periods of time. A couple of them, Renate Wolf and Malli Aschenbrand, were also from Frankfurt. Ilse Windesheim, Gerda Einstein, Julie van Groningen and Rosel Goldschmidt came from other parts of Germany.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Subtenants</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The <strong>later 1930s</strong> saw a change in the family&#39;s economic circumstances. Otto Frank travelled to England several times in <strong>1937</strong> in fruitless attempts to get a business initiative off the ground there. In <strong>June 1938</strong>, Jo Kleiman founded the new firm Pectacon in collaboration with Otto Frank. The last domestic help left <strong>in mid-October 1937</strong>, and in <strong>June 1938</strong> the first subtenant Ernst Katz appeared. He was to be the first of four: after him came Johanna Briels, Paul Wronker and Werner Goldschmidt. About the subtenants, Anne wrote her story &#39;Boarders or lodgers&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dogyw\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Wronker and Goldschmidt also appear in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kgtvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Grandmother Holl&auml;nder</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto and Edith Frank applied for grandmother Holl&auml;nder&#39;s admission to the Netherlands in <strong>September 1938</strong> so that she could join her daughter&#39;s family in Amsterdam. The Justice Ministry turned this down because the government closed the border to refugees in May that year. A limited widening after the November pogroms eventually allowed her to come and in <strong>March 1939</strong> she settled here after all.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8vncb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Her arrival brought the number of people in the house to six.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Moortje</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Moortje the cat was added in the <strong>autumn of 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"11snu\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anne wrote about her in a letter to her grandmother, and later mentioned her repeatedly in her diary. Moortje did not come with her to the Secret Annex, but according to the diary, Werner Goldschmidt took her to the neighbours.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4o2fc\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> The neighbouring Kupers family at 39-III would take care of her after this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Kohnke family</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The last to appear were the three members of the Kohnke-Leyens family. Leni Kohnke was a close acquaintance of Edith and had to leave their hometown of Hilversum with her husband and young daughter. Around <strong>May 1942,</strong> they lived with the family for a few weeks.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tober\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Grandma Holl&auml;nder had died in January, so during these weeks the number of people in the house was eight.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Evacuees</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>After the Frank family left, subtenant Werner Goldschmidt stayed behind. Later evacuees from other places settled in the house who were obliged to move to Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hacii\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> Although sources are lacking, the Jewish Council seems to have played a role here. Hilwis&nbsp;rent records show that the last evacuee left on <strong>20 June 1943</strong> and that the house was empty on the 28th.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9ji1\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> The new main occupant Tim Choy was registered in the population register at this address from <strong>3 September 1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aorhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Nevertheless, all four members of the Frank family retained their registrations at&nbsp;the house until <strong>27 October 1944</strong>, almost two months after their deportation to Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gzxlg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0vyb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_001 t/m 032: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"msosn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>David Cohen, <em>Zwervend en dolend. De joodse vluchtelingen in&nbsp;Nederland in de jaren 1933-1940: met een inleiding over de jaren 1900-1933</em>, Haarlem: de erven F. Bohn, 1955, p. 66.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dogyw\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Tales and events from the Secret Annex, &quot;Lodgers or Tenants&quot;, 15 October 1943, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kgtvh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 June, 20 and 22 October 1942 (Wronker), 14 and 22 August, 5 November 1942 (Goldschmidt), in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8vncb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Rijksvreemdelingendienst en rechtsvoorgangers, toegangsnr. 2.09.45, inv. nr. 227:&nbsp;Commissaris van Politie Amsterdam aan Procureur-Generaal, 29 oktober 1938; Rapport Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, 25 oktober 1938; Secretaris-generaal van Justitie Van Angeren aan Procureur-Generaal, 17 november 1938; Otto Frank aan Bureau Grensbewaking, 22 maart 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"11snu\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AIF_corr_18, ongedateerde (voorjaar 1942) brief Anne Frank aan (grootmoeder) Alice Frank-Stern.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4o2fc\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 8 July 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tober\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_071, Otto Frank aan &lsquo;Meine Lieben&rsquo;, 11 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hacii\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9ji1\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_002: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III aangaande de Noorder Amstellaan, Waalstraat (oneven) en Merwedeplein (oneven). Op 20 juni was er een grote razzia in Amsterdam-Zuid en -Oost.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aorhi\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, DIenst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445): Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_002: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III aangaande de Noorder Amstellaan, Waalstraat (oneven) en Merwedeplein (oneven).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gzxlg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten O.H. Frank, E. Holl&auml;nder, M.B. Frank en A.M. Frank.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De eerste bewoners van Merwedeplein 37-II betrokken de toen nieuwe woning in&nbsp;<strong>1931</strong>. Otto Frank was <strong>eind 1933</strong> de vierde hoofdbewoner.&nbsp;Bouwer en beheerder van het hele blok was de N.V. Bouw en Exploitatie&nbsp;Maatschappij Hilwis en de huur bedroeg&nbsp;zeventig gulden. Dat was inclusief&nbsp;twintig gulden voor de warmwatervoorziening en centrale verwarming die de stookkelder van de nabijgelegen z.g. &#39;Wolkenkrabber&#39; leverde, de woontoren die nog altijd deel van het complex uitmaakt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0vyb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Huishoudelijke hulpen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Buiten de familie Frank kwamen ook tal van andere Duitsers, waaronder veel Joden, na het aan de macht komen van Adolf Hitler en zijn NSDAP naar Nederland. Organisaties die al langer actief waren bij het helpen van Joodse vluchtelingen uit Oost-Europa speelden op deze nieuwe ontwikkelingen in. Zo cre&euml;erde het Comit&eacute; voor Joodsche Vluchtelingen werkgelegenheid in de huishoudelijke dienstverlening om zo vrouwen en meisjes kansen te bieden zich in Nederland te vestigen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"msosn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In de woning van het gezin Frank vond een aantal van deze vrouwen voor kortere of langere tijd werk of onderdak. Enkele van hen, Renate Wolf en Malli Aschenbrand,&nbsp;waren eveneens afkomstig uit Frankfurt. Ilse Windesheim, Gerda Einstein, Julie van Groningen en Rosel Goldschmidt kwamen uit andere delen van Duitsland.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Onderhuurders</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In de latere jaren dertig vond een verandering in de ecomische omstandigheden van het gezin plaats. Otto Frank reisde in <strong>1937</strong> verschillende keren naar Engeland in vruchteloze pogingen daar een zakelijk initiatief van de grond te krijgen. In <strong>juni 1938</strong> richtte Jo Kleiman in samenwerking met Otto Frank de nieuwe firma Pectacon op. De laatste huishoudelijke hulp vertrok <strong>half oktober 1937</strong>, en in <strong>juni 1938</strong> verscheen de eerste onderhuurder&nbsp;Ernst Katz. Hij zou de eerste van vier zijn: na hem kwamen nog Johanna Briels, Paul Wronker en Werner Goldschmidt. Over de&nbsp;onderhuurders schreef&nbsp;Anne haar verhaaltje &#39;Pension- of huurgasten&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dogyw\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Wronker en Goldschmidt komen ook voor in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kgtvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Oma Holl&auml;nder</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto en Edith Frank vroegen&nbsp;in <strong>september 1938</strong> voor&nbsp;oma Holl&auml;nder om toelating tot Nederland, zodat zij zich bij het gezin van haar dochter in Amsterdam konvoegen. Het Ministerie van Justitie wees dat af omdat de regering in mei van dat jaar de grens voor vluchtelingen sloot. Door een beperkte verruiming na de pogroms van november kon ze uiteindelijk toch komen en in <strong>maart 1939</strong> vestigde zij zich hier alsnog.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8vncb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Haar komst bracht het aantal personen in huis op zes.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Moortje</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In het <strong>najaar van 1941</strong> kwam de poes Moortje er nog bij.<sup data-footnote-id=\"11snu\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anne schrijft over haar in een brief aan haar grootmoeder, en noemde haar later herhaaldelijk in haar dagboek. Moortje ging niet mee naar het Achterhuis, maar volgens het dagboek bracht Werner Goldschmidt haar naar de buren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4o2fc\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het buurgezin Kupers op 39-III zou de verdere zorg op zich nemen.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Gezin Kohnke</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Als laatsten verschenen de drie leden van het gezin Kohnke - Leyens. Leni Kohnke was een goede bekende van Edith en moest met haar man en dochtertje hun woonplaats Hilversum verlaten. Omstreeks <strong>mei 1942</strong> woonden ze enkele weken bij het gezin in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tober\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Oma Holl&auml;nder was in januari overleden, dus in deze weken was het aantal personen in de woning acht.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Evacu&eacute;s</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Nadat de familie Frank vertrok&nbsp;bleef&nbsp;onderhuurder Werner Goldschmidt achter. Later vestigden zich in de woning evacu&eacute;s uit andere plaatsen&nbsp;die verplicht naar Amsterdam&nbsp;trokken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hacii\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hoewel bronnen ontbreken lijkt hier de Joodse Raad een rol in te spelen. De huuradministratie van Hilwis laat zien dat de laatste evacu&eacute; op <strong>20 juni 1943</strong>&nbsp;vertrok en dat de woning de&nbsp;28e&nbsp;leeg was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9ji1\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> De nieuwe hoofdbewoner Tim Choy stond per <strong>3 september 1943</strong> op dit adres in het bevolkingsregister ingeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aorhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;Desondanks behielden alle vier de leden van het gezin Frank hun inschrijvingen op de woning nog tot <strong>27 oktober 1944</strong>, bijna twee maanden na hun deportatie naar Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gzxlg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0vyb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_001 t/m 032: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"msosn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>David Cohen, <em>Zwervend en dolend. De joodse vluchtelingen in&nbsp;Nederland in de jaren 1933-1940: met een inleiding over de jaren 1900-1933</em>, Haarlem: de erven F. Bohn, 1955, p. 66.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dogyw\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, &quot;Pension- of huurgasten&quot;, 15 oktober 1943, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kgtvh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 juni, 20 en 22 oktober 1942 (Wronker), 14 en 22 augustus, 5 november 1942 (Goldschmidt), in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8vncb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Rijksvreemdelingendienst en rechtsvoorgangers, toegangsnr. 2.09.45, inv. nr. 227:&nbsp;Commissaris van Politie Amsterdam aan Procureur-Generaal, 29 oktober 1938; Rapport Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, 25 oktober 1938; Secretaris-generaal van Justitie Van Angeren aan Procureur-Generaal, 17 november 1938; Otto Frank aan Bureau Grensbewaking, 22 maart 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"11snu\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AIF_corr_18, ongedateerde (voorjaar 1942) brief Anne Frank aan (grootmoeder) Alice Frank-Stern.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4o2fc\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 8 juli 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tober\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_071, Otto Frank aan &lsquo;Meine Lieben&rsquo;, 11 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hacii\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9ji1\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_002: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III aangaande de Noorder Amstellaan, Waalstraat (oneven) en Merwedeplein (oneven). Op 20 juni was er een grote razzia in Amsterdam-Zuid en -Oost.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aorhi\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, DIenst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445): Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_002: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III aangaande de Noorder Amstellaan, Waalstraat (oneven) en Merwedeplein (oneven).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gzxlg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten O.H. Frank, E. Holl&auml;nder, M.B. Frank en A.M. Frank.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The first residents of Merwedeplein 37-II moved into the then new house in <strong>1931</strong>. Otto Frank was the fourth main resident <strong>by the end of 1933</strong>. The construction and management company of the entire block was the N.V. Bouw en Exploitatie Maatschappij Hilwis and the rent was seventy guilders. That included twenty guilders for the hot water supply and central heating provided by the heating cellar of the nearby so-called &#39;Wolkenkrabber&#39; (Skyscraper), the residential tower that is still part of the complex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0vyb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Domestic workers</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Apart from the Frank family, numerous other Germans, including many Jews, came to the Netherlands after Adolf Hitler and his NSDAP came to power. Organisations that had long been active in helping Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe responded to these new developments. For example, the Committee for Jewish Refugees created jobs in domestic service to give women and girls opportunities to settle in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"msosn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the Frank family home, some of these women found work or shelter for shorter or longer periods of time. A couple of them, Renate Wolf and Malli Aschenbrand, were also from Frankfurt. Ilse Windesheim, Gerda Einstein, Julie van Groningen and Rosel Goldschmidt came from other parts of Germany.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Subtenants</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The <strong>later 1930s</strong> saw a change in the family&#39;s economic circumstances. Otto Frank travelled to England several times in <strong>1937</strong> in fruitless attempts to get a business initiative off the ground there. In <strong>June 1938</strong>, Jo Kleiman founded the new firm Pectacon in collaboration with Otto Frank. The last domestic help left <strong>in mid-October 1937</strong>, and in <strong>June 1938</strong> the first subtenant Ernst Katz appeared. He was to be the first of four: after him came Johanna Briels, Paul Wronker and Werner Goldschmidt. About the subtenants, Anne wrote her story &#39;Boarders or lodgers&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dogyw\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Wronker and Goldschmidt also appear in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kgtvh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Grandmother Holl&auml;nder</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto and Edith Frank applied for grandmother Holl&auml;nder&#39;s admission to the Netherlands in <strong>September 1938</strong> so that she could join her daughter&#39;s family in Amsterdam. The Justice Ministry turned this down because the government closed the border to refugees in May that year. A limited widening after the November pogroms eventually allowed her to come and in <strong>March 1939</strong> she settled here after all.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8vncb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Her arrival brought the number of people in the house to six.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Moortje</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Moortje the cat was added in the <strong>autumn of 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"11snu\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anne wrote about her in a letter to her grandmother, and later mentioned her repeatedly in her diary. Moortje did not come with her to the Secret Annex, but according to the diary, Werner Goldschmidt took her to the neighbours.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4o2fc\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> The neighbouring Kupers family at 39-III would take care of her after this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Kohnke family</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The last to appear were the three members of the Kohnke-Leyens family. Leni Kohnke was a close acquaintance of Edith and had to leave their hometown of Hilversum with her husband and young daughter. Around <strong>May 1942,</strong> they lived with the family for a few weeks.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tober\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Grandma Holl&auml;nder had died in January, so during these weeks the number of people in the house was eight.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Evacuees</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>After the Frank family left, subtenant Werner Goldschmidt stayed behind. Later evacuees from other places settled in the house who were obliged to move to Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hacii\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> Although sources are lacking, the Jewish Council seems to have played a role here. Hilwis&nbsp;rent records show that the last evacuee left on <strong>20 June 1943</strong> and that the house was empty on the 28th.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9ji1\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> The new main occupant Tim Choy was registered in the population register at this address from <strong>3 September 1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aorhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Nevertheless, all four members of the Frank family retained their registrations at&nbsp;the house until <strong>27 October 1944</strong>, almost two months after their deportation to Auschwitz.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gzxlg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0vyb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_001 t/m 032: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"msosn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>David Cohen, <em>Zwervend en dolend. De joodse vluchtelingen in&nbsp;Nederland in de jaren 1933-1940: met een inleiding over de jaren 1900-1933</em>, Haarlem: de erven F. Bohn, 1955, p. 66.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dogyw\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Tales and events from the Secret Annex, &quot;Lodgers or Tenants&quot;, 15 October 1943, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works,</em>&nbsp;transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kgtvh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 June, 20 and 22 October 1942 (Wronker), 14 and 22 August, 5 November 1942 (Goldschmidt), in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8vncb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Rijksvreemdelingendienst en rechtsvoorgangers, toegangsnr. 2.09.45, inv. nr. 227:&nbsp;Commissaris van Politie Amsterdam aan Procureur-Generaal, 29 oktober 1938; Rapport Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, 25 oktober 1938; Secretaris-generaal van Justitie Van Angeren aan Procureur-Generaal, 17 november 1938; Otto Frank aan Bureau Grensbewaking, 22 maart 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"11snu\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AIF_corr_18, ongedateerde (voorjaar 1942) brief Anne Frank aan (grootmoeder) Alice Frank-Stern.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4o2fc\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 8 July 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tober\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_071, Otto Frank aan &lsquo;Meine Lieben&rsquo;, 11 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hacii\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9ji1\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_002: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III aangaande de Noorder Amstellaan, Waalstraat (oneven) en Merwedeplein (oneven). Op 20 juni was er een grote razzia in Amsterdam-Zuid en -Oost.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aorhi\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, DIenst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445): Woningkaart Merwedeplein 37-II; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_002: Huurstaten van N.V. HILWIS III aangaande de Noorder Amstellaan, Waalstraat (oneven) en Merwedeplein (oneven).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gzxlg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten O.H. Frank, E. Holl&auml;nder, M.B. Frank en A.M. Frank.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Anne Frank and her family lived in their Merwedeplein 37-II home for eight and a half years after coming to Amsterdam.",
                        "summary_nl": "Anne Frank en haar familie woonden na hun komst naar Amsterdam acht en een half jaar in de woning Merwedeplein 37-II.",
                        "summary_en": "Anne Frank and her family lived in their Merwedeplein 37-II home for eight and a half years after coming to Amsterdam.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124556,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124510,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/23e0a4d9-ced8-4d0b-859a-8fde6a540d8b/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "23e0a4d9-ced8-4d0b-859a-8fde6a540d8b",
                        "name": "Domestic help",
                        "name_nl": "Huishoudelijke hulp",
                        "name_en": "Domestic help",
                        "description": "<p>Not everyone who wanted to come to the Netherlands after the German coup in <strong>January 1933</strong> could just settle here. The Committee for Jewish Refugees helped as many Jewish women as possible gain admission to the Netherlands by seeking work as domestic help for them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0l5ox\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Edith Frank wrote to a former girl next door in <strong>December 1933</strong>:<em> &#39;Unser Wohnung ist &auml;hnlich der in der Ganghofer Str., nur viel kleiner. In unserem Schlafzimmer kann ausser den Betten nichts mehr stehen; kein Keller, kein Speicher, aber alles hell bequem und warm, so dass ich ohne M&auml;dchen gut fertig werde</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"pr0gn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Nonetheless, a number of Jewish women from Germany found temporary work and often accommodation with the Frank family. Domestic workers from Germany also made their appearance with the Werthauer, Goslar and Ledermann families. The following were employed successively at&nbsp;the Frank family home:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Renate Wolf,</li>\r\n\t<li>Ilse Windesheim,</li>\r\n\t<li>Malli Aschenbrand,</li>\r\n\t<li>Julie Johanna van Groningen,</li>\r\n\t<li>Gerda Einstein,</li>\r\n\t<li>and Rosel Goldschmidt.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Except for the first one, they all lived with the family. After the last one left, Edith Frank wrote to a friend in <strong>December 1937</strong> that she was now doing everything on her own again.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z8mte\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Shortly afterwards, the first subtenant, Ernst Katz, appeared on the scene.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Within the migrant community of Amsterdam-Zuid, people from the same city of origin often gravitated towards each other. Renate Wolf was also from Frankfurt, as was Malli Aschenbrand. The latter left the Frank family to join another family from that city.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0l5ox\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>D. Cohen,&nbsp;<em>Zwervend en dolend. De Joodse vluchtelingen in Nederland in de jaren 1933-1940, met een inleiding over de jaren 1900-1933</em>, Haarlem: Bohn, 1955, p. 66.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pr0gn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_getuigen_I_084, Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 23 december 1933. De originele brief is alleen gedateerd met Samstag. In 1933 valt de 23e december op een zaterdag.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z8mte\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Otto Frank, AFF_OtF_pdoc_16: Edtih Frank aan Hedda Eisenstaedt, 24 december 1937.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Niet iedereen die na de Duitse machtsovername in <strong>januari 1933</strong> naar Nederland wilde komen kon zich hier zomaar vestigen. Het Comit&eacute; voor Joodsche Vluchtelingen hielp zoveel mogelijk Joodse vrouwen toelating tot Nederland te krijgen door werk als huishoudelijke hulp voor ze te zoeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0l5ox\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Edith Frank schreef in <strong>december 1933</strong> aan een vroeger buurmeisje: &#39;<em>Unser Wohnung ist &auml;hnlich der in der Ganghofer Str., nur viel kleiner. In unserem Schlafzimmer kann ausser den Betten nichts mehr stehen; kein Keller, kein Speicher, aber alles hell bequem und warm, so dass ich ohne M&auml;dchen gut fertig werde</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"pr0gn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Desondanks vond een aantal Joodse vrouwen uit Duitsland bij de familie Frank tijdelijk werk en veelal ook onderkomen.&nbsp;Ook bij de families Werthauer, Goslar en Ledermann maakten uit Duitsland afkomstige huishoudelijke hulpen hun opwachting. Bij de familile Frank verschenen achtereenvolgens:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Renate Wolf,</li>\r\n\t<li>Ilse Windesheim,</li>\r\n\t<li>Malli Aschenbrand,</li>\r\n\t<li>Julie Johanna van Groningen,</li>\r\n\t<li>Gerda Einstein,</li>\r\n\t<li>en Rosel Goldschmidt.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Behalve de eerste woonden ze allemaal bij het gezin in. Na het vertrek van de laatste schrijft Edith Frank in&nbsp;<strong>december 1937</strong>&nbsp;aan een vriendin dat ze nu weer alles alleen doet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z8mte\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kort daarna verscheen de eerste onderhuurder, Ernst Katz, ten tonele.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Binnen de migrantengemeenschap van Amsterdam-Zuid trokken mensen uit dezelfde herkomststad dikwijls naar elkaar toe. Renate Wolf kwam ook uit Frankfurt, net als Malli Aschenbrand. De laatste&nbsp;vertrok bij de familie Frank om bij een ander gezin uit die stad te gaan werken.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0l5ox\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>D. Cohen,&nbsp;<em>Zwervend en dolend. De Joodse vluchtelingen in Nederland in de jaren 1933-1940, met een inleiding over de jaren 1900-1933</em>, Haarlem: Bohn, 1955, p. 66.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pr0gn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_getuigen_I_084, Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 23 december 1933. De originele brief is alleen gedateerd met Samstag. In 1933 valt de 23e december op een zaterdag.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z8mte\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Otto Frank, AFF_OtF_pdoc_16: Edtih Frank aan Hedda Eisenstaedt, 24 december 1937.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Not everyone who wanted to come to the Netherlands after the German coup in <strong>January 1933</strong> could just settle here. The Committee for Jewish Refugees helped as many Jewish women as possible gain admission to the Netherlands by seeking work as domestic help for them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0l5ox\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Edith Frank wrote to a former girl next door in <strong>December 1933</strong>:<em> &#39;Unser Wohnung ist &auml;hnlich der in der Ganghofer Str., nur viel kleiner. In unserem Schlafzimmer kann ausser den Betten nichts mehr stehen; kein Keller, kein Speicher, aber alles hell bequem und warm, so dass ich ohne M&auml;dchen gut fertig werde</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"pr0gn\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Nonetheless, a number of Jewish women from Germany found temporary work and often accommodation with the Frank family. Domestic workers from Germany also made their appearance with the Werthauer, Goslar and Ledermann families. The following were employed successively at&nbsp;the Frank family home:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Renate Wolf,</li>\r\n\t<li>Ilse Windesheim,</li>\r\n\t<li>Malli Aschenbrand,</li>\r\n\t<li>Julie Johanna van Groningen,</li>\r\n\t<li>Gerda Einstein,</li>\r\n\t<li>and Rosel Goldschmidt.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Except for the first one, they all lived with the family. After the last one left, Edith Frank wrote to a friend in <strong>December 1937</strong> that she was now doing everything on her own again.<sup data-footnote-id=\"z8mte\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Shortly afterwards, the first subtenant, Ernst Katz, appeared on the scene.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Within the migrant community of Amsterdam-Zuid, people from the same city of origin often gravitated towards each other. Renate Wolf was also from Frankfurt, as was Malli Aschenbrand. The latter left the Frank family to join another family from that city.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0l5ox\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>D. Cohen,&nbsp;<em>Zwervend en dolend. De Joodse vluchtelingen in Nederland in de jaren 1933-1940, met een inleiding over de jaren 1900-1933</em>, Haarlem: Bohn, 1955, p. 66.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pr0gn\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_getuigen_I_084, Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 23 december 1933. De originele brief is alleen gedateerd met Samstag. In 1933 valt de 23e december op een zaterdag.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"z8mte\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Otto Frank, AFF_OtF_pdoc_16: Edtih Frank aan Hedda Eisenstaedt, 24 december 1937.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Jewish women were able to get out of Nazi Germany by finding work as domestic help to fleeing Jewish families. The Frank family had six helpers in succession, who in turn found work with other families. Often the women worked for families who came from the same town in Germany.",
                        "summary_nl": "Joodse vrouwen konden uit nazi-Duitsland wegkomen door werk te vinden als huishoudelijke hulp bij gevluchte Joodse families. De familie Frank had na elkaar zes hulpen, die weer werk vonden bij andere families. Vaak werkten de vrouwen bij families die uit dezelfde stad in Duitsland kwamen.",
                        "summary_en": "Jewish women were able to get out of Nazi Germany by finding work as domestic help to fleeing Jewish families. The Frank family had six helpers in succession, who in turn found work with other families. Often the women worked for families who came from the same town in Germany.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124556,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124556,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
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                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/e8477cf1-0664-404d-a851-fe6a97e01e47",
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                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/838a9a83-171f-44ec-8a97-0024ebf8b5b6/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Merwedeplein 37-II, Amsterdam",
                "name_nl": "Merwedeplein 37-II, Amsterdam",
                "name_en": "Merwedeplein 37-II, Amsterdam",
                "uuid": "838a9a83-171f-44ec-8a97-0024ebf8b5b6",
                "content": "<p>Anne first wrote in her diary, which she was given for her thirteenth birthday on <strong>12 June 1942</strong>, in the apartment. Three weeks later the family went into hiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Ymere housing corporation bought the property in <strong>2004</strong>, and restored the building in its original 1930s style in partnership with the Anne Frank House,<sup data-footnote-id=\"nd7jx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> which became the owner of the Frank&rsquo;s family former home on Merwedeplein in <strong>2017</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Four&nbsp;<em>Stolpersteine</em>&nbsp;(stumbling stones) commemorate the stay of the Frank family at this&nbsp;address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vmdal\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The interior of the Frank&#39;s family former home can be seen in 3D via Google Arts &amp; Culture.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w25lk\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nd7jx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;Piet de Rooy e.a.,&nbsp;<em>Het andere huis van Anne Frank: geschiedenis en toekomst van een schrijvershuis</em>,&nbsp;Bussum: Thoth, 2006</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vmdal\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/amsterdam/locaties/merwedeplein-37-ll-zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/amsterdam/locaties/merwedeplein-37-ll-zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 11 januari 2024).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w25lk\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Google Arts &amp; Culture, <a href=\"https://artsandculture.google.com/story/NgVBtLmxVrkeKA\">Anne Frank&#39;s family home</a> (geraadpleegd 24 januari 2024).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Anne schreef hier voor het eerst in het dagboek dat ze voor haar dertiende verjaardag, op <strong>12 juni 1942</strong>, kreeg. Drie weken later dook de familie Frank onder.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Woningcorporatie Ymere kocht de woning in <strong>2004</strong> en restaureerde het pand in de oorspronkelijke jaren-dertig-stijl, in samenwerking met de Anne Frank Stichting,<sup data-footnote-id=\"s3yje\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;die in <strong>2017</strong>&nbsp;eigenaar werd van de voormalige woning van de familie Frank aan het Merwedeplein.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vier <em>Stolpersteine</em> herinneren aan het verblijf van de familie Frank op dit adres.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vmdal\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op de website en app van Google Arts &amp; Culture kunnen bezoekers alle vertrekken van het voormalige woonhuis van de familie Frank bekijken door middel van 360 graden beelden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wlu92\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s3yje\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;Piet de Rooy e.a.,&nbsp;<em>Het andere huis van Anne Frank: geschiedenis en toekomst van een schrijvershuis</em>,&nbsp;Bussum: Thoth, 2006.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vmdal\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/amsterdam/locaties/merwedeplein-37-ll-zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/amsterdam/locaties/merwedeplein-37-ll-zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 11 januari 2024).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wlu92\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Google Arts &amp; Culture, <a href=\"https://artsandculture.google.com/story/NgVBtLmxVrkeKA\" target=\"_blank\">Anne Franks voormalige woonhuis</a> (geraadpleegd 24 januari 2024).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Anne first wrote in her diary, which she was given for her thirteenth birthday on <strong>12 June 1942</strong>, in the apartment. Three weeks later the family went into hiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Ymere housing corporation bought the property in <strong>2004</strong>, and restored the building in its original 1930s style in partnership with the Anne Frank House,<sup data-footnote-id=\"nd7jx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> which became the owner of the Frank&rsquo;s family former home on Merwedeplein in <strong>2017</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Four&nbsp;<em>Stolpersteine</em>&nbsp;(stumbling stones) commemorate the stay of the Frank family at this&nbsp;address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vmdal\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The interior of the Frank&#39;s family former home can be seen in 3D via Google Arts &amp; Culture.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w25lk\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nd7jx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;Piet de Rooy e.a.,&nbsp;<em>Het andere huis van Anne Frank: geschiedenis en toekomst van een schrijvershuis</em>,&nbsp;Bussum: Thoth, 2006</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vmdal\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/amsterdam/locaties/merwedeplein-37-ll-zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/amsterdam/locaties/merwedeplein-37-ll-zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 11 januari 2024).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w25lk\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Google Arts &amp; Culture, <a href=\"https://artsandculture.google.com/story/NgVBtLmxVrkeKA\">Anne Frank&#39;s family home</a> (geraadpleegd 24 januari 2024).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.900967 52.345283)",
                "summary": "Address of the Frank family's home from 1933 until they went into hiding in July 1942.",
                "summary_nl": "Adres van de woning van de familie Frank van 1933 tot hun onderduik in juli 1942.",
                "summary_en": "Address of the Frank family's home from 1933 until they went into hiding in July 1942.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Merwedeplein 37-II",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": [
                    61,
                    293,
                    313,
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                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        }
    ]
}