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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/4453e0fd-6791-44d5-ba9b-34ca31414650/",
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                        "uuid": "4453e0fd-6791-44d5-ba9b-34ca31414650",
                        "name": "Leisure activities, Anne Frank",
                        "name_nl": "Vrijetijdsbesteding Anne Frank",
                        "name_en": "Leisure activities, Anne Frank",
                        "description": "<h1><strong>Sports</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>According to several accounts, Anne was not very strong physically; her limbs dislocated easily.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Nevertheless, she took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practised several other sports.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The gymnastics club was probably led by Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the winter of <strong>1938-1939</strong>, Anne learned to ice skate. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote to her grandmother that she was going ice skating at the artificial ice rink at the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> And on <strong>13 January 1941,</strong> she wrote:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;I spend every free minute at the ice rink. Until now, I still had my old skates that Margot used to wear, those skates have to be screwed on with a little key, and at the ice rink, all my friends had real Figure Skates, which have to be attached to your shoes with nails, and then they don&#39;t come off. I wanted so terribly to have such skates too, and after long nagging, I got them too.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>A <strong>1941</strong> photo shows Anne with other children ice skating in Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anton Witsel received this photo from the father of the frontmost girl in the picture Ansje de Leeuw. According to the caption of the photo, Ansje lived in the United States.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 March 1941,</strong> Anne wrote to her grandmother: <em>&quot;I wish I could start ice skating again, but for that I have to be patient for a while, until the war is over (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Table tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>June 1942, </strong>Anne writes<strong>:</strong> &quot;<em>Five of us girls have formed a club. It&#39;s called The Little Dipper Minus Two. (...)&nbsp; It&#39;s a ping-pong club</em>&quot; .<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes the following about her hobbies: &quot;<em>Dear Kitty, You asked me what my hobbies and interests are and I&#39;d like to answer, but I&#39;d better warn you, I have lots of them, so don&#39;t be surprised</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Writing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In addition to her surviving diaries, stories and letters, Anne also wrote poems in the poetry albums of her friends, including: Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi and Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne loved to read. She got <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden (&#39;Dutch Sagas and Legends&#39;)</em> from the ping-pong club for her thirteenth birthday, but by mistake they gave her volume 2. She then swapped <em>Camera Obscura</em> for volume 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> These books had been written by Josef Cohen. Volume 2 is in the museum collection of the Anne Frank House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Volume 1 was given by Anne shortly before going into hiding to neighbour Toosje Kupers, who still owns it. At the front, Anne&#39;s handwriting bears the dedication<em> &#39;In Memory of Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Family trees</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank told his daughters about family history and individual relatives while in hiding. Anne made family trees based on these.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne also wrote about this in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> These family trees have not been preserved.&nbsp;The family trees Anne had drawn on large sheets of paper have also not been found.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne also made family trees of several European royal houses: &quot;<em>of the French, German, Spanish, English, Austrian, Russian, Norwegian and Dutch royal families. I&#39;ve made great progress with many of them, because for a long time I&#39;ve been taking notes while reading biographies or history books&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;She drew a lot of information for this from Charles V&#39;s biography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;When a vase of flowers fell over shortly afterwards, water poured over her family trees. However, the damage proved limited in the end. Notes on Maria de Medici&#39;, Charles V, William of Orange and Marie Antoinette had to be dried in the attic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>History</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was given many history books by her father. She could not wait to go to the Public Library to continue reading. She also felt strongly about art history. She writes about it: &quot;<em>I&#39;d like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;She shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The things a schoolgirl has to do in the course of a single day! Take me, for example. First I translated a passage on Nelson&#39;s last battle from Dutch into English. Then I read more about the Great Northern War (1700-1721) involving Peter the Great, Charles XII, Augustus the Strong, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania and Denmark, plus the usual dates.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne read the biography of Galileo to the end because it had to go back to the library. She had started it the previous day. Part 2 came the next week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Greek and Roman mythology</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes three days after her 13th birthday: &quot;<em>I will still get Myths of Greece and Rome, paid for with my own money&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> She also writes: <em>(...)&nbsp;I have various books on this subject too. I can name the nine Muses and the seven loves of Zeus. I have the wives of Heracles, etc., etc., down pat&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne also shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got a black cat, named Moortje, about the autumn of 1941.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 11 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944 and 8 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 27 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<h1><strong>Sport</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens verschillende getuigenissen was Anne lichamelijk niet erg sterk; haar ledematen raakten snel uit de kom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Toch zat ze op ritmische gymnastiek en beoefende&nbsp;ze verschillende andere sporten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Het gymnastiekclubje werd waarschijnlijk geleid door Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Schaatsen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In de winter van 1938-1939 leerde&nbsp;Anne schaatsen. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Op <strong>13 december 1940</strong> schreef&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma dat ze gaat schaatsen op de Kunstijsbaan in de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> &nbsp;En op <strong>13 januari 1941</strong> schrijft ze:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Ik ben elk vrij minuutje op de Kunstijsbaan. Ik had tot nu toe nog altijd mijn oude schaatsen die Margot vroeger gedragen heeft, die schaatsen moeten met een sleuteltje aangeschroefd worden, en op de Kunstijsbaan hadden al mijn vriendinnetjes echte Kunstschaatsen, die met spijkers aan je schoenen vastgemaakt moeten worden, en dan gaan ze er niet meer af. Ik wou zo vreselijk graag ook zulke schaatsen hebben, en na lang zeuren, heb ik ze ook gekregen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Een foto uit <strong>1941</strong> toont Anne met andere kinderen op de schaats in het Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Deze foto kreeg&nbsp;Anton Witsel van de vader van het voorste meisje op de foto Ansje de Leeuw. Volgens het bijschrift van de foto woonde&nbsp;Ansje in de Verenigde Staten.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>22 maart 1941</strong> schreef&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma: <em>Ik wou dat ik alweer met schaatsrijden beginnen kon, maar daarvoor moet ik nog een poosje geduld hebben, tot de oorlog voorbij is (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tafeltennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>juni 1942</strong>&nbsp;schrijft Anne: <em>Wij met ons vijven vormen een club genaamd de kleine Beer, minus 2 afgekort d.k.B.-2. (&hellip;) Het is een ping-pongclub</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Over haar hobbies&nbsp;schrijft Anne het volgende: <em>Lieve Kitty, je hebt me gevraagd, wat mijn hobby&#39;s en interessen zijn en daarop wil ik je antwoorden, maar ik waarschuw je, schrik niet, want het zijn er een heleboel.&nbsp;In de eerste plaats: schrijven, maar dat rekent eigenlijk niet als hobby</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Schrijven</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Naast haar overgeleverde dagboeken, verhaaltjes en&nbsp;brieven, heeft&nbsp;Anne ook gedichtjes geschreven in de po&euml;ziealbums van haar vriendinnetjes, o.a:&nbsp;Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi en Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Lezen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne las&nbsp;graag. Ze kreeg&nbsp;van de pingpongclub voor haar dertiende verjaardag <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden</em>, maar per ongeluk gaven ze haar deel 2. Ze ruilde&nbsp;vervolgens de <em>Camera Obscura</em> voor deel 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Deze boeken waren geschreven door Josef Cohen. Deel 2 bevindt zich in de museale collectie van de Anne Frank Stichting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Deel 1 gaf&nbsp;Anne kort voor het onderduiken aan buurmeisje Toosje Kupers, die het nog steeds in bezit heeft. Voorin staat in Annes handschrift de opdracht &#39;<em>Ter Herinnering aan Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Stambomen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank vertelde&nbsp;zijn dochters tijdens de onderduik over de familiegeschiedenis en over individuele familieleden. Anne maakte op basis daarvan stambomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> &nbsp;Anne schrijft hier ook over in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Deze stambomen zijn niet bewaard gebleven: De stambomen die Anne op grote vellen papier had getekend zijn ook niet gevonden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne maakte ook stambomen van diverse Europese vorstenhuizen: <em>Van de Franse, Duitse, Spaanse, Engelse, Oostenrijkse, Russische, Noordse en Nederlandse vorstenfamilies ben ik in alle kranten, boeken en papieren naar stambomen aan &#39;t zoeken. Met vele ben ik al erg ver gevorderd, temeer daar ik allang uit al de biografie&euml;n of geschiedenisboeken, die ik lees, aantekeningen maak</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze haalde&nbsp;hiervoor veel informatie uit de biografie van Karel V.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp; toen er kort daarna een bloemenvaas omviel, stroomde&nbsp;het water over haar stambomen. De schade bleek&nbsp;uiteindelijk echter beperkt. Aantekeningen over Maria de Medici&rsquo;, Karel V, Willem van Oranje en Marie Antoinette moesten op zolder worden gedroogd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Geschiedenis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;van haar vader veel geschiedenisboeken. Ze kon niet wachten tot ze naar de Openbare Bibliotheek kon gaan om daar verder te lezen. Ze voelde&nbsp;ook veel voor kunstgeschiedenis. Ze schrijft daarover: <em>Ik zou graag een jaar naar Parijs en een jaar naar Londen om de taal te leren en kunstgeschiedenis te studeren</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze deelde&nbsp;deze belangstelling met haar vader.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Waar een schoolmeisje in &eacute;&eacute;n dag al niet van hoort, neem mij nu eens. Eerst vertaalde ik van Hollands in Engels een stuk van Nelson&#39;s laatste slag. Daarna nam ik het vervolg van de Noordse oorlog door (1700-1721), van Peter de Grote, Karel XII, Augustus de Sterke, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Voor-Pommeren, Achter-Pommeren en Denemarken + de gebruikelijke jaartallen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne las&nbsp;de biografie van Galile&iuml; uit, omdat het terug moest naar de bibliotheek. Ze was er de vorige dag in begonnen. De volgende week kwam&nbsp;deel 2.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Griekse en Romeinse mythologie</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schrijft drie dagen na haar dertiende verjaardag: <em>Nu krijg ik nog Mythen van Griekenland en Rome van mijn eigen geld</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Ook schrijft ze: <em>(...)&nbsp;hier heb ik verscheidene boeken over. De 9 muzen of 7 liefjes van Zeus kan ik je zo opnoemen. De vrouwen van Heracles enz. enz. ken ik op m&#39;n duimpje.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ook deze belangstelling deelde&nbsp;Anne met haar vader.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;ongeveer in het najaar van 1941&nbsp;een zwarte poes, die de naam Moortje kreeg.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 11 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 20 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944 en 8 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 27 april 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<h1><strong>Sports</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>According to several accounts, Anne was not very strong physically; her limbs dislocated easily.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Nevertheless, she took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practised several other sports.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The gymnastics club was probably led by Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the winter of <strong>1938-1939</strong>, Anne learned to ice skate. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote to her grandmother that she was going ice skating at the artificial ice rink at the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> And on <strong>13 January 1941,</strong> she wrote:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;I spend every free minute at the ice rink. Until now, I still had my old skates that Margot used to wear, those skates have to be screwed on with a little key, and at the ice rink, all my friends had real Figure Skates, which have to be attached to your shoes with nails, and then they don&#39;t come off. I wanted so terribly to have such skates too, and after long nagging, I got them too.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>A <strong>1941</strong> photo shows Anne with other children ice skating in Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anton Witsel received this photo from the father of the frontmost girl in the picture Ansje de Leeuw. According to the caption of the photo, Ansje lived in the United States.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 March 1941,</strong> Anne wrote to her grandmother: <em>&quot;I wish I could start ice skating again, but for that I have to be patient for a while, until the war is over (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Table tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>June 1942, </strong>Anne writes<strong>:</strong> &quot;<em>Five of us girls have formed a club. It&#39;s called The Little Dipper Minus Two. (...)&nbsp; It&#39;s a ping-pong club</em>&quot; .<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes the following about her hobbies: &quot;<em>Dear Kitty, You asked me what my hobbies and interests are and I&#39;d like to answer, but I&#39;d better warn you, I have lots of them, so don&#39;t be surprised</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Writing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In addition to her surviving diaries, stories and letters, Anne also wrote poems in the poetry albums of her friends, including: Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi and Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne loved to read. She got <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden (&#39;Dutch Sagas and Legends&#39;)</em> from the ping-pong club for her thirteenth birthday, but by mistake they gave her volume 2. She then swapped <em>Camera Obscura</em> for volume 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> These books had been written by Josef Cohen. Volume 2 is in the museum collection of the Anne Frank House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Volume 1 was given by Anne shortly before going into hiding to neighbour Toosje Kupers, who still owns it. At the front, Anne&#39;s handwriting bears the dedication<em> &#39;In Memory of Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Family trees</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank told his daughters about family history and individual relatives while in hiding. Anne made family trees based on these.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne also wrote about this in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> These family trees have not been preserved.&nbsp;The family trees Anne had drawn on large sheets of paper have also not been found.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne also made family trees of several European royal houses: &quot;<em>of the French, German, Spanish, English, Austrian, Russian, Norwegian and Dutch royal families. I&#39;ve made great progress with many of them, because for a long time I&#39;ve been taking notes while reading biographies or history books&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;She drew a lot of information for this from Charles V&#39;s biography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;When a vase of flowers fell over shortly afterwards, water poured over her family trees. However, the damage proved limited in the end. Notes on Maria de Medici&#39;, Charles V, William of Orange and Marie Antoinette had to be dried in the attic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>History</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was given many history books by her father. She could not wait to go to the Public Library to continue reading. She also felt strongly about art history. She writes about it: &quot;<em>I&#39;d like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;She shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The things a schoolgirl has to do in the course of a single day! Take me, for example. First I translated a passage on Nelson&#39;s last battle from Dutch into English. Then I read more about the Great Northern War (1700-1721) involving Peter the Great, Charles XII, Augustus the Strong, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania and Denmark, plus the usual dates.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne read the biography of Galileo to the end because it had to go back to the library. She had started it the previous day. Part 2 came the next week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Greek and Roman mythology</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes three days after her 13th birthday: &quot;<em>I will still get Myths of Greece and Rome, paid for with my own money&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> She also writes: <em>(...)&nbsp;I have various books on this subject too. I can name the nine Muses and the seven loves of Zeus. I have the wives of Heracles, etc., etc., down pat&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne also shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got a black cat, named Moortje, about the autumn of 1941.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 11 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944 and 8 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 27 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Anne Frank took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practiced several other sports. Her other hobbies were reading and writing.",
                        "summary_nl": "Anne Frank zat ze op ritmische gymnastiek en beoefende verschillende andere sporten. Andere hobbies van haar waren lezen en schrijven.",
                        "summary_en": "Anne Frank took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practiced several other sports. Her other hobbies were reading and writing.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/00b422b7-7011-4acb-bee7-0af3199cd124/",
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                "name_nl": "Instituut voor Gymnastiek, Rhytmiek en Massage",
                "name_en": "Instituut voor Gymnastiek, Rhytmiek en Massage (Instituut voor Gymnastiek, Rhytmiek en Massage (Institute for remedial gymnastics, rhythmic sports and massage)",
                "uuid": "00b422b7-7011-4acb-bee7-0af3199cd124",
                "content": "<p>Located at Noorder Amstellaan 136&nbsp;in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l360o\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The Institute was under the management of S. de Vries and J. de Vries-Leefsma,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and also provided massage training.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank mistook this institute for a sports club, according to her diary entry of <strong>6 October 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> It is possible that Anne went there because of her joint problems.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d076j\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> However, there are no concrete indications of this.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l360o\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p.1532; <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942 en 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d076j\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 12 January 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Rinat: Iterview met Ab Rinat door Teresien da Silva, 18 oktober 2006.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Gevestigd op de Noorder Amstellaan 136, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l360o\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het Instituut stond onder directie van S. de Vries en J. de Vries-Leefsma,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> en verzorgde ook massage-opleidingen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank zag&nbsp;dit instituut, blijkens haar dagboeknotie van <strong>6 oktober 1942</strong>&nbsp;voor een sportclub aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Mogelijk is Anne hier geweest vanwege&nbsp;haar gewrichtsproblemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d076j\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hier zijn echter geen concrete aanwijzingen voor.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l360o\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p.1532; <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942 en 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d076j\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 12 januari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Rinat: Iterview met Ab Rinat door Teresien da Silva, 18 oktober 2006.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Located at Noorder Amstellaan 136&nbsp;in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l360o\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The Institute was under the management of S. de Vries and J. de Vries-Leefsma,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> and also provided massage training.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank mistook this institute for a sports club, according to her diary entry of <strong>6 October 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> It is possible that Anne went there because of her joint problems.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d076j\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> However, there are no concrete indications of this.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l360o\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p.1532; <em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942 en 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0jz27\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 12 juni 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zjv2k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Joodsche Weekblad</em>, 10 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nz82g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d076j\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 12 January 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works;</em>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Rinat: Iterview met Ab Rinat door Teresien da Silva, 18 oktober 2006.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.894817 52.347144)",
                "summary": "Institute for remedial gymnastics, sports, massage, etc.",
                "summary_nl": "Instituut voor heilgymnastiek, sport, massage e.d.",
                "summary_en": "Institute for remedial gymnastics, sports, massage, etc.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Noorder Amstellaan 136",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.1646155
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 228,
                "files": [
                    {
                        "id": 1107,
                        "uuid": "3b42e7ae-657a-446b-8803-2d5fa8ddb014",
                        "name": "'De Tijd', 26 november 1940, p. 4.",
                        "title": "'De Tijd', 26 november 1940, p. 4.",
                        "alt": "Delpher.",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/De_Tijd_26_november_1940_p._4..PNG",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                        "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                    }
                ],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 962,
                    "uuid": "5a748e60-27b5-40fc-b9fe-1ef24a5a28d8",
                    "name": "Kliniek voor Honden en Katten",
                    "title": "Wachtkamer van de Kliniek voor Honden en Katten.",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Delpher, Algemeen Handelsblad, 26 november 1940.",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Kliniek_voor_honden_en_katten.PNG",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                },
                "latitude": "52.372426",
                "longitude": "4.875",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 301,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/0fc702b6-d52a-44e3-9061-c6cecf48cbb1/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/facb8e53-713e-4ac3-bc29-12e1e3fcebe6"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/8aa52287-4365-4842-a727-624453b17b7b"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/03ceeced-9e12-422e-8162-ed7cf7794710",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "0fc702b6-d52a-44e3-9061-c6cecf48cbb1",
                        "name": "Miep takes Moffie to the vet",
                        "name_nl": "Miep met Moffie naar de dierenarts",
                        "name_en": "Miep takes Moffie to the vet",
                        "content": "<p>Warehouse cat Moffie (Boche) was suddenly very quiet and drooling one Saturday. Miep wrapped her in a cloth and took her to the clinic. That method of transportation was common in those days, as shown in a photo from the clinic&#39;s waiting room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne later writes about this in het diary: &quot;Miep quickly picked him up, wrapped him in a cloth, put him in her shopping bag and took him to the dog-and-cat clinic.&quot; It turned out to be not too serious. There was something wrong with Moffie&#39;s intestines and he was given a drink by the vet. Peter administered it to her a few times.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Pakhuiskat Moffie was op een zaterdag plotseling erg stil en kwijlde. Miep wikkelde haar in een doek en ging met haar naar de kliniek. Die wijze van vervoer was in die tijd gebruikelijk, zoals op een foto uit de wachtkamer van de kliniek te zien is.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schreef hierover later in haar dagboek: &quot;Fluks&nbsp;pakte Miep haar op, rolde haar in een doek,&nbsp;stopte haar in de boodschappentas en bracht&nbsp;haar naar de honden- en kattenkliniek.&quot; Het bleek nogal mee te vallen. Moffie had iets aan haar ingewanden en kreeg een drankje van de dierenarts. Peter diende haar dat een paar keer toe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Warehouse cat Moffie (Boche) was suddenly very quiet and drooling one Saturday. Miep wrapped her in a cloth and took her to the clinic. That method of transportation was common in those days, as shown in a photo from the clinic&#39;s waiting room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne later writes about this in het diary: &quot;Miep quickly picked him up, wrapped him in a cloth, put him in her shopping bag and took him to the dog-and-cat clinic.&quot; It turned out to be not too serious. There was something wrong with Moffie&#39;s intestines and he was given a drink by the vet. Peter administered it to her a few times.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pj2xc\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1944-04-08",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "When warehouse cat Moffie was sick in April 1944, Miep took her to the vet.",
                        "summary_nl": "Toen pakhuiskat Moffie in april 1944 ziek was, bracht Miep haar naar de dierenarts.",
                        "summary_en": "When warehouse cat Moffie was sick in April 1944, Miep took her to the vet.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [],
                "related_locations": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/03ceeced-9e12-422e-8162-ed7cf7794710/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Clinic for Dogs and Cats",
                "name_nl": "Kliniek voor Honden en Katten",
                "name_en": "Clinic for Dogs and Cats",
                "uuid": "03ceeced-9e12-422e-8162-ed7cf7794710",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.875 52.372426)",
                "summary": "From November 1940, the Association for Actual Animal Protection had a Clinic for Dogs and Cats for the underprivileged and the indigent on the Rozengracht.",
                "summary_nl": "Vanaf november 1940 had de Bond voor Daadwerkelijke Dierenbescherming op de Rozengracht een Kliniek voor Honden en Katten van min- en onvermogenden.",
                "summary_en": "From November 1940, the Association for Actual Animal Protection had a Clinic for Dogs and Cats for the underprivileged and the indigent on the Rozengracht.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Rozengracht 226",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "Noord-Holland",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    301
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.1646155
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 233,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.387585",
                "longitude": "4.880692",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 275,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/3c23b216-9276-456b-b53d-370173d568f8"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c5b99cc8-5554-49f4-921d-337712791ef6",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ea58ebad-5722-44f5-baa9-6501dbff84ef"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "a348eb3a-955a-4f2d-9861-92b2b50902c0",
                        "name": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                        "name_nl": "Een Amerikaanse bommenwerper stort neer in de Spaarndammerbuurt",
                        "name_en": "An American bomber crashes in the Spaarndammer neighborhood",
                        "content": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Na bommen te hebben afgegooid boven Berlijn&nbsp;was het vliegtuig weer op weg naar de thuisbasis in Engeland toen het werd geraakt door Duits luchtafweergeschut.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de omgeving van Bremen gaf piloot Edward Stull de opdracht aan vijf bemanningsleden om te springen, terwijl hij en co-piloot Samuel Showalter doorvlogen. Boven Schellingswoude werd het vliegtuig opnieuw beschoten, waarna beide piloten uit het vliegtuig sprongen. Het vliegtuig kwam neer op een school in de Westzaanstraat en gedeeltelijk voor de pastorie van de katholieke kerk in de Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank schrijft over deze gebeurtenis in in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A en B, 23 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>After dropping bombs over Berlin, the plane was on its way back to home base in England when it was hit by German anti-aircraft fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Near Bremen, pilot Edward Stull ordered five crew members to jump while he and co-pilot Samuel Showalter flew on. Above Schellingswoude, the plane was shot at again, after which both pilots jumped out of the plane. The plane came down on a school in Westzaanstraat and partially in front of the rectory of the Catholic church in Spaarndammerstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne Frank writes about these events in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sejj7\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Informatie ontleend aan&nbsp;<a href=\"http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.emielros.nl/bommenwerper</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2014). Emiel Ros heeft zijn onderzoek naar deze vliegtuigcrash op 20 maart 2014 in een gesprek toegelicht.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x8lhy\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Versions A and B, 23 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1944-03-22",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                        "summary_nl": "Terugvliegend van een missie in Duitsland werd een Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress geraakt door Duits luchtafweer en stortte neer in de Spaarndammerstraat.",
                        "summary_en": "Flying back from a mission in Germany, a Boeing B-17-G Flying Fortress was hit by German anti-aircraft fire and crashed in the Spaarndammerstraat.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 196,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                        "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                        "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                        "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124388,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
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                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a699d98a-eab0-4e27-a4a1-f2c76df56892",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6e7854d3-c834-44c4-9129-c742ff899d22",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0"
                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene",
                "name_nl": "Pastorie Maria Magdalenakerk",
                "name_en": "Presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene",
                "uuid": "19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.880692 52.387585)",
                "summary": "The presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene was hit by parts of a bomber that had been shot.",
                "summary_nl": "De pastorie van de Maria Magdalenakerk werd getroffen door een deel van een neergestorte bommenwerper.",
                "summary_en": "The presbytery of the Church of Mary Magdalene was hit by parts of a bomber that had been shot.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Spaarndammerstraat 9",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    275
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.1646155
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 193,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.37433",
                "longitude": "4.88691",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
                        "files": []
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                    {
                        "id": 396124613,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/60010658-62d2-4c3e-bb62-14f0f43117e3/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "60010658-62d2-4c3e-bb62-14f0f43117e3",
                        "name": "Otto Frank and the publication of Anne's Fables and Short Stories",
                        "name_nl": "Otto Frank en de uitgave van Annes verhaaltjes",
                        "name_en": "Otto Frank and the publication of Anne's Fables and Short Stories",
                        "description": "<p>Even before the publication of &#39;The Secret Annex&#39;, Otto Frank approached several publishers to publish Anne&#39;s short stories, which she had written while in hiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne started writing these stories in the <strong>summer of&nbsp;1943</strong>:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;A break in the Secret Annex&nbsp;sketches. A few weeks ago I started writing a story, something I made up from beginning to end, and I&#39;ve enjoyed it so much that the products of my pen are piling up<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The short stories are recorded in the diary, on loose sheets and in a cardboard notebook: Short stories, and events from the Secret Annex described by Anne Frank. Dedicated Thursday 2 September 1943.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got the idea to publish them during the period in hiding: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, (&hellip;) I want to ask the magazine The Prince if they&#39;ll take one of my fairy tales, under a pseudonym of course. But up to now all my fairy tales have been too long, so I don&#39;t think I have much of a chance&#39;.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank related in <strong>1959</strong> that Anne asked Jo Kleiman to send the story <em>Blurry the Explorer</em>, among others, under the name of his daughter Corrie (a pseudonym for Jopie Kleiman). But Kleiman thought this was too dangerous. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After Otto Frank retrieved his daughter&#39;s writings, he first had the short stories written out and translated to send to his family <strong>in autumn 1945</strong>. The first story is: <em>Blurry, der Weltentdekker [sic], </em>which is about a little bear.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Otto Frank wrote to his mother on <strong>12 December 1945</strong>:<em> &#39;Frl. Sch&uuml;tz wird Dir wohl eine Uebersetzung von Annes M&auml;rchen Eva&#39;s Traum senden, was sie mir im letzten Jahr zum Geburtstag gegeben hatte.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></em></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the little story <em>Why?</em> Otto Frank recognised the influence of the letter he had sent her when she was 10 and which she had pasted in her diary, through the text:<em> &#39;It will be a support to me for life</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> According to Otto Frank, the little story <em>Give!</em> was childishly idealistic, but typical of Anne. Following the example of her mother and grandmother, she used the oft-used phrase:<em> &#39;No one has yet become poor from giving.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"doura\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Otto Frank found the story <em>A Maths Lesson</em> telling about Anne&#39;s psychology.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On two occasions, Contact Publishers rejected the manuscript of the short stories.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Then Otto Frank tried in vain to interest other publishers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Eventually, he and Contact came to an agreement. The publisher suggested editing the collection in such a way that <em>Kaatje</em>, judged to be less strong, would not be included. Moreover, the school memories were given a place in the back, mainly because of their importance for Anne&#39;s &quot;psychology&quot;. In <strong>1949.</strong> Contact nevertheless published<em>&nbsp;Do You</em>&nbsp;<em>Remember? Fables and Short Stories</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup><br />\r\nA wider selection of Anne&#39;s stories was also published by Contact in <strong>1960</strong>: <em>Tales from the House Behind</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> The publisher would have preferred a complete&nbsp;edition but understood that Otto Frank did not want the &quot;weaker parts&quot; published.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 7 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Omdat er geen dagboekaantekeningen van 6 december1942 tot 22 december 1943 in de A-versie zijn overgeleverd, is het niet duidelijk of Anne Frank in deze periode de verhaaltjes eerst in haar (tweede niet overgeleverde) dagboek heeft opgeschreven en wellicht later in het verhaaltjesboek in het net heeft overgeschreven.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact / Gilles de Neve, 3 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 30 september en 11 november 1945.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 12 december 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 1 januari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doura\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 7 april 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact, 5 juli 1949.&nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 5 november 1946 en 17 januari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090:&nbsp;Brief van De Bezige Bij aan Otto Frank,16 januari 1946 (&#39;te zwak, te onrijp en te weinig evenwichtig&#39;); Brief Otto Frank aan uitgeverij de Telg, 4 december 1946; Briefkaart van de Arbeiderspers aan Otto Frank, 22 december 1947; Brief van uitgeverij de Driehoek aan Otto Frank, 28 februari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes.</em> Amsterdam/Antwerpen: Contact, 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam/ Antwerpen: Contact, 1960.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 13 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Nog voor publicatie van &#39;Het Achterhuis&#39; benaderde Otto Frank verschillende uitgevers om Annes verhaaltjes uit te geven, die zij tijdens de onderduikperiode had&nbsp;geschreven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne begon&nbsp;met het schrijven van deze verhaaltjes in de <strong>zomer van 1943</strong>:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Een onderbreking in de Achterhuisschetsen. Ik ben een paar weken geleden begonnen om eens een verhaal te schrijven, iets dat helemaal verzonnen is en heb daar zo&#39;n plezier aan gekregen dat m&#39;n pennekinderen zich opstapelen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;De verhaaltjes zijn opgetekend in het dagboek, op de losse vellen en in een gekartonneerd schrift:&nbsp;<em>Verhaaltjes, en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis beschreven door Anne Frank. Ingewijd Donderdag 2 september 1943.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></em></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Tijdens de onderduik kreeg&nbsp;Anne het idee om ze uit te geven: &#39;Liefste Kitty, (&hellip;) Ik wil bij de &quot;Prins&quot;&nbsp;aanvragen of ze een sprookje van me plaatsen, natuurlijk onder een pseudoniem, maar daar mijn sprookjes tot nu toe nog te lang zijn, denk ik niet dat ik veel kans op slagen heb.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank vertelde&nbsp;hierover in <strong>1959</strong> dat Anne aan Jo Kleiman vroeg&nbsp;om onder andere het verhaaltje <em>Blurry</em> op te sturen onder de naam van zijn dochter Corrie (=&nbsp;pseudoniem voor Jopie Kleiman). Maar Kleiman vond&nbsp;dit te gevaarlijk.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Nadat Otto Frank de geschriften van zijn dochter kreeg, liet hij <strong>najaar 1945</strong> eerst&nbsp;de verhaaltjes uitschrijven en vertalen om aan zijn familie te sturen. Het eerste verhaaltje is: Blurry, der Weltentdekker [sic], dat gaat over een beertje.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp; Otto Frank schreef&nbsp;aan zijn moeder op <strong>12 december 1945</strong>: &#39;<em>Frl. Sch&uuml;tz wird Dir wohl eine Uebersetzung von Annes M&auml;rchen Eva&rsquo;s Traum senden, was sie&nbsp;mir im letzten Jahr zum Geburtstag gegeben hatte</em>.<em>&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In het verhaaltje <em>Waarom?</em> herkende&nbsp;Otto Frank de invloed van de brief die hij haar op haar tiende had&nbsp;gestuurd en die zij in haar dagboek had&nbsp;geplakt, door de tekst: &#39;Het zal me een steun voor het leven zijn.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het verhaaltje <em>Geef!</em>&nbsp;was&nbsp;volgens Otto Frank kinderlijk idealistisch, maar wel typisch Anne. In navolging van haar moeder en grootmoeder gebruikte&nbsp;ze het veel gebezigde zinnetje: &#39;Niemand is nog van geven arm geworden.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"gfg18\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het verhaal <em>Een Wiskunde-les</em> vond&nbsp;Otto Frank veelzeggend over de psychologie van Anne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Tot tweemaal toe wees Uitgeverij Contact het manuscript van de verhaaltjes af.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Vervolgens probeerde&nbsp;Otto Frank tevergeefs andere uitgeverijen te interesseren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;Uiteindelijk werden&nbsp;hij en Contact het toch eens. De uitgeverij stelde&nbsp;voor de bundel zodanig te redigeren dat <em>Kaatje</em>, beoordeeld als minder sterk, er niet in kwam. Bovendien kregen de schoolherinneringen een plaats achterin, vooral vanwege hun belang voor de &quot;psychologie&quot; van Anne.&nbsp;Zo&nbsp;verscheen&nbsp;in&nbsp;<strong>1949</strong> <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes</em> toch bij Contact.<sup data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup><br />\r\nIn <strong>1960</strong> verscheen&nbsp;bij Contact ook nog een ruimere selectie van Anne&rsquo;s verhaaltjes: <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;De uitgever wilde het liefst een integrale uitgave maar begreep&nbsp;dat Otto Frank de &quot;zwakkere gedeelten&quot; niet gepubliceerd wilde zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 7 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Omdat er geen dagboekaantekeningen van 6 december1942 tot 22 december 1943 in de A-versie zijn overgeleverd, is het niet duidelijk of Anne Frank in deze periode de verhaaltjes eerst in haar (tweede niet overgeleverde) dagboek heeft opgeschreven en wellicht later in het verhaaltjesboek in het net heeft overgeschreven.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact / Gilles de Neve, 3 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 30 september en 11 november 1945.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 12 december 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 1 januari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gfg18\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 7 april 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact, 5 juli 1949.&nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 5 november 1946 en 17 januari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090:&nbsp;Brief van De Bezige Bij aan Otto Frank,16 januari 1946 (&#39;te zwak, te onrijp en te weinig evenwichtig&#39;); Brief Otto Frank aan uitgeverij de Telg, 4 december 1946; Briefkaart van de Arbeiderspers aan Otto Frank, 22 december 1947; Brief van uitgeverij de Driehoek aan Otto Frank, 28 februari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes.</em> Amsterdam/Antwerpen: Contact, 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam/ Antwerpen: Contact, 1960.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 13 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Even before the publication of &#39;The Secret Annex&#39;, Otto Frank approached several publishers to publish Anne&#39;s short stories, which she had written while in hiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne started writing these stories in the <strong>summer of&nbsp;1943</strong>:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;A break in the Secret Annex&nbsp;sketches. A few weeks ago I started writing a story, something I made up from beginning to end, and I&#39;ve enjoyed it so much that the products of my pen are piling up<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The short stories are recorded in the diary, on loose sheets and in a cardboard notebook: Short stories, and events from the Secret Annex described by Anne Frank. Dedicated Thursday 2 September 1943.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got the idea to publish them during the period in hiding: &#39;<em>Dear Kitty, (&hellip;) I want to ask the magazine The Prince if they&#39;ll take one of my fairy tales, under a pseudonym of course. But up to now all my fairy tales have been too long, so I don&#39;t think I have much of a chance&#39;.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank related in <strong>1959</strong> that Anne asked Jo Kleiman to send the story <em>Blurry the Explorer</em>, among others, under the name of his daughter Corrie (a pseudonym for Jopie Kleiman). But Kleiman thought this was too dangerous. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After Otto Frank retrieved his daughter&#39;s writings, he first had the short stories written out and translated to send to his family <strong>in autumn 1945</strong>. The first story is: <em>Blurry, der Weltentdekker [sic], </em>which is about a little bear.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Otto Frank wrote to his mother on <strong>12 December 1945</strong>:<em> &#39;Frl. Sch&uuml;tz wird Dir wohl eine Uebersetzung von Annes M&auml;rchen Eva&#39;s Traum senden, was sie mir im letzten Jahr zum Geburtstag gegeben hatte.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></em></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the little story <em>Why?</em> Otto Frank recognised the influence of the letter he had sent her when she was 10 and which she had pasted in her diary, through the text:<em> &#39;It will be a support to me for life</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> According to Otto Frank, the little story <em>Give!</em> was childishly idealistic, but typical of Anne. Following the example of her mother and grandmother, she used the oft-used phrase:<em> &#39;No one has yet become poor from giving.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"doura\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Otto Frank found the story <em>A Maths Lesson</em> telling about Anne&#39;s psychology.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On two occasions, Contact Publishers rejected the manuscript of the short stories.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Then Otto Frank tried in vain to interest other publishers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Eventually, he and Contact came to an agreement. The publisher suggested editing the collection in such a way that <em>Kaatje</em>, judged to be less strong, would not be included. Moreover, the school memories were given a place in the back, mainly because of their importance for Anne&#39;s &quot;psychology&quot;. In <strong>1949.</strong> Contact nevertheless published<em>&nbsp;Do You</em>&nbsp;<em>Remember? Fables and Short Stories</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup><br />\r\nA wider selection of Anne&#39;s stories was also published by Contact in <strong>1960</strong>: <em>Tales from the House Behind</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> The publisher would have preferred a complete&nbsp;edition but understood that Otto Frank did not want the &quot;weaker parts&quot; published.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uqepm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 7 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wsk2q\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Omdat er geen dagboekaantekeningen van 6 december1942 tot 22 december 1943 in de A-versie zijn overgeleverd, is het niet duidelijk of Anne Frank in deze periode de verhaaltjes eerst in haar (tweede niet overgeleverde) dagboek heeft opgeschreven en wellicht later in het verhaaltjesboek in het net heeft overgeschreven.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ju0bt\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hxksg\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact / Gilles de Neve, 3 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0dstr\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 30 september en 11 november 1945.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kmg56\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 12 december 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f5yre\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS), Madison, WI, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hacketts, 1 januari 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doura\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>WHS, Goodrich/Hackett papers 1927-1961, Box no 2, correspondence 1952-1956: Brief Otto Frank aan Frances Goodrich en Albert Hackett, 7 april 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d7tmj\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Otto Frank aan Uitgeverij Contact, 5 juli 1949.&nbsp;&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1cki3\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 5 november 1946 en 17 januari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"98y8y\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_090:&nbsp;Brief van De Bezige Bij aan Otto Frank,16 januari 1946 (&#39;te zwak, te onrijp en te weinig evenwichtig&#39;); Brief Otto Frank aan uitgeverij de Telg, 4 december 1946; Briefkaart van de Arbeiderspers aan Otto Frank, 22 december 1947; Brief van uitgeverij de Driehoek aan Otto Frank, 28 februari 1948.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"puuvg\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Weet je nog? Verhalen en sprookjes.</em> Amsterdam/Antwerpen: Contact, 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eoneu\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, <em>Verhalen rondom het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam/ Antwerpen: Contact, 1960.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7shgu\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_101: Uitgeverij Contact aan Otto Frank, 13 oktober 1959.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Otto Frank was actively involved in the publication of Anne's diary and her short stories.",
                        "summary_nl": "Otto Frank was naast de publicatie van het dagboek van Anne actief betrokken bij de uitgave van haar verhaaltjes.",
                        "summary_en": "Otto Frank was actively involved in the publication of Anne's diary and her short stories.",
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                "name": "Prad, Reclameadvies- en advertentiebureau (Prad Advertising Consultancy and Agency)",
                "name_nl": "Prad, Reclameadvies- en advertentiebureau",
                "name_en": "Prad, Reclameadvies- en advertentiebureau (Prad Advertising Consultancy and Agency)",
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                "content": "<p><strong>Address:&nbsp;</strong>Herengracht 168, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Prad was an advertising agency that Otto Frank was in contact with after the war. Before the war, Maurice Aronson had been very successful with his advertising agency Arc&#39;s. When he set up another agency after the war, he again looked for a four-letter name. He considered choosing &#39;Prograd&#39; (&#39;progression and advertising&#39;), but eventually accepted his wife&#39;s suggestion to call the business &#39;Prad&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1949</strong>, Prad agency offered Otto Frank two proof drawings, made by (Arthur) Goldsteen, for the proposed publication of the little story written by Anne while in hiding, <em>Do you remember? </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> <sup data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1963</strong>, Prad was one of the largest advertising agencies in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: M.A. Aronson aan Otto Frank, 3 mei 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M. van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau: de ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em> (proefschrift Universteit van Amsterdam, 2012), p. 215 (noot 78).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie noot 1. Uiteindelijk zullen omslag en illustraties gemaakt worden door Kees Kelfkens.<em>&nbsp;</em>In de lente van dat jaar heeft Otto Frank het bureau enkele keren in zijn agenda staan.AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_006: Agenda Otto Frank 1949 (aantekeningen bij 26 april, 24 mei en 11 juni).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Tales and Events from the Secret Annex, &quot;Do You Remember?&quot;, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty; transl. from the German language by Kirsten Warner and transl. from the Dutch language by Nancy Forest-Flier]. London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4729-6491-5.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau</em>, p. 236 (noot 102).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:19,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1838}\"><strong bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:25,&quot;w&quot;:44,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1844}\">Adres:&nbsp;</strong>Herengracht 168, Amsterdam.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:238,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:459,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1841}\" data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:238,&quot;y&quot;:22,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:459,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1841}\" href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:56,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:65,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1875}\">Prad was een reclame bureau waar Otto Frank na de oorlog contact mee had. Voor de oorlog had Maurits Aronson veel succes met zijn reclamebureau Arc&#39;s. Toen hij na de oorlog opnieuw een bureau oprichtte, zocht hij weer een naam met vier letters. Hij overwoog &#39;Prograd&#39; (&#39;progressie en adverteren&#39;) te kiezen, maar nam uiteindelijk het voorstel van zijn vrouw over om de zaak &#39;Prad&#39; te noemen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:220,&quot;y&quot;:100,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:441,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1919}\" data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:220,&quot;y&quot;:100,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:441,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1919}\" href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:135,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:44,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1954}\">In <strong bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:137,&quot;w&quot;:28,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1956}\">1949</strong> bood bureau Prad Otto Frank twee proeftekeningen aan, gemaakt door (Arthur) Goldsteen, voor de voorgenomen uitgave van het door Anne tijdens de onderduik geschreven verhaaltje,&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:161,&quot;w&quot;:79,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1980}\">Weet je nog?&nbsp;</em><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:163,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:384,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:163,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:384,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:179,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:400,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:179,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:400,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1977}\" href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:193,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2012}\">In <strong bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:198,&quot;w&quot;:28,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2017}\">1963</strong> was Prad een van de grootste reclamebureaus van Nederland.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:428,&quot;y&quot;:195,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:649,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2014}\" data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:428,&quot;y&quot;:195,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:649,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2014}\" href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:19,&quot;y&quot;:229,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:231,&quot;abs_x&quot;:240,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2048}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:247,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2066}\">\r\n<h2 bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:247,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2066}\">Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:34,&quot;y&quot;:286,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:161,&quot;abs_x&quot;:255,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2105}\">\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:286,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2105}\" data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:289,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2108}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:289,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2108}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:292,&quot;w&quot;:844,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2111}\">Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: M.A. Aronson aan Otto Frank, 3 mei 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:310,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:44,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2129}\" data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:312,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2131}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:312,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2131}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:316,&quot;w&quot;:949,&quot;h&quot;:35,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2135}\">R.P.M. van Rossum,&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:204,&quot;y&quot;:316,&quot;w&quot;:819,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:425,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2135}\">Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau: de ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em> (proefschrift Universteit van Amsterdam, 2012), p. 215 (noot 78).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:355,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:44,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2174}\" data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:357,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2176}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:357,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2176}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:360,&quot;w&quot;:932,&quot;h&quot;:35,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2179}\">Zie noot 1. Uiteindelijk zullen omslag en illustraties gemaakt worden door Kees Kelfkens.<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:593,&quot;y&quot;:360,&quot;w&quot;:3,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:814,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2179}\">&nbsp;</em>In de lente van dat jaar heeft Otto Frank het bureau enkele keren in zijn agenda staan.AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_006: Agenda Otto Frank 1949 (aantekeningen bij 26 april, 24 mei en 11 juni).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:399,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2218}\" data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:402,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2221}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:402,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2221}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:405,&quot;w&quot;:756,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2224}\">Anne Frank, Verhaaltjes en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, &quot;Weet je nog?&quot;,&nbsp;in:&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:552,&quot;y&quot;:405,&quot;w&quot;:96,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:773,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2224}\">Verzameld werk,</em>&nbsp;Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:423,&quot;w&quot;:950,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2242}\" data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:426,&quot;w&quot;:8,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2245}\"><a bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:74,&quot;y&quot;:426,&quot;w&quot;:5,&quot;h&quot;:11,&quot;abs_x&quot;:295,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2245}\" href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:83,&quot;y&quot;:429,&quot;w&quot;:459,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:304,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2248}\">Van Rossum,&nbsp;<em bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:163,&quot;y&quot;:429,&quot;w&quot;:268,&quot;h&quot;:14,&quot;abs_x&quot;:384,&quot;abs_y&quot;:2248}\">Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau</em>, p. 236 (noot 102).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address:&nbsp;</strong>Herengracht 168, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Prad was an advertising agency that Otto Frank was in contact with after the war. Before the war, Maurice Aronson had been very successful with his advertising agency Arc&#39;s. When he set up another agency after the war, he again looked for a four-letter name. He considered choosing &#39;Prograd&#39; (&#39;progression and advertising&#39;), but eventually accepted his wife&#39;s suggestion to call the business &#39;Prad&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1949</strong>, Prad agency offered Otto Frank two proof drawings, made by (Arthur) Goldsteen, for the proposed publication of the little story written by Anne while in hiding, <em>Do you remember? </em><sup data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> <sup data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1963</strong>, Prad was one of the largest advertising agencies in the Netherlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dqrii\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_101: M.A. Aronson aan Otto Frank, 3 mei 1949.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c9sb2\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M. van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau: de ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em> (proefschrift Universteit van Amsterdam, 2012), p. 215 (noot 78).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7u7kv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie noot 1. Uiteindelijk zullen omslag en illustraties gemaakt worden door Kees Kelfkens.<em>&nbsp;</em>In de lente van dat jaar heeft Otto Frank het bureau enkele keren in zijn agenda staan.AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_006: Agenda Otto Frank 1949 (aantekeningen bij 26 april, 24 mei en 11 juni).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abh9f\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Tales and Events from the Secret Annex, &quot;Do You Remember?&quot;, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty; transl. from the German language by Kirsten Warner and transl. from the Dutch language by Nancy Forest-Flier]. London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. ISBN 978-1-4729-6491-5.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lm1u0\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Van Rossum,&nbsp;<em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau</em>, p. 236 (noot 102).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88691 52.37433)",
                "summary": "Prad was an advertising agency Otto Frank was in contact with after the war.",
                "summary_nl": "Prad was reclamebureau waar Otto Frank na de oorlog contact mee had.",
                "summary_en": "Prad was an advertising agency Otto Frank was in contact with after the war.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Herengracht 168",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.1646155
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 234,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.381209",
                "longitude": "4.86866",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 304,
                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1000,
                            "uuid": "3c794774-9b7d-457f-b7a6-1076b02d3105",
                            "name": "Melding luchtgevecht op posthuis Centraal Station",
                            "title": "Melding luchtgevecht op posthuis Centraal Station",
                            "alt": "Stadsarchief Amsterdam. Archief Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/SAA_5225-1991_Centraal_Station_3-4_mei_43.PNG",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "Rapport van posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/56c0611c-724e-4cee-a2df-b80110e52f12/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/3c23b216-9276-456b-b53d-370173d568f8"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/798debcb-55ed-40c0-bbd6-cc0442c7bd04",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "56c0611c-724e-4cee-a2df-b80110e52f12",
                        "name": "A fierce air battle",
                        "name_nl": "Een hevig luchtgevecht",
                        "name_en": "A fierce air battle",
                        "content": "<p>&quot;I witnessed a terrific air battle between German and British planes&quot;, Anne wrote in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"abozb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was not the only one who mistook the New Zealanders for British. That misunderstanding made no difference for what happened next.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the late afternoon, the squadron of the 487th Squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force flew in from England. By an unfortunate coincidence, the Luftwaffe was able to attack them as early as the coast, knocking fighters and bombers out of formation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Shot down by German fighters, planes crashed in the Grote IJpolder, the Kometensingel and in the Van Bossestraat, barely a kilometer from the Secret Annexe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Several others exploded in mid-flight and wing sections, exploded and unexploded shells, cockpit turrets and other debris landed in various parts of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Outside Amsterdam, planes crashed in Haarlem, Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and in the North Sea.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There were many victims among the New Zealanders, twelve were buried in Amsterdam. Some Amsterdam citizens were also killed.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Various police stations and post offices reported the crash, explosions, casualties and debris in various ways.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> But the policeman in the post office at Central Station was the first to use the same word as Anne: <em>an air battle</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abozb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 18 May 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. In her diary, this entry was dated 4 May and later for unknown reasons changed to 18 May.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>The London Gazette</em>, supplement 37486, 1 maart 1946, p. 1179 (thegazette.co.uk).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zquan\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Studiegroep Luchtoorlog 1939 - 1945,&nbsp;<em>Verliesregister 1939 - 1945. Alle militaire vliegtuigverliezen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Den Haag, 2008, p. 72 (online raadpleegbaar).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Onder andere: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1991, rapport posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>&#39;Ik ben toeschouwster geweest van een hevig luchtgevecht tussen Duitse en Engelse vliegers&#39;, schreef Anne in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"abozb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Zij was niet de enige die de Nieuw-Zeelanders aanzag voor Britten. Voor het vervolg maakte dat misverstand ook geen verschil.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Aan het einde van de&nbsp;&nbsp;middag kwam het eskader van het 487th Squadron van de Royal New Zealand Air Force vanuit Engeland aanvliegen. Door een ongelukkige samenloop van omstandigheden was de Luftwaffe in staat ze al bij de kust aan te vallen, waardoor gevechtsvliegtuigen en bommenwerpers uit formatie raakten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Neergeschoten door Duitse jagers stortten er vliegtuigen neer in de Grote IJpolder, de Kometensingel&nbsp;en in de Van Bossestraat, nauwelijks een kilometer&nbsp;van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Enkele anderen explodeerden in volle vlucht en vleugeldelen, wel of niet ontplofte granaten, cockpitkoepels en andere brokstukken kwamen in verschillende delen van de stad terecht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Buiten Amsterdam stortten nog vliegtuigen neer in Haarlem, Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen&nbsp;en in de Noordzee.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Onder de Nieuw-Zeelanders vielen veel slachtoffers, twaalf werden er in Amsterdam begraven. Ook onder de Amsterdamse burgerij vielen doden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Diverse politiebureaus en posthuizen maakten op uiteenlopende wijze melding van het neerstorten, de explosies, de slachtoffers en de brokstukken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Maar de politieman in het posthuis op het Centraal Station gebruikte als eerste hetzelfde woord als Anne: een <em>luchtgevecht</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abozb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;B, 18 mei 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013. In haar manuscript dateerde ze deze passage op 4 mei, en veranderde dat later om onbekende redenen in 18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>The London Gazette</em>, supplement 37486, 1 maart 1946, p. 1179 (thegazette.co.uk).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zquan\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Studiegroep Luchtoorlog 1939 - 1945,&nbsp;<em>Verliesregister 1939 - 1945. Alle militaire vliegtuigverliezen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Den Haag, 2008, p. 72 (online raadpleegbaar).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Onder andere: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1991, rapport posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>&quot;I witnessed a terrific air battle between German and British planes&quot;, Anne wrote in het diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"abozb\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was not the only one who mistook the New Zealanders for British. That misunderstanding made no difference for what happened next.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the late afternoon, the squadron of the 487th Squadron of the Royal New Zealand Air Force flew in from England. By an unfortunate coincidence, the Luftwaffe was able to attack them as early as the coast, knocking fighters and bombers out of formation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Shot down by German fighters, planes crashed in the Grote IJpolder, the Kometensingel and in the Van Bossestraat, barely a kilometer from the Secret Annexe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Several others exploded in mid-flight and wing sections, exploded and unexploded shells, cockpit turrets and other debris landed in various parts of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Outside Amsterdam, planes crashed in Haarlem, Bennebroek, Vijfhuizen and in the North Sea.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zquan\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There were many victims among the New Zealanders, twelve were buried in Amsterdam. Some Amsterdam citizens were also killed.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Various police stations and post offices reported the crash, explosions, casualties and debris in various ways.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> But the policeman in the post office at Central Station was the first to use the same word as Anne: <em>an air battle</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"abozb\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 18 May 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019. In her diary, this entry was dated 4 May and later for unknown reasons changed to 18 May.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rb1pp\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>The London Gazette</em>, supplement 37486, 1 maart 1946, p. 1179 (thegazette.co.uk).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zquan\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Studiegroep Luchtoorlog 1939 - 1945,&nbsp;<em>Verliesregister 1939 - 1945. Alle militaire vliegtuigverliezen in Nederland tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>, Den Haag, 2008, p. 72 (online raadpleegbaar).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a15dh\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Onder andere: Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrf7a\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 1991, rapport posthuis Centraal Station, 3 mei 1943, mut. 19.00.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1943-05-03",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "On 3 May 1943, a squadron of New Zealand aircraft attempted to bomb the Westergasfabriek. That went fairly wrong.",
                        "summary_nl": "Op 3 mei 1943 probeerde een eskader Nieuw-Zeelandse vliegtuigen de Westergasfabriek te bombarderen. Dat ging behoorlijk mis.",
                        "summary_en": "On 3 May 1943, a squadron of New Zealand aircraft attempted to bomb the Westergasfabriek. That went fairly wrong.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [],
                "related_locations": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/798debcb-55ed-40c0-bbd6-cc0442c7bd04/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Van Bossestraat",
                "name_nl": "Van Bossestraat",
                "name_en": null,
                "uuid": "798debcb-55ed-40c0-bbd6-cc0442c7bd04",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.86866 52.381209)",
                "summary": "On 3 May 1943, a plane crashed on Van Bossestraat, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_nl": "In de Van Bossestraat, Amsterdam, stortte op 3 mei 1943 een vliegtuig neer.",
                "summary_en": "On 3 May 1943, a plane crashed on Van Bossestraat, Amsterdam.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Van Bossestraat",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    304
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.1646155
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 65,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.344945",
                "longitude": "4.847492",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 225,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a3fe11e5-db57-4efb-bc79-6c5641daeede/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b1f2828-0f9d-49a0-bf55-869b818e76ab"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a7bd22a6-e3e0-45e6-9bef-449b9894f0db",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "a3fe11e5-db57-4efb-bc79-6c5641daeede",
                        "name": "Johannes Kleiman lives in Amsterdam for almost all of his life",
                        "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman woont bijna zijn hele leven in Amsterdam",
                        "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman lives in Amsterdam for almost all of his life",
                        "content": "<p>Johannes Kleiman lived at many different addresses. The first part of the following overview are the addresses where he lived with his parents, as far as is known. This is followed by an overview of addresses where he lived after his marriage.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Daalseweg 54, Nijmegen<strong> (1898</strong>). The blacksmith H.J. van Kleef also lived here at the time.<sup data-footnote-id=\"azj0i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Daalseweg 116, Nijmegen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6bu8h\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Hoogte Kadijk 85 house, Amsterdam: from <strong>27 May 1904</strong> to <strong>24 April 1906</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Celebesstraat 57 III, Amsterdam: from <strong>24 April 1906</strong> to <strong>29 July 1907</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Pieter Vlamingstraat 94 I, Amsterdam: from <strong>29 July 1907</strong> to <strong>16 September 1907.</strong></li>\r\n\t<li>Mauritskade 69 I, Amsterdam: from <strong>16 September 1907</strong> to <strong>11 July 1908</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Commelinstraat 27 III, Amsterdam: from <strong>11 July 1908</strong> to <strong>5 November 1915</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Rapenburg 36 II, Amsterdam: from <strong>5 November 1915</strong> to <strong>20 May 1916</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Kattenburgerkade 49 III, Amsterdam: from <strong>20 May 1916</strong> to <strong>9 March 1923</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Marinierstraat 4 house, Amsterdam: from <strong>9 March 1923</strong> to <strong>21 July 1923.</strong></li>\r\n\t<li>At Mariniersstraat 6, Amsterdam, Kleiman&#39;s father had a blacksmith shop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"il5iv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21 I, Amsterdam: From <strong>21 July 19</strong> 23 to <strong>2 July 1928</strong>. This was the first address after his marriage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The firm Michael Frank &amp; Zonen was registered at this address from <strong>9 July 1925</strong> to <strong>17 July 1928</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Frederik Hendrikstraat 24 III, Amsterdam: From <strong>2 July 1928</strong> to <strong>6 March 1929</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The firm Michael Frank &amp; Zonen was registered at this address from <strong>17 July 1928</strong> to <strong>1 January 1929</strong> (the date of dissolution).<sup data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Thomsonlaan 25, Haarlem: From <strong>6 March 1929</strong> to <strong>29 April 1933</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The Commercial Register of the Centrale Maatschappij shows that this was Kleiman&#39;s only Haarlem address.</li>\r\n\t<li>General Vetterstraat 40 boven, Amsterdam: from <strong>29 April 1933</strong> to <strong>24 September 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In <strong>1937</strong>, N.V. Paauwe&#39;s Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken was also listed at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3yuoi\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>General Vetterstraat 43 huis, Amsterdam: From <strong>24 September 1940</strong> to <strong>7 June 19</strong> 43.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> From its establishment on <strong>1 June 1941</strong> until the move, Handelsonderneming Gebroeders Kleiman had its registered office&nbsp;there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Wielingenstraat 12 II, Amsterdam: from <strong>7 June 1943</strong> to <strong>13 October 1949</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4kkhf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> This address also housed Handelsonderneming Gebroeders Kleiman during that period.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Before that, the Jewish couple Salomone and Rebecca Loet&eacute;-Rabbie lived there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic5h4\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Biesboschstraat 37 I, Amsterdam: From <strong>13 October 1949</strong> until his death.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8gpa7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> He lived here above Gerrit de Kleijn, whom he employed in the Opekta-Pectacon warehouse.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d2ne7\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> From <strong>23 December 1949</strong> until its closure on <strong>31 December 1949</strong>, Handelsonderneming Gebroeders Kleiman was located there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"azj0i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Adresboek voor Nijmegen en het Schependom</em>, Ubbergen en Beek 1898, p. 121.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6bu8h\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Adresboek voor Nijmegen en het Schependom</em>, Ubbergen en Beek 1899, p. 128; 1901, p. 130; 1902, p. 137; 1903, p. 138. &nbsp;Dit betreft misschien een vernummering, maar dat is op dit moment niet bekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"il5iv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 97, dossier 12674. Op Beeldbankfoto 010009004826 van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam zijn de panden Mariniersstraat 4 en 6 te zien.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten (toegangsnummer 5421):&nbsp;Gezinskaart Johannes Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, Archief Anne Frank 212c-6a: Kopie Handelsregisterdossier 19006.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johanna Catharina Reuman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3yuoi\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Volgens een e-mail van Willem van der Krogt, 20 augustus 2009, stond dat in het klokkenmakersvakblad <em>Christiaan Huygens</em> van 29 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 448-1148, dossier 56003.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4kkhf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johanna Catharina Reuman..Op de kaart van Kleiman ontbreekt gedetailleerde informatie over de oudere adressen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic5h4\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ZIe&nbsp;Digitaal Monument Joodse Gemeenschap in Nederland: Gezin Salomon Loet&eacute; (http://www.joodsmonument.nl/institution-372303-nl.html).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8gpa7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johannes Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d2ne7\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Kwakernaak, Jeanne: Interview met Jeanne Kwakernaak, 15 december 2000. De Kleijn staat op de foto van Prinsengracht 263 die in het Anne Frank Huis hangt.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Johannes Kleiman heeft op veel verschillende adressen gewoond. Het eerste deel van het volgende overzicht zijn de adressen waar hij voor - zover bekend- met zijn ouders woont. Daarna volgt een overzicht van adressen waar hij na zijn huwelijk woont.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Daalseweg 54, Nijmegen&nbsp;(<strong>1898</strong>). Hier woonde&nbsp;dan tevens de smid H.J. van Kleef.<sup data-footnote-id=\"azj0i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Daalseweg 116, Nijmegen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6bu8h\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Hoogte Kadijk 85 huis, Amsterdam: van <strong>27 mei 1904</strong> tot <strong>24 april 1906</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Celebesstraat 57 III, Amsterdam: van <strong>24 april 1906</strong> tot <strong>29 juli 1907</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Pieter Vlamingstraat&nbsp;94 I, Amsterdam: van <strong>29 juli 1907</strong> tot <strong>16 september 1907.</strong></li>\r\n\t<li>Mauritskade 69 I, Amsterdam: van <strong>16 september 1907</strong> tot <strong>11 juli 1908</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Commelinstraat 27 III, Amsterdam: van <strong>11 juli 1908</strong> tot <strong>5 november 1915</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Rapenburg 36 II, Amsterdam: van <strong>5 november 1915</strong> tot <strong>20 mei 1916</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Kattenburgerkade 49 III, Amsterdam: van <strong>20 mei 1916</strong> tot <strong>9 maart 1923</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Marinierstraat 4 huis, Amsterdam: van <strong>9 maart 1923</strong> tot <strong>21 juli 1923.</strong></li>\r\n\t<li>Op Mariniersstraat 6, Amsterdam had&nbsp;vader Kleiman van&nbsp;een smederij.<sup data-footnote-id=\"il5iv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21&nbsp;I, Amsterdam:&nbsp;Van <strong>21 juli 1923</strong> tot <strong>2 juli 1928</strong>. Dit was het eerste adres na zijn huwelijk.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> De firma Michael Frank &amp; Zonen was van <strong>9 juli 1925</strong> tot <strong>17 juli 1928</strong> op dit adres ingeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Frederik Hendrikstraat 24 III, Amsterdam:&nbsp;Van <strong>2 juli 1928</strong> tot <strong>6 maart 1929</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> De firma Michael Frank &amp; Zonen was van <strong>17 juli 1928</strong> tot <strong>1 januari 1929</strong> (de opheffingsdatum) op dit adres ingeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Thomsonlaan 25, Haarlem:&nbsp;Van <strong>6 maart 1929</strong> tot <strong>29 april 1933</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Uit het Handelsregister van de Centrale Maatschappij blijkt dat dit Kleimans enige Haarlemse adres was.</li>\r\n\t<li>Generaal Vetterstraat 40 boven, Amsterdam:&nbsp;Van <strong>29 april 1933</strong> tot <strong>24 september 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In <strong>1937</strong> stond&nbsp;op dit adres ook N.V. Paauwe&#39;s Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken vermeld.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3yuoi\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Generaal Vetterstraat 43 huis, Amsterdam:&nbsp;Van <strong>24 september 1940</strong> tot <strong>7 juni 1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Vanaf de oprichting op <strong>1 juni 1941</strong> tot de verhuizing was Handelsonderneming gebroeders Kleiman hier gevestigd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Wielingenstraat 12 II, Amsterdam:&nbsp;Van <strong>7 juni 1943</strong> tot <strong>13 oktober 1949</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4kkhf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> &nbsp;Op dit adres was gedurende die periode ook Handelsonderneming gebroeders Kleiman gevestigd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp; Daarvoor woonde&nbsp;er het Joodse echtpaar&nbsp;Salomone en Rebecca Loet&eacute;-Rabbie.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic5h4\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Biesboschstraat 37 I, Amsterdam:&nbsp;Van <strong>13 oktober 1949</strong> tot zijn overlijden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8gpa7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Hij woonde&nbsp;hier boven Gerrit de Kleijn, die hij werk in het Opekta-Pectaconmagazijn bezorgde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d2ne7\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Vanaf <strong>23 december 1949</strong> tot de opheffing op <strong>31 december 1949</strong>&nbsp;was de Handelsonderneming gebroeders Kleiman hier gevestigd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"azj0i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Adresboek voor Nijmegen en het Schependom</em>, Ubbergen en Beek 1898, p. 121.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6bu8h\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Adresboek voor Nijmegen en het Schependom</em>, Ubbergen en Beek 1899, p. 128; 1901, p. 130; 1902, p. 137; 1903, p. 138. &nbsp;Dit betreft misschien een vernummering, maar dat is op dit moment niet bekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"il5iv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 97, dossier 12674. Op Beeldbankfoto 010009004826 van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam zijn de panden Mariniersstraat 4 en 6 te zien.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten (toegangsnummer 5421):&nbsp;Gezinskaart Johannes Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, Archief Anne Frank 212c-6a: Kopie Handelsregisterdossier 19006.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johanna Catharina Reuman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3yuoi\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Volgens een e-mail van Willem van der Krogt, 20 augustus 2009, stond dat in het klokkenmakersvakblad <em>Christiaan Huygens</em> van 29 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 448-1148, dossier 56003.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4kkhf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johanna Catharina Reuman..Op de kaart van Kleiman ontbreekt gedetailleerde informatie over de oudere adressen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic5h4\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ZIe&nbsp;Digitaal Monument Joodse Gemeenschap in Nederland: Gezin Salomon Loet&eacute; (http://www.joodsmonument.nl/institution-372303-nl.html).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8gpa7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johannes Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d2ne7\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Kwakernaak, Jeanne: Interview met Jeanne Kwakernaak, 15 december 2000. De Kleijn staat op de foto van Prinsengracht 263 die in het Anne Frank Huis hangt.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Johannes Kleiman lived at many different addresses. The first part of the following overview are the addresses where he lived with his parents, as far as is known. This is followed by an overview of addresses where he lived after his marriage.</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Daalseweg 54, Nijmegen<strong> (1898</strong>). The blacksmith H.J. van Kleef also lived here at the time.<sup data-footnote-id=\"azj0i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Daalseweg 116, Nijmegen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6bu8h\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Hoogte Kadijk 85 house, Amsterdam: from <strong>27 May 1904</strong> to <strong>24 April 1906</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Celebesstraat 57 III, Amsterdam: from <strong>24 April 1906</strong> to <strong>29 July 1907</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Pieter Vlamingstraat 94 I, Amsterdam: from <strong>29 July 1907</strong> to <strong>16 September 1907.</strong></li>\r\n\t<li>Mauritskade 69 I, Amsterdam: from <strong>16 September 1907</strong> to <strong>11 July 1908</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Commelinstraat 27 III, Amsterdam: from <strong>11 July 1908</strong> to <strong>5 November 1915</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Rapenburg 36 II, Amsterdam: from <strong>5 November 1915</strong> to <strong>20 May 1916</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Kattenburgerkade 49 III, Amsterdam: from <strong>20 May 1916</strong> to <strong>9 March 1923</strong>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Marinierstraat 4 house, Amsterdam: from <strong>9 March 1923</strong> to <strong>21 July 1923.</strong></li>\r\n\t<li>At Mariniersstraat 6, Amsterdam, Kleiman&#39;s father had a blacksmith shop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"il5iv\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21 I, Amsterdam: From <strong>21 July 19</strong> 23 to <strong>2 July 1928</strong>. This was the first address after his marriage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The firm Michael Frank &amp; Zonen was registered at this address from <strong>9 July 1925</strong> to <strong>17 July 1928</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Frederik Hendrikstraat 24 III, Amsterdam: From <strong>2 July 1928</strong> to <strong>6 March 1929</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The firm Michael Frank &amp; Zonen was registered at this address from <strong>17 July 1928</strong> to <strong>1 January 1929</strong> (the date of dissolution).<sup data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Thomsonlaan 25, Haarlem: From <strong>6 March 1929</strong> to <strong>29 April 1933</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The Commercial Register of the Centrale Maatschappij shows that this was Kleiman&#39;s only Haarlem address.</li>\r\n\t<li>General Vetterstraat 40 boven, Amsterdam: from <strong>29 April 1933</strong> to <strong>24 September 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In <strong>1937</strong>, N.V. Paauwe&#39;s Volautomatische Kalenderuurwerken was also listed at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3yuoi\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>General Vetterstraat 43 huis, Amsterdam: From <strong>24 September 1940</strong> to <strong>7 June 19</strong> 43.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> From its establishment on <strong>1 June 1941</strong> until the move, Handelsonderneming Gebroeders Kleiman had its registered office&nbsp;there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Wielingenstraat 12 II, Amsterdam: from <strong>7 June 1943</strong> to <strong>13 October 1949</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4kkhf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> This address also housed Handelsonderneming Gebroeders Kleiman during that period.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Before that, the Jewish couple Salomone and Rebecca Loet&eacute;-Rabbie lived there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ic5h4\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Biesboschstraat 37 I, Amsterdam: From <strong>13 October 1949</strong> until his death.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8gpa7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> He lived here above Gerrit de Kleijn, whom he employed in the Opekta-Pectacon warehouse.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d2ne7\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> From <strong>23 December 1949</strong> until its closure on <strong>31 December 1949</strong>, Handelsonderneming Gebroeders Kleiman was located there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"azj0i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Adresboek voor Nijmegen en het Schependom</em>, Ubbergen en Beek 1898, p. 121.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6bu8h\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Adresboek voor Nijmegen en het Schependom</em>, Ubbergen en Beek 1899, p. 128; 1901, p. 130; 1902, p. 137; 1903, p. 138. &nbsp;Dit betreft misschien een vernummering, maar dat is op dit moment niet bekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"il5iv\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 97, dossier 12674. Op Beeldbankfoto 010009004826 van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam zijn de panden Mariniersstraat 4 en 6 te zien.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1jw6k\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten (toegangsnummer 5421):&nbsp;Gezinskaart Johannes Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u57tj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, Archief Anne Frank 212c-6a: Kopie Handelsregisterdossier 19006.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y0kti\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johanna Catharina Reuman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3yuoi\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Volgens een e-mail van Willem van der Krogt, 20 augustus 2009, stond dat in het klokkenmakersvakblad <em>Christiaan Huygens</em> van 29 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"74vqc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, inv. nr. 448-1148, dossier 56003.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4kkhf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johanna Catharina Reuman..Op de kaart van Kleiman ontbreekt gedetailleerde informatie over de oudere adressen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ic5h4\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ZIe&nbsp;Digitaal Monument Joodse Gemeenschap in Nederland: Gezin Salomon Loet&eacute; (http://www.joodsmonument.nl/institution-372303-nl.html).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8gpa7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238):&nbsp;Archiefkaart Johannes Kleiman.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d2ne7\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Kwakernaak, Jeanne: Interview met Jeanne Kwakernaak, 15 december 2000. De Kleijn staat op de foto van Prinsengracht 263 die in het Anne Frank Huis hangt.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1904-05-27",
                        "date_end": "1959-01-28",
                        "summary": "Johannes Kleiman lived in Amsterdam almost all his life.",
                        "summary_nl": "Johannes Kleiman heeft bijna zijn hele leven in Amsterdam gewoond.",
                        "summary_en": "Johannes Kleiman lived in Amsterdam almost all his life.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
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                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/a7bd22a6-e3e0-45e6-9bef-449b9894f0db/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Home of Johannes Kleiman",
                "name_nl": "Woning Johannes Kleiman",
                "name_en": "Home of Johannes Kleiman",
                "uuid": "a7bd22a6-e3e0-45e6-9bef-449b9894f0db",
                "content": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                "content_nl": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                "content_en": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.847492 52.344945)",
                "summary": "Jo Kleiman lived at General Vetterstraat 40 upstairs from April 29, 1933 to September 24, 1940 and at number 43 upstairs from September 24, 1940 to June 7, 1943. Both addresses no longer exist today.",
                "summary_nl": "Jo Kleiman woonde van 29 april 1933 tot 24 september 1940 op Generaal Vetterstraat 40 boven en van 24 september 1940 tot 7 juni 1943 op nummer 43 boven. Beide adressen bestaan heden niet meer.",
                "summary_en": "Jo Kleiman lived at General Vetterstraat 40 upstairs from April 29, 1933 to September 24, 1940 and at number 43 upstairs from September 24, 1940 to June 7, 1943. Both addresses no longer exist today.",
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                    "https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank/detail/6489e62e-a33a-2ffa-107c-e219b4320af5"
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                "street": "Generaal Vetterstraat",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": [
                    225
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            "score": 1.1646155
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            "instance": {
                "id": 129,
                "files": [],
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                "latitude": "52.360727",
                "longitude": "4.879872",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 102,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/2acbbc0d-9757-43ad-af27-8d27e20212f3/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/62928bcc-7011-4ca1-abbe-7f829de1baac"
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                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ff015b88-0c4e-4c37-9e03-faf409e6906e",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7a401952-1cc2-4945-9937-38184cde0e15"
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                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db15398a-d845-4147-9ceb-1530e7e9a4e4",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "2acbbc0d-9757-43ad-af27-8d27e20212f3",
                        "name": "Max van Pels moves to the Netherlands",
                        "name_nl": "Max van Pels naar Nederland",
                        "name_en": "Max van Pels moves to the Netherlands",
                        "content": "<p>In <strong>early 193</strong>8, Max van Pels disposed of his business interests and moved to Amsterdam with his wife. Because of their Dutch nationality, they were able to settle there without any particular difficulties. Their final destination was North America.</p>",
                        "content_nl": "<p><strong>Begin 1938</strong> deed Max van Pels zijn zakelijke belangen van de hand en vertrok met zijn echtgenote naar Amsterdam. Vanwege hun Nederlandse nationaliteit konden zij zich daar zonder bijzondere moeilijkheden vestigen. Hun uiteindelijke reisdoel was Noord-Amerika.</p>",
                        "content_en": "<p>In <strong>early 193</strong>8, Max van Pels disposed of his business interests and moved to Amsterdam with his wife. Because of their Dutch nationality, they were able to settle there without any particular difficulties. Their final destination was North America.</p>",
                        "date": "1938-03-29",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Max van Pels was a brother of Hermann van Pels.",
                        "summary_nl": "Max van Pels was een broer van Hermann van Pels.",
                        "summary_en": "Max van Pels was a brother of Hermann van Pels.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
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                "subjects": [
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                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                        "name": "Accommodation",
                        "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                        "name_en": "Accommodation",
                        "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                        "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                        "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
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                "published": true,
                "name": "Home of Max and Anni van Pels-Haag",
                "name_nl": "Woning Max en Anni van Pels-Haag",
                "name_en": "Home of Max and Anni van Pels-Haag",
                "uuid": "db15398a-d845-4147-9ceb-1530e7e9a4e4",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
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                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.879872 52.360727)",
                "summary": "On their way to the United States, Max and Anni temporarily stayed here, in Amsterdam. After this, they lived at Jan van Eijckstraat 28 hs, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_nl": "Max en Anni verbleven op weg naar de Verenigde Staten tijdelijk hier, in Amsterdam. Hierna woonden ze nog op Jan van Eijckstraat 28 hs, Amsterdam.",
                "summary_en": "On their way to the United States, Max and Anni temporarily stayed here, in Amsterdam. After this, they lived at Jan van Eijckstraat 28 hs, Amsterdam.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Vossiusstraat 26 hs",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": [
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            "score": 1.1646155
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                "id": 128,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.36553",
                "longitude": "4.875403",
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                        "id": 88,
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                            "uuid": "fb455f04-3c8c-4b47-9d6e-a1b0ddd6c5f0",
                            "name": "Leerboekjes",
                            "title": "Deze leerboekjes zijn gebruikt in het Achterhuis.",
                            "alt": "Fotograaf: Allard Bovenberg.",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/AFH-Leerboeken.jpg",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "Deze leerboekjes zijn gebruikt in het Achterhuis. Otto en Edith wilden dat hun kinderen niet te ver achter zouden raken.",
                            "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                            "copyright": "Collectie Anne Frank Stichting"
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/4da36e02-e29b-48b9-8cb5-5034731aa9ba/",
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                        "name": "Learning in the Secret Annex",
                        "name_nl": "Leren in het Achterhuis",
                        "name_en": "Learning in the Secret Annex",
                        "description": "<p>For the children in the Secret Annex, it was important to ensure that they could return to school after the expected end of the war and the restoration of normality. Anne writes frequently about how she hoped and expected to be able to continue her education. In <strong>July &#39;44</strong>, a few weeks after D-Day, she expected to be back in school in October.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2t6yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Margot, Anne and Peter were regularly updating their school knowledge. Some of the adults were also engaged in self-study. The plan drawn up by Hermann van Pels and quoted by Anne <u><em>Prospectus and leitmotif for the Secret Annex</em></u>&nbsp;stated that the people there would help and correct each other when making mistakes in the Dutch language.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Anne</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne attended the Sixth Montessori School on Niersstraat in Amsterdam&#39;s Rivierenbuurt neighbourhood. It was initially planned that she would stay there for an extra year after the <strong>summer of 1941</strong>, but because of educational segregation she had to go to the Jewish Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qv128\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>August &#39;42</strong>, once in hiding, she received tutoring from her father. Her school knowledge was draining away.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ciw93\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Her father tried to help her with sums, but because they were also beyond him, Margot had to step in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2ouo\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> She studied French, especially irregular verbs, and read the book <em>La belle Nivernaise</em> by Alphonse Daudet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lv2g5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> German reading progressed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz8v1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> She also learned the words for &#39;brothel&#39;&nbsp;and &#39;cocotte&#39;,&nbsp;which must not have been part of the regular curriculum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vh5jk\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>27 April&nbsp;1944,</strong> Anne describes what she learned one day. About Brazil, she quotes passages from her land and ethnography book. The comparison between the Mississippi River and the Missouri River is from the same book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v49kn\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> The passages about monkeys and hippos she also derived from a textbook.<sup data-footnote-id=\"em6ux\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> She additionally mentions a large number of historical figures, but it is not known which book she used for them. She loved history, but had an aversion to algebra, geometry and arithmetic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"anxhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Algebra she learned only under pressure from her father.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa6eq\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;Other subjects she studied included art, mythology, Dutch literature and biblical history.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> For her last birthday, <strong>12 June 1944,</strong> she received, among other things, the booklet <em>Principles of Botany.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"1neoi\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> In the front she wrote, &quot;Anne Frank 12 June 1944 Secret Annex.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"69qt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> Since Anne had never shown a particular interest in plants, this gift must also have been a result of the hope of returning to school.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Together with Margot and her father, Anne took the shorthand course of the institute <em>Cursus Zelfontwikkeling</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"72ukv\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> This Amsterdam-West institute had been offering correspondence courses for years. <strong>In early 1940</strong> this stenography course cost 65 cents per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zs4eq\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1943</strong> it was 85 cents per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dww7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Even before the end of that year the price increased to a guilder a month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v9uja\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Progress is discussed regularly in the diary, sometimes quite appropriately in shorthand form. Anne wanted to go from 75 syllables per minute to 140.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h2kac\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> According to the B version, Anne, Margot and Peter took the course,<sup data-footnote-id=\"k9e0p\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> and finished it in <strong>March &#39;43</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"55zrk\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> However, Anne was still working on it in July of that year as well.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lygmq\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Margot</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot had to leave the Municipal Lyceum for Girls in the <strong>autumn of 1941</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo6c0\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> to attend the newly founded Jewish Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p1epg\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup>&nbsp;In&nbsp;the Secret Annex, Margot kept up with regular school subjects, and, like Anne and her father, took the stenography course. She considered taking a course in calligraphy at the same institute.<sup data-footnote-id=\"npd48\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> However, Anne does not return to this in her diary.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the <strong>autumn of 1943</strong>, Margot did enroll at Leidse Onderwijsinstellingen (LOI) for a course in Elementary Latin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dgp6t\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> She chose a pace of one lesson per week, with payment one month in advance, and she wanted to keep the material upon completion. She submitted her lessons under the name Elly Voskuijl.<sup data-footnote-id=\"94yhz\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup> It was therefore Bep who took care of sending in the assignments she made.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kc5ih\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> Teacher A.C. Nielson corrected Margot&#39;s work, very regularly adding compliments.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2q2i\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup> Otto Frank, former grammar school student, helped Margot, and in the B version Anne describes them as &quot;the Latinists&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6ygvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>During the hiding period, Margot studied English, French, shorthand (English, German and Dutch), mechanics, trigonometry, stereometry, physics, chemistry, algebra, geometry, English, French and German literature, bookkeeping, geography, modern history, biology and economics, in addition to the Latin course.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nms9i\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the arrest, Bep wrote to LOI that she wanted to discontinue the course.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1rn8a\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup> It was not until <strong>June &#39;</strong> <strong>45 </strong>that she wrote to this institute how things really were.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x4y0i\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup> In <strong>1947</strong>, Nielson received a copy of <em>The Secret Annex </em>by Otto Frank, and wrote in his letter of thanks:<em> &quot;During the war, hundreds of people in hiding [...] attended our classes.</em> <em>[...] Hundreds of letters from this time I keep as a precious memory of the many lonely and anxious people in hiding, to whom my lessons brought comfort and culture [...].&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"hzsmg\"><a href=\"#footnote-35\" id=\"footnote-marker-35-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[35]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In correspondence about the post-war <em>Entsch&auml;digung</em>, Otto Frank&#39;s lawyer wrote on his authority that Margot would have liked to study medicine. The Latin course was intended as preparation for this.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nups7\"><a href=\"#footnote-36\" id=\"footnote-marker-36-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[36]</a></sup> Anne writes that Margot wanted to go to Palestine as a maternity nurse.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\"><a href=\"#footnote-37\" id=\"footnote-marker-37-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[37]</a></sup> This played out around the time that <em>Palestina op de tweesprong</em> (Palestine at the Crossroads) was being read in the Secret Annex, which discussed professional child care in detail.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q15cu\"><a href=\"#footnote-38\" id=\"footnote-marker-38-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[38]</a></sup> Otto Frank believed that this change of direction was a result of the increasing hopelessness caused by the ongoing occupation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\"><a href=\"#footnote-37\" id=\"footnote-marker-37-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[37]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Otto and Edith Frank</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was tutored by her father, but she helped him with Dutch. She made fun of his mistakes, for example when he mixed up the Dutch &#39;klotsen&#39;&nbsp;and the German &#39;glotzen&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ddeae\"><a href=\"#footnote-39\" id=\"footnote-marker-39-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[39]</a></sup> She was rather negative about her mother&#39;s Dutch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kclws\"><a href=\"#footnote-40\" id=\"footnote-marker-40-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[40]</a></sup> To what extent Edith Frank mastered the Dutch language is unclear. According to her husband, she was also taught English for some time by Rosey Pool, a later teacher at the Jewish Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f9qqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-41\" id=\"footnote-marker-41-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[41]</a></sup> In the Secret Annex, according to Anne, Edith was still learning English, but in writing.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s08j8\"><a href=\"#footnote-42\" id=\"footnote-marker-42-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[42]</a></sup> Improvement in English proficiency was basically done with a view to the intended emigration to England or America.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Peter</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Before going into hiding, Peter attended vocational training. In a well-known photo of him, he is working on the upholstery and springs of a chair or sofa.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pr4t1\"><a href=\"#footnote-43\" id=\"footnote-marker-43-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[43]</a></sup> According to Anne, he was still learning woodworking in the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> She was probably referring to the theory of this course.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Peter was working on English in the <strong>autumn&nbsp;of &#39;42</strong>, and French <strong>in early &#39;44</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pav6l\"><a href=\"#footnote-44\" id=\"footnote-marker-44-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[44]</a></sup>&nbsp;He got help with French from Anne, who incidentally writes that he was good at English and geography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"shdn1\"><a href=\"#footnote-45\" id=\"footnote-marker-45-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[45]</a></sup> In <strong>1963,</strong> Otto Frank recounted that on <strong>4&nbsp;August 1944,</strong> he was helping Peter with English at the moment when the <em>Sicherheitsdienst</em> raided the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4vvke\"><a href=\"#footnote-46\" id=\"footnote-marker-46-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[46]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hermann and Auguste van Pels</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The <u><em>Prospectus and leitmotif for the Secret Annex</em></u>, according to Anne created by Hermann van Pels,<sup data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> was written in fairly good Dutch. Anne suggests elsewhere that his Dutch left much to be desired,<sup data-footnote-id=\"5u60q\"><a href=\"#footnote-47\" id=\"footnote-marker-47-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[47]</a></sup> which might indicate that he had help writing it. Auguste van Pels, according to Anne, was studying a language book while stirring in a pan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e411s\"><a href=\"#footnote-48\" id=\"footnote-marker-48-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[48]</a></sup> The museum collection of the Anne Frank Foundation contains a <em>Kleine Niederl&auml;ndische Sprachlehre </em>for school and self-study.<sup data-footnote-id=\"713yv\"><a href=\"#footnote-49\" id=\"footnote-marker-49-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[49]</a></sup> Despite her efforts, Anne said she spoke &#39;outrageous&#39;&nbsp;Dutch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"32h6i\"><a href=\"#footnote-50\" id=\"footnote-marker-50-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[50]</a></sup> If this is true, the good intention mentioned in the &quot;Prospectus&quot; to help each other learn the language did not come to pass.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fritz Pfeffer</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In connection with his intended emigration to South America, Pfeffer taught himself Spanish. Among other things, he translated the&nbsp;Spanish-language travel guide <em>Holande. Mi viaje a trav&egrave;s de los Paises Bajos</em> by W. Fernandez Flores into Dutch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ere9z\"><a href=\"#footnote-51\" id=\"footnote-marker-51-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[51]</a></sup> Anne writes repeatedly about Pfeffer working relentlessly on his &#39;pensum&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8nw1l\"><a href=\"#footnote-52\" id=\"footnote-marker-52-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[52]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In improving his correspondence, he received help from Margot; Anne condescendingly called&nbsp;it <em>&quot;education for children who get no further&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ila2m\"><a href=\"#footnote-53\" id=\"footnote-marker-53-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[53]</a></sup> Considering that in 1920 Pfeffer had graduated as &quot;Dr. med. dent.&quot;,<sup data-footnote-id=\"g4jpy\"><a href=\"#footnote-54\" id=\"footnote-marker-54-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[54]</a></sup> his cognitive abilities will not have been so poor in reality.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in the Secret Annex were much occupied with learning and reading, because there was not much to do besides household chores and support work for the businesses. The children in particular were trying to keep their knowledge up to date in the context of an expected return to school.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2t6yq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 July 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 17 November 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qv128\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ciw93\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 August 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2ouo\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lv2g5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 22, 26 and 30 September, 6, 7, 10 and 15 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz8v1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 18 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vh5jk\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 28 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v49kn\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Brummelkamp en J.J. Fahrenfort,<em> Beknopte Land- en Volkenkunde, </em>Groningen [etc.]: Wolters, 1942, p. 79-82, 52-53.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"em6ux\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>A.J. van Pesch, <em>Leerboek der dierkunde, </em>Groningen: Wolters, 1931, p. 143, 137.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"anxhy\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa6eq\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, undated (May 1944), in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1neoi\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 13 June 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"69qt6\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_AFrank_VII_20: .Schutblad, D. Horn en S. de Gast, <em>Beginselen der plantkunde.&nbsp;Ten dienste van H.B.S. 3-j. c., lagere klassen van H.B.S. 5-j. c. en gymnasia en daarmee gelijkstaande inrichtingen van onderwij</em>s,<em> </em>&#39;s-Gravenhage: Ykema, 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"72ukv\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zs4eq\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Herstel. Algemeen Katholiek Weekblad</em>, 16 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dww7z\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Dagblad van Noord-Brabant</em>, 3 september 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v9uja\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Dagblad voor Noord-Holland</em>, 3 december 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h2kac\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 2 May 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k9e0p\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 1 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"55zrk\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lygmq\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo6c0\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Archief van de Secretarie, Afdeling Onderwijs, inv. nr. 7410:&nbsp;Opgave 16 juli 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p1epg\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 282.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"npd48\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 23 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dgp6t\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 3 November 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"94yhz\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_060 en 064: Afschrift aanvraagformulier en ontvangstbevestiging.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kc5ih\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_071: Bep Voskuijl aan LOI, 11 juni 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2q2i\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_074-110:&nbsp;Correcties lessen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6ygvi\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 November 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nms9i\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1rn8a\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_068:&nbsp;Briefje d.d. 10 augustus 1944.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x4y0i\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_071:&nbsp;Bep Voskuijl aan LOI, 11 juni 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hzsmg\" id=\"footnote-35\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-35-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_100: A.C. Nielson aan Otto Frank, 17 juli 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nups7\" id=\"footnote-36\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-36-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC. reg. code OFA_069: F. Fafflok aan &lsquo;Entsch&auml;digungsbeh&ouml;rde&rsquo;, 17 november 1966.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\" id=\"footnote-37\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-37-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-37-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q15cu\" id=\"footnote-38\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-38-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>L&aacute;szl&oacute; Farag&oacute;, <em>Palestina op de tweesprong,&nbsp;</em>Amsterdam: Nederlandsche Keurboekerij,1937, hoofdstuk XIX.<em> </em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ddeae\" id=\"footnote-39\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-39-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 26 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kclws\" id=\"footnote-40\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-40-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f9qqh\" id=\"footnote-41\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-41-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg code OFA_132; Otto Frank aan Vallentine Mitchell &amp; Co., 22 november 1950; AFS, AFC, reg code OFA_154, Otto Frank aan Nathan Straus, 22 november 1950.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s08j8\" id=\"footnote-42\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-42-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pr4t1\" id=\"footnote-43\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-43-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_vPels_III_001: Foto op onbekende datum.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pav6l\" id=\"footnote-44\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-44-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942 en 16 februari 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"shdn1\" id=\"footnote-45\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-45-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4vvke\" id=\"footnote-46\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-46-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Verklaring Otto Frank, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H., p. 3.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5u60q\" id=\"footnote-47\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-47-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e411s\" id=\"footnote-48\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-48-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 December 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"713yv\" id=\"footnote-49\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-49-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Achterhuis_VII_121:&nbsp;Th.G.G. von Valette, <em>Kleine Niederl&auml;ndische Sprachlehre f&uuml;r den Gebrauch in Schulen und zum Selbstunterricht, </em>Heidelberg: Groos, 1931.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"32h6i\" id=\"footnote-50\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-50-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ere9z\" id=\"footnote-51\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-51-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Pfeffer_I_014:&nbsp;&ldquo;Mijn reis door Nederland: uit het Spaans vertaald door Fredo. 16 VI, 1943&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8nw1l\" id=\"footnote-52\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-52-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 March 1944; Diary Version B, 14 March 1944; Tales and events from the Secret Annexe, &ldquo;The best little table&rdquo;, 13 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ila2m\" id=\"footnote-53\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-53-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 5 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g4jpy\" id=\"footnote-54\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-54-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Pfeffer aan zijn &lsquo;Konabiturienten&rsquo;, 12 October 1920, aangehaald in J&uuml;rgen Dauernheim, &ldquo;Dr. Fritz Pfeffer aus Gie&szlig;en &ndash; Anne Franks &ldquo;Dr. Dussel&rdquo; (Eine Erg&auml;nzung)&rdquo;, in: <em>Mitteilungen des Oberhessischen Geschichtveriens Giessen, </em>(2012), nr. 97, p. 221-227, aldaar 223.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Voor de kinderen in het Achterhuis was het van belang ervoor te zorgen dat ze na de verwachte be&euml;indiging van de oorlog en het herstel van de normale verhoudingen terug naar school kodnen. Anne schrijft er regelmatig over dat ze hoopte en verwachtte haar opleiding te kunnen vervolgen. In <strong>juli &rsquo;44</strong>, enkele weken na D-Day, denkt ze in oktober weer in de schoolbanken te kunnen zitten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2t6yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot, Anne en Peter waren geregeld bezig hun schoolkennis bij te houden. Ook een aantal van de volwassenen hield zich met (zelf-)studie bezig. De door Hermann van Pels opgestelde en door Anne aangehaalde <u><em>Prospectus en leiddraad voor het Achterhuis</em></u>&nbsp;stelde&nbsp;dat de onderduikers elkaar zouden helpen en verbeteren bij het maken van fouten in de Nederlandse taal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Anne</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne bezocht&nbsp;de Zesde Montessorischool aan de Niersstraat in de Amsterdamse Rivierenbuurt. Het was aanvankelijk de bedoeling dat ze daar na de <strong>zomer van 1941</strong> een extra jaar zou blijven, maar vanwege de onderwijssegregatie moest ze naar het Joods Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qv128\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>augustus &rsquo;42</strong> kreeg&nbsp;ze, eenmaal ondergedoken, van haar vader bijles. Haar schoolkennis was aan het wegzakken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ciw93\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Haar vader probeerde&nbsp;haar te helpen met sommen, maar omdat ze ook hem boven de pet gingen moest Margot bijspringen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2ouo\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Ze studeerde&nbsp;op het Frans, vooral onregelmatige werkwoorden en las&nbsp;het boek <em>La belle Nivernaise</em> van Alphonse Daudet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lv2g5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het Duits lezen ging&nbsp;vooruit.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz8v1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Ze leerde&nbsp;ook de woorden &lsquo;bordeel&rsquo; en &lsquo;cocotte&rsquo;, wat niet tot het reguliere lesprogramma zal hebben behoord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vh5jk\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>27 april 1944</strong> beschrijft Anne wat ze op een dag zoal leerde. Over Brazili&euml; haalt ze passages aan uit haar land- en volkenkundeboek. De vergelijking tussen de Mississippi en de Missouri komt uit hetzelfde boek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v49kn\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> De passages over apen en nijlpaarden ontleende&nbsp;ze ook aan een schoolboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"em6ux\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Ze noemt daarnaast een groot aantal historische figuren, maar niet bekend is welk boek ze daar bij &nbsp;gebruikte. Ze hield&nbsp;van geschiedenis, maar tegen algebra, meetkunde en rekenen had&nbsp;ze een weerzin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"anxhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup>&nbsp;Algebra leerde&nbsp;ze slechts onder druk van haar vader.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa6eq\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kunst, mythologie, Nederlandse literatuur en bijbelse geschiedenis behoorden ook tot haar vakken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Voor haar laatste verjaardag, <strong>12 juni 1944</strong>, kreeg&nbsp;ze onder meer het boekje <em>Beginselen der plantkunde.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"1neoi\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup>&nbsp;Voorin schreef&nbsp;ze: &ldquo;Anne Frank 12 Juni 1944 Achterhuis&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"69qt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> Daar Anne nooit een bijzondere interesse voor planten aan de dag had gelegd, zal dit cadeau ook een voortvloeisel zijn geweest van de hoop op een terugkeer naar school.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne volgde&nbsp;samen met Margot en haar vader de cursus steno van het instituut <em>Cursus Zelfontwikkeling</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"72ukv\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Dit instituut uit Amsterdam-West bood&nbsp;al jarenlang correspondentiecursussen aan. <strong>Begin 1940</strong> kostte deze cursus steno 65 cent per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zs4eq\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> In <strong>september 1943</strong>&nbsp;was dat 85 cent per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dww7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Nog voor het einde van dat jaar steeg&nbsp;de prijs naar een gulden per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v9uja\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> De vorderingen komen regelmatig in het dagboek ter sprake, heel toepasselijk soms ook in stenovorm. Anne wilde van 75 lettergrepen per minuut naar 140.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h2kac\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup>&nbsp;Volgens de B-versie deden Anne, Margot en Peter de cursus,<sup data-footnote-id=\"k9e0p\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup>&nbsp;en is deze in <strong>maart &rsquo;43</strong> klaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"55zrk\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne was er echter ook in juli van dat jaar nog mee in de weer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lygmq\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Margot</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot moest in de <strong>herfst van 1941</strong> het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes verlaten,<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo6c0\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup>&nbsp;om naar het nieuw opgerichte Joods Lyceum te gaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p1epg\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup>&nbsp;In het Achterhuis hield&nbsp;Margot de reguliere schoolvakken bij, en volgde&nbsp;net als Anne en haar vader de stenocursus. Ze overwoog&nbsp;bij hetzelfde instituut een cursus &lsquo;Schoonschrijven&rsquo; te volgen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"npd48\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne komt hier in haar dagboek echter niet meer op terug.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In de <strong>herfst van 1943</strong> schreef&nbsp;Margot zich wel in bij de Leidse Onderwijsinstellingen (LOI) voor een cursus &lsquo;Elementair Latijn&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"dgp6t\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze koos voor een tempo van &eacute;&eacute;n les per week, met betaling van een maand vooruit en ze wilde het materiaal na afloop houden. Ze stuurde&nbsp;haar lessen in onder de naam Elly Voskuijl.<sup data-footnote-id=\"94yhz\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup> Het was dan ook&nbsp;Bep die zorg droeg&nbsp;voor het versturen van de gemaakte opdrachten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kc5ih\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> Docent A.C. Nielson corrigeerde&nbsp;Margots werk, en plaatste daar zeer geregeld complimenten bij.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2q2i\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup> Otto Frank, oud-gymnasiast, hielp&nbsp;Margot en in de B-versie omschrijft Anne hen als &lsquo;de Latijners&rsquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6ygvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Tijdens de onderduikperiode deed&nbsp;Margot naast de cursus Latijn ook aan Engels, Frans, steno (Engels, Duits en Nederlands), mechanica, goniometrie, stereometrie, natuurkunde, scheikunde, algebra, meetkunde, Engelse, Franse en Duitse literatuur, boekhouden, aardrijkskunde, moderne geschiedenis, biologie en economie.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hjmy6\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na de arrestatie schreef&nbsp;Bep aan de LOI dat ze de cursus wilde stopzetten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1rn8a\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup> Pas in <strong>juni &rsquo;45</strong> schreef&nbsp;ze aan dit instituut hoe de zaak werkelijk in de steel zat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x4y0i\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup> Nielson kreeg&nbsp;in <strong>1947</strong> een exemplaar van <em>Het Achterhuis </em>van Otto Frank, en schreef&nbsp;in zijn bedankbrief: &#39;<em>Gedurende de oorlog hebben honderden onderduikers [&hellip;] onze lessen gevolgd.</em> [&hellip;] <em>Honderden brieven uit deze tijd bewaar ik als een kostbare herinnering aan de vele eenzame en angstige onderduikers, aan wie mijn lessen troost en cultuur brachten [&hellip;].&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"hzsmg\"><a href=\"#footnote-35\" id=\"footnote-marker-35-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[35]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In correspondentie over de naoorlogse <em>Entsch&auml;digung</em>&nbsp;schreef&nbsp;Otto Franks advocaat op zijn gezag dat Margot graag medicijnen had willen studeren. De Latijnse cursus was als voorbereiding hierop bedoeld.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nups7\"><a href=\"#footnote-36\" id=\"footnote-marker-36-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[36]</a></sup> Anne schrijft dat Margot als kraamverpleegster naar Palestina wilde gaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\"><a href=\"#footnote-37\" id=\"footnote-marker-37-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[37]</a></sup>&nbsp;Dit speelde&nbsp;rond de tijd dat in het Achterhuis Palestina op de tweesprong werd&nbsp;gelezen, waarin de professionele kinderverzorging daar uitgebreid ter sprake kwam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q15cu\"><a href=\"#footnote-38\" id=\"footnote-marker-38-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[38]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Frank meende&nbsp;dat deze koerswijziging gevolg was van de toenemende hopeloosheid die door de zich voortslepende bezetting wordt veroorzaakt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\"><a href=\"#footnote-37\" id=\"footnote-marker-37-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[37]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Otto en Edith Frank</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;bijles van haar vader, maar zij hielp&nbsp;hem met Nederlands. Ze maakte zich vrolijk om zijn fouten, bijvoorbeeld toen&nbsp;hij het Nederlandse &lsquo;klotsen&rsquo; en het Duitse &lsquo;glotzen&rsquo; door elkaar haalde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ddeae\"><a href=\"#footnote-39\" id=\"footnote-marker-39-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[39]</a></sup>&nbsp;Over het Nederlands van haar moeder was ze nogal negatief.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kclws\"><a href=\"#footnote-40\" id=\"footnote-marker-40-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[40]</a></sup> In hoeverre Edith Frank de Nederlandse taal beheerste, is onduidelijk. Volgens haar man kreeg&nbsp;ze ook enige tijd Engelse les van Rosey&nbsp;Pool, een latere lerares aan het Joods Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f9qqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-41\" id=\"footnote-marker-41-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[41]</a></sup> In het Achterhuis leerde&nbsp;Edith volgens Anne nog steeds Engels, maar dan&nbsp;schriftelijk.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s08j8\"><a href=\"#footnote-42\" id=\"footnote-marker-42-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[42]</a></sup>&nbsp;Verbetering van de Engelse taalbeheersing gebeurde&nbsp;in principe met het oog op de voorgenomen emigratie naar Engeland of Amerika.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Peter</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Voor hij ging&nbsp;onderduiken volgde&nbsp;Peter een beroepsopleiding. Op een bekende foto van hem is hij bezig aan de bekleding en vering van een stoel of bank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pr4t1\"><a href=\"#footnote-43\" id=\"footnote-marker-43-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[43]</a></sup> Volgens Anne leerde&nbsp;hij in het Achterhuis nog steeds houtbewerking.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Waarschijnlijk doelde&nbsp;ze daarmee op de theorie van deze opleiding.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Peter was in de <strong>herfst van &rsquo;42</strong> bezig met Engels, en <strong>begin &rsquo;44</strong> met Frans.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pav6l\"><a href=\"#footnote-44\" id=\"footnote-marker-44-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[44]</a></sup>&nbsp;Met het Frans kreeg&nbsp;hij hulp van Anne, die overigens schrijft dat hij goed was in Engels en aardrijkskunde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"shdn1\"><a href=\"#footnote-45\" id=\"footnote-marker-45-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[45]</a></sup>&nbsp;In 1963 vertelde&nbsp;Otto Frank dat hij op <strong>4 augustus 1944</strong> Peter juist met Engels hielp&nbsp;toen de <em>Sicherheitsdienst</em>&nbsp;het Achterhuis binnenviel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4vvke\"><a href=\"#footnote-46\" id=\"footnote-marker-46-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[46]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hermann en Auguste van Pels</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De <u><em>Prospectus en leiddraad voor het Achterhuis</em></u>, volgens Anne door Hermann van Pels gemaakt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;was in vrij goed Nederlands gesteld. Anne suggereert elders dat zijn Nederlands te wensen overliet,<sup data-footnote-id=\"5u60q\"><a href=\"#footnote-47\" id=\"footnote-marker-47-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[47]</a></sup>&nbsp;wat erop zou kunnen duiden dat hij daar hulp bij heeft gehad. Auguste van Pels bestudeerde&nbsp;volgens Anne een taalboekje terwijl ze in een pan roerde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e411s\"><a href=\"#footnote-48\" id=\"footnote-marker-48-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[48]</a></sup>&nbsp;De museale collectie van de Anne Frank Stichting bevat een <em>Kleine Niederl&auml;ndische Sprachlehre </em>voor school en zelfstudie.<sup data-footnote-id=\"713yv\"><a href=\"#footnote-49\" id=\"footnote-marker-49-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[49]</a></sup> Ondanks haar pogingen sprak&nbsp;ze volgens Anne &#39;schandelijk&#39;&nbsp;Nederlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"32h6i\"><a href=\"#footnote-50\" id=\"footnote-marker-50-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[50]</a></sup>&nbsp;Als dat klopt is er van het in de &#39;Prospectus&rsquo; genoemde goede voornemen elkaar met het leren van de taal te helpen toch niet zo veel terechtgekomen.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fritz Pfeffer</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In verband met zijn voorgenomen emigratie naar Zuid-Amerika leerde&nbsp;Pfeffer zichzelf Spaans. Hij vertaalde&nbsp;hiervoor onder meer een Spaanstalig reisgidsje <em>Holande. Mi viaje a trav&egrave;s de los Paises Bajos</em> van W. Fernandez Flores in het Nederlands.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ere9z\"><a href=\"#footnote-51\" id=\"footnote-marker-51-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[51]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft herhaaldelijk over Pfeffer die onverdroten aan zijn &lsquo;pensum&rsquo; werkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8nw1l\"><a href=\"#footnote-52\" id=\"footnote-marker-52-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[52]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Bij het verbeteren van zijn correspondentie kreeg&nbsp;hij hulp van Margot; Anne noemt het neerbuigend <em>&#39;onderwijs voor kinderen die niet verder komen</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ila2m\"><a href=\"#footnote-53\" id=\"footnote-marker-53-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[53]</a></sup>&nbsp;In aanmerking genomen dat Pfeffer in 1920 tot &ldquo;Dr. med. dent.&rdquo; was gepromoveerd,<sup data-footnote-id=\"g4jpy\"><a href=\"#footnote-54\" id=\"footnote-marker-54-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[54]</a></sup> zullen zijn cognitieve vermogens in werkelijkheid niet zo slecht zijn geweest.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waren veel bezig met leren en lezen, omdat er naast de huishoudelijke taken en ondersteunende werkzaamheden voor de bedrijven niet veel was te doen. Met name de kinderen probeerden hun kennis op peil te houden met het oog op een verwachte terugkeer naar school.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2t6yq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 juli 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 17 november 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qv128\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ciw93\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 augustus 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2ouo\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lv2g5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 22, 26 en 30 september, 6, 7, 10 en 15 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz8v1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 18 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vh5jk\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 28 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v49kn\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Brummelkamp en J.J. Fahrenfort,<em> Beknopte Land- en Volkenkunde, </em>Groningen [etc.]: Wolters, 1942, p. 79-82, 52-53.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"em6ux\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>A.J. van Pesch, <em>Leerboek der dierkunde, </em>Groningen: Wolters, 1931, p. 143, 137.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"anxhy\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa6eq\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 20 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, ongedateerd (mei 1944), in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1neoi\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 13 juni 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"69qt6\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_AFrank_VII_20: .Schutblad, D. Horn en S. de Gast, <em>Beginselen der plantkunde.&nbsp;Ten dienste van H.B.S. 3-j. c., lagere klassen van H.B.S. 5-j. c. en gymnasia en daarmee gelijkstaande inrichtingen van onderwij</em>s,<em> </em>&#39;s-Gravenhage: Ykema, 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"72ukv\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zs4eq\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Herstel. Algemeen Katholiek Weekblad</em>, 16 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dww7z\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Dagblad van Noord-Brabant</em>, 3 september 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v9uja\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Dagblad voor Noord-Holland</em>, 3 december 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h2kac\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 2 mei 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k9e0p\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 1 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"55zrk\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 27 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lygmq\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 11 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo6c0\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Archief van de Secretarie, Afdeling Onderwijs, inv. nr. 7410:&nbsp;Opgave 16 juli 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p1epg\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 282.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"npd48\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 23 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dgp6t\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 3 november 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"94yhz\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_060 en 064: Afschrift aanvraagformulier en ontvangstbevestiging.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kc5ih\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_071: Bep Voskuijl aan LOI, 11 juni 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2q2i\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_074-110:&nbsp;Correcties lessen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6ygvi\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 11 november 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hjmy6\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1rn8a\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_068:&nbsp;Briefje d.d. 10 augustus 1944.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x4y0i\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_071:&nbsp;Bep Voskuijl aan LOI, 11 juni 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hzsmg\" id=\"footnote-35\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-35-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_100: A.C. Nielson aan Otto Frank, 17 juli 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nups7\" id=\"footnote-36\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-36-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC. reg. code OFA_069: F. Fafflok aan &lsquo;Entsch&auml;digungsbeh&ouml;rde&rsquo;, 17 november 1966.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\" id=\"footnote-37\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-37-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-37-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 8 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q15cu\" id=\"footnote-38\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-38-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>L&aacute;szl&oacute; Farag&oacute;, <em>Palestina op de tweesprong,&nbsp;</em>Amsterdam: Nederlandsche Keurboekerij,1937, hoofdstuk XIX.<em> </em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ddeae\" id=\"footnote-39\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-39-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 26 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kclws\" id=\"footnote-40\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-40-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 2 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f9qqh\" id=\"footnote-41\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-41-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg code OFA_132; Otto Frank aan Vallentine Mitchell &amp; Co., 22 november 1950; AFS, AFC, reg code OFA_154, Otto Frank aan Nathan Straus, 22 november 1950.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s08j8\" id=\"footnote-42\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-42-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pr4t1\" id=\"footnote-43\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-43-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_vPels_III_001: Foto op onbekende datum.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pav6l\" id=\"footnote-44\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-44-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942 en 16 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"shdn1\" id=\"footnote-45\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-45-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4vvke\" id=\"footnote-46\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-46-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Verklaring Otto Frank, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H., p. 3.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5u60q\" id=\"footnote-47\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-47-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 2 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e411s\" id=\"footnote-48\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-48-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 december 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"713yv\" id=\"footnote-49\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-49-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Achterhuis_VII_121:&nbsp;Th.G.G. von Valette, <em>Kleine Niederl&auml;ndische Sprachlehre f&uuml;r den Gebrauch in Schulen und zum Selbstunterricht, </em>Heidelberg: Groos, 1931.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"32h6i\" id=\"footnote-50\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-50-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ere9z\" id=\"footnote-51\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-51-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Pfeffer_I_014:&nbsp;&ldquo;Mijn reis door Nederland: uit het Spaans vertaald door Fredo. 16 VI, 1943&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8nw1l\" id=\"footnote-52\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-52-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 maart 1944; Dagboek B, 14 maart 1944; Verhaaltjes en gebeurtenissen uit het Achterhuis, &ldquo;Het beste tafeltje&rdquo;, 13 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ila2m\" id=\"footnote-53\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-53-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 5 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g4jpy\" id=\"footnote-54\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-54-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Pfeffer aan zijn &lsquo;Konabiturienten&rsquo;, 12 oktober 1920, aangehaald in J&uuml;rgen Dauernheim, &ldquo;Dr. Fritz Pfeffer aus Gie&szlig;en &ndash; Anne Franks &ldquo;Dr. Dussel&rdquo; (Eine Erg&auml;nzung)&rdquo;, in: <em>Mitteilungen des Oberhessischen Geschichtveriens Giessen, </em>(2012), nr. 97, p. 221-227, aldaar 223.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>For the children in the Secret Annex, it was important to ensure that they could return to school after the expected end of the war and the restoration of normality. Anne writes frequently about how she hoped and expected to be able to continue her education. In <strong>July &#39;44</strong>, a few weeks after D-Day, she expected to be back in school in October.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2t6yq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Margot, Anne and Peter were regularly updating their school knowledge. Some of the adults were also engaged in self-study. The plan drawn up by Hermann van Pels and quoted by Anne <u><em>Prospectus and leitmotif for the Secret Annex</em></u>&nbsp;stated that the people there would help and correct each other when making mistakes in the Dutch language.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Anne</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne attended the Sixth Montessori School on Niersstraat in Amsterdam&#39;s Rivierenbuurt neighbourhood. It was initially planned that she would stay there for an extra year after the <strong>summer of 1941</strong>, but because of educational segregation she had to go to the Jewish Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qv128\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>August &#39;42</strong>, once in hiding, she received tutoring from her father. Her school knowledge was draining away.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ciw93\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Her father tried to help her with sums, but because they were also beyond him, Margot had to step in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2ouo\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> She studied French, especially irregular verbs, and read the book <em>La belle Nivernaise</em> by Alphonse Daudet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lv2g5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> German reading progressed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz8v1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> She also learned the words for &#39;brothel&#39;&nbsp;and &#39;cocotte&#39;,&nbsp;which must not have been part of the regular curriculum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vh5jk\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>27 April&nbsp;1944,</strong> Anne describes what she learned one day. About Brazil, she quotes passages from her land and ethnography book. The comparison between the Mississippi River and the Missouri River is from the same book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v49kn\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> The passages about monkeys and hippos she also derived from a textbook.<sup data-footnote-id=\"em6ux\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> She additionally mentions a large number of historical figures, but it is not known which book she used for them. She loved history, but had an aversion to algebra, geometry and arithmetic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"anxhy\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Algebra she learned only under pressure from her father.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa6eq\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup>&nbsp;Other subjects she studied included art, mythology, Dutch literature and biblical history.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> For her last birthday, <strong>12 June 1944,</strong> she received, among other things, the booklet <em>Principles of Botany.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"1neoi\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> In the front she wrote, &quot;Anne Frank 12 June 1944 Secret Annex.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"69qt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> Since Anne had never shown a particular interest in plants, this gift must also have been a result of the hope of returning to school.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Together with Margot and her father, Anne took the shorthand course of the institute <em>Cursus Zelfontwikkeling</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"72ukv\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> This Amsterdam-West institute had been offering correspondence courses for years. <strong>In early 1940</strong> this stenography course cost 65 cents per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zs4eq\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1943</strong> it was 85 cents per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dww7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Even before the end of that year the price increased to a guilder a month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v9uja\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Progress is discussed regularly in the diary, sometimes quite appropriately in shorthand form. Anne wanted to go from 75 syllables per minute to 140.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h2kac\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup> According to the B version, Anne, Margot and Peter took the course,<sup data-footnote-id=\"k9e0p\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> and finished it in <strong>March &#39;43</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"55zrk\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> However, Anne was still working on it in July of that year as well.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lygmq\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Margot</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot had to leave the Municipal Lyceum for Girls in the <strong>autumn of 1941</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo6c0\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> to attend the newly founded Jewish Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p1epg\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup>&nbsp;In&nbsp;the Secret Annex, Margot kept up with regular school subjects, and, like Anne and her father, took the stenography course. She considered taking a course in calligraphy at the same institute.<sup data-footnote-id=\"npd48\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> However, Anne does not return to this in her diary.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the <strong>autumn of 1943</strong>, Margot did enroll at Leidse Onderwijsinstellingen (LOI) for a course in Elementary Latin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dgp6t\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> She chose a pace of one lesson per week, with payment one month in advance, and she wanted to keep the material upon completion. She submitted her lessons under the name Elly Voskuijl.<sup data-footnote-id=\"94yhz\"><a href=\"#footnote-28\" id=\"footnote-marker-28-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[28]</a></sup> It was therefore Bep who took care of sending in the assignments she made.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kc5ih\"><a href=\"#footnote-29\" id=\"footnote-marker-29-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[29]</a></sup> Teacher A.C. Nielson corrected Margot&#39;s work, very regularly adding compliments.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f2q2i\"><a href=\"#footnote-30\" id=\"footnote-marker-30-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[30]</a></sup> Otto Frank, former grammar school student, helped Margot, and in the B version Anne describes them as &quot;the Latinists&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6ygvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-31\" id=\"footnote-marker-31-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[31]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>During the hiding period, Margot studied English, French, shorthand (English, German and Dutch), mechanics, trigonometry, stereometry, physics, chemistry, algebra, geometry, English, French and German literature, bookkeeping, geography, modern history, biology and economics, in addition to the Latin course.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nms9i\"><a href=\"#footnote-32\" id=\"footnote-marker-32-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[32]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the arrest, Bep wrote to LOI that she wanted to discontinue the course.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1rn8a\"><a href=\"#footnote-33\" id=\"footnote-marker-33-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[33]</a></sup> It was not until <strong>June &#39;</strong> <strong>45 </strong>that she wrote to this institute how things really were.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x4y0i\"><a href=\"#footnote-34\" id=\"footnote-marker-34-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[34]</a></sup> In <strong>1947</strong>, Nielson received a copy of <em>The Secret Annex </em>by Otto Frank, and wrote in his letter of thanks:<em> &quot;During the war, hundreds of people in hiding [...] attended our classes.</em> <em>[...] Hundreds of letters from this time I keep as a precious memory of the many lonely and anxious people in hiding, to whom my lessons brought comfort and culture [...].&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"hzsmg\"><a href=\"#footnote-35\" id=\"footnote-marker-35-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[35]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In correspondence about the post-war <em>Entsch&auml;digung</em>, Otto Frank&#39;s lawyer wrote on his authority that Margot would have liked to study medicine. The Latin course was intended as preparation for this.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nups7\"><a href=\"#footnote-36\" id=\"footnote-marker-36-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[36]</a></sup> Anne writes that Margot wanted to go to Palestine as a maternity nurse.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\"><a href=\"#footnote-37\" id=\"footnote-marker-37-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[37]</a></sup> This played out around the time that <em>Palestina op de tweesprong</em> (Palestine at the Crossroads) was being read in the Secret Annex, which discussed professional child care in detail.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q15cu\"><a href=\"#footnote-38\" id=\"footnote-marker-38-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[38]</a></sup> Otto Frank believed that this change of direction was a result of the increasing hopelessness caused by the ongoing occupation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\"><a href=\"#footnote-37\" id=\"footnote-marker-37-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[37]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Otto and Edith Frank</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was tutored by her father, but she helped him with Dutch. She made fun of his mistakes, for example when he mixed up the Dutch &#39;klotsen&#39;&nbsp;and the German &#39;glotzen&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ddeae\"><a href=\"#footnote-39\" id=\"footnote-marker-39-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[39]</a></sup> She was rather negative about her mother&#39;s Dutch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kclws\"><a href=\"#footnote-40\" id=\"footnote-marker-40-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[40]</a></sup> To what extent Edith Frank mastered the Dutch language is unclear. According to her husband, she was also taught English for some time by Rosey Pool, a later teacher at the Jewish Lyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f9qqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-41\" id=\"footnote-marker-41-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[41]</a></sup> In the Secret Annex, according to Anne, Edith was still learning English, but in writing.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s08j8\"><a href=\"#footnote-42\" id=\"footnote-marker-42-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[42]</a></sup> Improvement in English proficiency was basically done with a view to the intended emigration to England or America.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Peter</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Before going into hiding, Peter attended vocational training. In a well-known photo of him, he is working on the upholstery and springs of a chair or sofa.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pr4t1\"><a href=\"#footnote-43\" id=\"footnote-marker-43-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[43]</a></sup> According to Anne, he was still learning woodworking in the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> She was probably referring to the theory of this course.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Peter was working on English in the <strong>autumn&nbsp;of &#39;42</strong>, and French <strong>in early &#39;44</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pav6l\"><a href=\"#footnote-44\" id=\"footnote-marker-44-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[44]</a></sup>&nbsp;He got help with French from Anne, who incidentally writes that he was good at English and geography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"shdn1\"><a href=\"#footnote-45\" id=\"footnote-marker-45-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[45]</a></sup> In <strong>1963,</strong> Otto Frank recounted that on <strong>4&nbsp;August 1944,</strong> he was helping Peter with English at the moment when the <em>Sicherheitsdienst</em> raided the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4vvke\"><a href=\"#footnote-46\" id=\"footnote-marker-46-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[46]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hermann and Auguste van Pels</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>The <u><em>Prospectus and leitmotif for the Secret Annex</em></u>, according to Anne created by Hermann van Pels,<sup data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> was written in fairly good Dutch. Anne suggests elsewhere that his Dutch left much to be desired,<sup data-footnote-id=\"5u60q\"><a href=\"#footnote-47\" id=\"footnote-marker-47-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[47]</a></sup> which might indicate that he had help writing it. Auguste van Pels, according to Anne, was studying a language book while stirring in a pan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e411s\"><a href=\"#footnote-48\" id=\"footnote-marker-48-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[48]</a></sup> The museum collection of the Anne Frank Foundation contains a <em>Kleine Niederl&auml;ndische Sprachlehre </em>for school and self-study.<sup data-footnote-id=\"713yv\"><a href=\"#footnote-49\" id=\"footnote-marker-49-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[49]</a></sup> Despite her efforts, Anne said she spoke &#39;outrageous&#39;&nbsp;Dutch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"32h6i\"><a href=\"#footnote-50\" id=\"footnote-marker-50-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[50]</a></sup> If this is true, the good intention mentioned in the &quot;Prospectus&quot; to help each other learn the language did not come to pass.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fritz Pfeffer</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In connection with his intended emigration to South America, Pfeffer taught himself Spanish. Among other things, he translated the&nbsp;Spanish-language travel guide <em>Holande. Mi viaje a trav&egrave;s de los Paises Bajos</em> by W. Fernandez Flores into Dutch.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ere9z\"><a href=\"#footnote-51\" id=\"footnote-marker-51-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[51]</a></sup> Anne writes repeatedly about Pfeffer working relentlessly on his &#39;pensum&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8nw1l\"><a href=\"#footnote-52\" id=\"footnote-marker-52-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[52]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In improving his correspondence, he received help from Margot; Anne condescendingly called&nbsp;it <em>&quot;education for children who get no further&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ila2m\"><a href=\"#footnote-53\" id=\"footnote-marker-53-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[53]</a></sup> Considering that in 1920 Pfeffer had graduated as &quot;Dr. med. dent.&quot;,<sup data-footnote-id=\"g4jpy\"><a href=\"#footnote-54\" id=\"footnote-marker-54-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[54]</a></sup> his cognitive abilities will not have been so poor in reality.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in the Secret Annex were much occupied with learning and reading, because there was not much to do besides household chores and support work for the businesses. The children in particular were trying to keep their knowledge up to date in the context of an expected return to school.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2t6yq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 July 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dfuw7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 17 November 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qv128\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ciw93\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 August 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2ouo\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lv2g5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 22, 26 and 30 September, 6, 7, 10 and 15 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz8v1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 18 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vh5jk\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 28 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v49kn\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Brummelkamp en J.J. Fahrenfort,<em> Beknopte Land- en Volkenkunde, </em>Groningen [etc.]: Wolters, 1942, p. 79-82, 52-53.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"em6ux\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>A.J. van Pesch, <em>Leerboek der dierkunde, </em>Groningen: Wolters, 1931, p. 143, 137.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"anxhy\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa6eq\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nsdqe\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, undated (May 1944), in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1neoi\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 13 June 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"69qt6\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_AFrank_VII_20: .Schutblad, D. Horn en S. de Gast, <em>Beginselen der plantkunde.&nbsp;Ten dienste van H.B.S. 3-j. c., lagere klassen van H.B.S. 5-j. c. en gymnasia en daarmee gelijkstaande inrichtingen van onderwij</em>s,<em> </em>&#39;s-Gravenhage: Ykema, 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"72ukv\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zs4eq\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Herstel. Algemeen Katholiek Weekblad</em>, 16 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dww7z\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Dagblad van Noord-Brabant</em>, 3 september 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v9uja\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie, <em>Dagblad voor Noord-Holland</em>, 3 december 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h2kac\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 2 May 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"k9e0p\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 1 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"55zrk\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lygmq\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo6c0\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Archief van de Secretarie, Afdeling Onderwijs, inv. nr. 7410:&nbsp;Opgave 16 juli 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p1epg\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 282.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"npd48\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 23 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dgp6t\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 3 November 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"94yhz\" id=\"footnote-28\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-28-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_060 en 064: Afschrift aanvraagformulier en ontvangstbevestiging.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kc5ih\" id=\"footnote-29\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-29-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_071: Bep Voskuijl aan LOI, 11 juni 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f2q2i\" id=\"footnote-30\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-30-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_074-110:&nbsp;Correcties lessen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6ygvi\" id=\"footnote-31\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-31-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 November 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nms9i\" id=\"footnote-32\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-32-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1rn8a\" id=\"footnote-33\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-33-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_068:&nbsp;Briefje d.d. 10 augustus 1944.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x4y0i\" id=\"footnote-34\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-34-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_071:&nbsp;Bep Voskuijl aan LOI, 11 juni 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hzsmg\" id=\"footnote-35\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-35-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_100: A.C. Nielson aan Otto Frank, 17 juli 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nups7\" id=\"footnote-36\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-36-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC. reg. code OFA_069: F. Fafflok aan &lsquo;Entsch&auml;digungsbeh&ouml;rde&rsquo;, 17 november 1966.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ogzqw\" id=\"footnote-37\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-37-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-37-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q15cu\" id=\"footnote-38\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-38-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>L&aacute;szl&oacute; Farag&oacute;, <em>Palestina op de tweesprong,&nbsp;</em>Amsterdam: Nederlandsche Keurboekerij,1937, hoofdstuk XIX.<em> </em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ddeae\" id=\"footnote-39\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-39-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 26 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kclws\" id=\"footnote-40\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-40-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f9qqh\" id=\"footnote-41\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-41-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg code OFA_132; Otto Frank aan Vallentine Mitchell &amp; Co., 22 november 1950; AFS, AFC, reg code OFA_154, Otto Frank aan Nathan Straus, 22 november 1950.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s08j8\" id=\"footnote-42\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-42-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pr4t1\" id=\"footnote-43\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-43-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_vPels_III_001: Foto op onbekende datum.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pav6l\" id=\"footnote-44\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-44-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942 en 16 februari 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"shdn1\" id=\"footnote-45\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-45-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4vvke\" id=\"footnote-46\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-46-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Verklaring Otto Frank, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H., p. 3.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5u60q\" id=\"footnote-47\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-47-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e411s\" id=\"footnote-48\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-48-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 December 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"713yv\" id=\"footnote-49\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-49-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Achterhuis_VII_121:&nbsp;Th.G.G. von Valette, <em>Kleine Niederl&auml;ndische Sprachlehre f&uuml;r den Gebrauch in Schulen und zum Selbstunterricht, </em>Heidelberg: Groos, 1931.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"32h6i\" id=\"footnote-50\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-50-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ere9z\" id=\"footnote-51\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-51-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Pfeffer_I_014:&nbsp;&ldquo;Mijn reis door Nederland: uit het Spaans vertaald door Fredo. 16 VI, 1943&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8nw1l\" id=\"footnote-52\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-52-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 March 1944; Diary Version B, 14 March 1944; Tales and events from the Secret Annexe, &ldquo;The best little table&rdquo;, 13 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ila2m\" id=\"footnote-53\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-53-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 5 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g4jpy\" id=\"footnote-54\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-54-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Pfeffer aan zijn &lsquo;Konabiturienten&rsquo;, 12 October 1920, aangehaald in J&uuml;rgen Dauernheim, &ldquo;Dr. Fritz Pfeffer aus Gie&szlig;en &ndash; Anne Franks &ldquo;Dr. Dussel&rdquo; (Eine Erg&auml;nzung)&rdquo;, in: <em>Mitteilungen des Oberhessischen Geschichtveriens Giessen, </em>(2012), nr. 97, p. 221-227, aldaar 223.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex did a lot of learning and reading.",
                        "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis waren veel bezig met leren en lezen.",
                        "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex did a lot of learning and reading.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124663,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124547,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/9387d3f9-946e-454c-a5ca-114d9d072653/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "9387d3f9-946e-454c-a5ca-114d9d072653",
                        "name": "Education",
                        "name_nl": "Opleidingen",
                        "name_en": "Education",
                        "description": "",
                        "description_nl": "",
                        "description_en": "",
                        "summary": "Educational courses and institutions.",
                        "summary_nl": "Opleidingen zijn zowel instellingen waaraan men kan worden opgeleid als het onderricht dat of de opleiding die men volgt.",
                        "summary_en": "Educational courses and institutions.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2419"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "related_locations": [
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a699d98a-eab0-4e27-a4a1-f2c76df56892"
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/0a959340-e4cb-42e9-b8b4-aff5238139bd/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Cursus Zelfontwikkeling",
                "name_nl": "Cursus Zelfontwikkeling",
                "name_en": "Cursus Zelfontwikkeling",
                "uuid": "0a959340-e4cb-42e9-b8b4-aff5238139bd",
                "content": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Bosboom Toussaintstraat 46, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"056f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> <em> </em></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Cursus Zelfontwikkeling</em> (Self-development course) was an institution&nbsp;that offered&nbsp;correspondence courses&nbsp;used by the people in hiding in the Secret Annex to learn shorthand. Since at least <strong>1916</strong>&nbsp;<em>Zelfontwikkeling</em>&nbsp;offered correspondence courses in modern languages, bookkeeping and shorthand, among others<sup data-footnote-id=\"8se8n\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The institution advertised for years in Dutch and Dutch-Indonesian newspapers. The most last known advertisement is - as far as known - from <strong>May 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mqd0e\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Early 1940</strong>, the shorthand course cost sixty-five cents a month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"056f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In S<strong>eptember 1943</strong> it cost eightyfive cents per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wtw47\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Before the end of that year, the price had risen to one guilder per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xu10w\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Bep Voskuijl arranged the course for the people in hiding in her own name.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lhrea\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"056f1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Herstel. Algemeen Katholiek Weekblad</em>, 16 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8se8n\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em>, 22 april 1916.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mqd0e\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Limburgs Dagblad</em>, 22 mei 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wtw47\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Dagblad van Noord-Brabant</em>, 3 september 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xu10w\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Dagblad voor Noord Holland, Schager editie</em>, 3 december 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lhrea\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres:</strong> Bosboom Toussaintstraat 46, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"056f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> <em> </em></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Cursus Zelfontwikkeling was een instituut voor schriftelijke zelfstudie waar de onderduikers in het Achterhuis steno leerden. <em>Zelfontwikkeling</em>&nbsp;bood&nbsp;sinds in ieder geval<strong> 1916 </strong>correspondentiecursussen aan in onder meer de moderne talen, boekhouden en stenografie.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8se8n\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> De instelling adverteerde&nbsp;jarenlang in Nederlandse en Nederlands-Indische kranten. De recentste advertentie is - voor zover bekend - van <strong>mei 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mqd0e\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Begin 1940</strong> kostte de cursus steno&nbsp;vijfenzestig cent per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"056f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In <strong>september 1943</strong>&nbsp;was dat&nbsp;vijfentachtig cent per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wtw47\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Nog voor het einde van dat jaar was de prijs naar een gulden per maand gestegen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xu10w\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> De cursus voor de&nbsp;onderduikers regelde&nbsp;Bep Voskuijl&nbsp;op haar eigen naam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lhrea\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"056f1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Herstel. Algemeen Katholiek Weekblad</em>, 16 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8se8n\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em>, 22 april 1916.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mqd0e\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Limburgs Dagblad</em>, 22 mei 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wtw47\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Dagblad van Noord-Brabant</em>, 3 september 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xu10w\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Dagblad voor Noord Holland, Schager editie</em>, 3 december 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lhrea\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Bosboom Toussaintstraat 46, te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"056f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> <em> </em></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Cursus Zelfontwikkeling</em> (Self-development course) was an institution&nbsp;that offered&nbsp;correspondence courses&nbsp;used by the people in hiding in the Secret Annex to learn shorthand. Since at least <strong>1916</strong>&nbsp;<em>Zelfontwikkeling</em>&nbsp;offered correspondence courses in modern languages, bookkeeping and shorthand, among others<sup data-footnote-id=\"8se8n\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The institution advertised for years in Dutch and Dutch-Indonesian newspapers. The most last known advertisement is - as far as known - from <strong>May 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mqd0e\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Early 1940</strong>, the shorthand course cost sixty-five cents a month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"056f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> In S<strong>eptember 1943</strong> it cost eightyfive cents per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wtw47\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Before the end of that year, the price had risen to one guilder per month.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xu10w\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Bep Voskuijl arranged the course for the people in hiding in her own name.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lhrea\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"056f1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Herstel. Algemeen Katholiek Weekblad</em>, 16 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8se8n\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Nieuwsblad van het Noorden</em>, 22 april 1916.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mqd0e\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Limburgs Dagblad</em>, 22 mei 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wtw47\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Dagblad van Noord-Brabant</em>, 3 september 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xu10w\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Dagblad voor Noord Holland, Schager editie</em>, 3 december 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lhrea\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.875403 52.36553)",
                "summary": "Institution for correspondence courses.",
                "summary_nl": "Instituut voor schriftelijke zelfstudie.",
                "summary_en": "Institution for correspondence courses.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Bosboom Toussaintstraat 46",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.1646155
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
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                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1152,
                    "uuid": "b3d4fb57-0b21-4bed-8c35-e1536c04c9a8",
                    "name": "OSIM00002005565",
                    "title": "Keizersgracht 611, met de Luchtbeschermingsdienst in het sousterrain.",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf C.F. Jansen (1895-1961). Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam.",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/OSIM00002005565.PNG",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                },
                "latitude": "52.363913",
                "longitude": "4.89023",
                "events": [],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 196,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                        "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                        "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                        "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124388,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "related_locations": [
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a699d98a-eab0-4e27-a4a1-f2c76df56892",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/19fd3ff2-9edf-450d-8b63-bba458913e9f"
                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/6e7854d3-c834-44c4-9129-c742ff899d22/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Municipal Air Raid Precaution Service",
                "name_nl": "Gemeentelijke Luchtbeschermingsdienst",
                "name_en": "Municipal Air Raid Precaution Service",
                "uuid": "6e7854d3-c834-44c4-9129-c742ff899d22",
                "content": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Since <strong>1939</strong>&nbsp;established at Keizersgracht 609-611, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"78eyx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>This municipal service was established in <strong>1937</strong>. Its&nbsp;task was to limit the number of victims in the event of an air raid as much as possible by making preparations - such as raising alarms, ordering blackouts out and setting up air raid shelters - to provide assistance to those affected and to limit material damage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u0zwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>16 May 1940</strong>, the German authorities announced that the initial suspension of air protection had been lifted. Blackouts and unwanted light emissions were strictly monitored.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyfj8\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>June 1940</strong>, mayor De Vlugt once again emphasized the great importance of adequate blackouts. The police and the Air Protection Service both had a role in monitoring this.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lkk1s\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Jacques Presser writes in <em>Ondergang</em> that&nbsp;on <strong>1 July&nbsp;1940</strong> <em>General-Major der Ordnungspolizei</em> Schumann ordered that (among other things) all Jews should be expelled from the Air Defense before the fifteenth. The reason was that members of the Air Raid Service alledgedly had incited demonstrations on Prince Bernhard&#39;s birthday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"elofl\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Police and Air Raid Wardens could take action if light was emitted during blackout hours. This happened at Prinsengracht 263 on <strong>4 March&nbsp;1941</strong>, when two police officers forced the door open in the evening to turn off a lamp that was still alight.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0nru\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>January 1942</strong>, a German regulation was introduced that tightened air raid precaution measures. Acting in violation of regulations (for example concerning blackouts) could be punished with detention or a fine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cntt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"78eyx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 10 september 1939, ochtendeditie; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 177.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u0zwi\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), toegangsnr. 5227, Archief van de Luchtbeschermingsdienst: Inleiding op de inventaris van het archief van de Luchtbeschermingsdienst, versie 21.1, 30 mei 2012.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyfj8\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼGeen zichtbaar licht!&lsquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, 16 mei 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lkk1s\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼVerduistering moet afdoende zijn&lsquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 12 juni 1940, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"elofl\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Presser, <em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965, deel I, p. 18-19.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0nru\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439: Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cntt6\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼLuchtbeschermingsverordening&lsquo;, <em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied</em> 1942, p. 57-67, aldaar p. 65; Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>: Sinds <strong>1939</strong> gevestigd op Keizersgracht 609-611, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"78eyx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1937</strong> werd deze gemeentelijke dienst ingesteld. De taak was om door het treffen van voorbereidingen &ndash; zoals alarmering, verduistering en het inrichten van schuilkelders &ndash; het aantal slachtoffers bij een luchtaanval zoveel mogelijk te beperken, de getroffenen hulp te bieden en de materi&euml;le schade te beperken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u0zwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>16 mei 1940</strong> maakte de Duitse overheid bekend dat de aanvankelijke schorsing van de Luchtbescherming was opgeheven. Op verduistering en ongewenste lichtuitstraling werd streng toegezien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyfj8\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>juni 1940 </strong>benadrukte burgemeester De Vlugt nog eens op het grote belang van afdoende verduistering. Politie en Luchtbeschermingsdienst hadden beiden een taak bij het toezicht hierop.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lkk1s\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Jacques Presser vermeldt in <em>Ondergang </em>dat de <em>General-Major der Ordnungspolizei</em>&nbsp;Schumann op <strong>1 juli 1940</strong> beveelde dat (onder andere) alle Joden voor de vijftiende uit de Luchtbescherming dienden te worden gezet. Aanleiding waren beschuldigingen dat leden van de Luchtbescherming op de verjaardag van Prins Bernhard tot demonstraties hadden aangezet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"elofl\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Bij lichtuitstraling tijdens de verduisteringsuren konden politie en Luchtbescherming optreden. Op Prinsengracht 263 gebeurde dat op <strong>4 maart 1941</strong>, toen twee agenten ʼs avonds de deur forceerden om een vergeten lamp uit te doen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0nru\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>januari ʼ42</strong> kwam er een Duitse verordening die de luchtbeschermingsmaatregelen aanscherpte. Handelen in strijd met voorschriften (b.v. op het gebied van verduistering) kon worden bestraft met hechtenis of een geldboete.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cntt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"78eyx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 10 september 1939, ochtendeditie; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 177.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u0zwi\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), toegangsnr. 5227, Archief van de Luchtbeschermingsdienst: Inleiding op de inventaris van het archief van de Luchtbeschermingsdienst, versie 21.1, 30 mei 2012.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyfj8\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼGeen zichtbaar licht!&lsquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, 16 mei 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lkk1s\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼVerduistering moet afdoende zijn&lsquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 12 juni 1940, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"elofl\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Presser, <em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965, deel I, p. 18-19.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0nru\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439: Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cntt6\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼLuchtbeschermingsverordening&lsquo;, <em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied</em> 1942, p. 57-67, aldaar p. 65; Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Since <strong>1939</strong>&nbsp;established at Keizersgracht 609-611, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"78eyx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>This municipal service was established in <strong>1937</strong>. Its&nbsp;task was to limit the number of victims in the event of an air raid as much as possible by making preparations - such as raising alarms, ordering blackouts out and setting up air raid shelters - to provide assistance to those affected and to limit material damage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u0zwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>16 May 1940</strong>, the German authorities announced that the initial suspension of air protection had been lifted. Blackouts and unwanted light emissions were strictly monitored.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyfj8\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In <strong>June 1940</strong>, mayor De Vlugt once again emphasized the great importance of adequate blackouts. The police and the Air Protection Service both had a role in monitoring this.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lkk1s\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Jacques Presser writes in <em>Ondergang</em> that&nbsp;on <strong>1 July&nbsp;1940</strong> <em>General-Major der Ordnungspolizei</em> Schumann ordered that (among other things) all Jews should be expelled from the Air Defense before the fifteenth. The reason was that members of the Air Raid Service alledgedly had incited demonstrations on Prince Bernhard&#39;s birthday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"elofl\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Police and Air Raid Wardens could take action if light was emitted during blackout hours. This happened at Prinsengracht 263 on <strong>4 March&nbsp;1941</strong>, when two police officers forced the door open in the evening to turn off a lamp that was still alight.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0nru\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>January 1942</strong>, a German regulation was introduced that tightened air raid precaution measures. Acting in violation of regulations (for example concerning blackouts) could be punished with detention or a fine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cntt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"78eyx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 10 september 1939, ochtendeditie; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 177.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u0zwi\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), toegangsnr. 5227, Archief van de Luchtbeschermingsdienst: Inleiding op de inventaris van het archief van de Luchtbeschermingsdienst, versie 21.1, 30 mei 2012.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyfj8\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼGeen zichtbaar licht!&lsquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, 16 mei 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lkk1s\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼVerduistering moet afdoende zijn&lsquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 12 juni 1940, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"elofl\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J. Presser, <em>Ondergang. De vervolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom, 1940-1945</em>, &#39;s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965, deel I, p. 18-19.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0nru\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439: Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cntt6\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>ʼLuchtbeschermingsverordening&lsquo;, <em>Verordeningenblad voor het bezette Nederlandsche gebied</em> 1942, p. 57-67, aldaar p. 65; Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89023 52.363913)",
                "summary": "The Municipal Air Raid Precaution Service ensured compliance with the measures against air raid hazards in wartime.",
                "summary_nl": "De Gemeentelijke Luchtbeschermingsdienst zag toe op de naleving van de maatregelen tegen luchtgevaar in oorlogstijd.",
                "summary_en": "The Municipal Air Raid Precaution Service ensured compliance with the measures against air raid hazards in wartime.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Keizersgracht 609-611",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
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                "latitude": "52.366204",
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                    {
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                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/1317e81a-6e2c-45b3-82ec-128d94a69ecd/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/60f5b483-c8eb-49cd-af19-52bf828858f6",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/f2004ab1-f62f-43c5-9864-18eea838d81e"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a7bc55a0-7741-4259-a387-42959e20d899",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "1317e81a-6e2c-45b3-82ec-128d94a69ecd",
                        "name": "Miep Gies worked at Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                        "name_nl": "Hermine Santrouschitz werkzaam bij Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                        "name_en": "Miep Gies worked at Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                        "content": "<p>The firm Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens&#39; Embroidery and Pleating Workshops)&nbsp;was located at 5-9 Nieuwe Herengracht from <strong>1915</strong> to <strong>1938</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Miep Gies worked there for four-and-a-half years after leaving a MULO school, according to her foster parents.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was listed in the staff address book with the address Gaaspstraat 12.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to the Register of Foreign Nationals, she worked in the office at Schellekens for NLG&nbsp;67.50 a month from <strong>1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> She worked there as a typist. At Schellekens she met Jan Gies, who was a bookkeeper there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, inv. nr. 76,&nbsp;Archief Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Gies, Miep: Transcriptie kaart H. Santrouschitz uit Vreemdelingenregister.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>De firma Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers was van <strong>1915</strong> tot <strong>1938</strong> gevestigd aan de Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hermine Santrouschitz, beter bekend als&nbsp;Miep Gies, werkte hier volgens haar pleegouders na het verlaten van de MULO vier&euml;neenhalf jaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Zij stond&nbsp;in het personeelsadresboek met het adres Gaaspstraat 12.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens het Vreemdelingenregister werkte ze van <strong>1 september 1927 tot 1 december 1932</strong> bij Schellekens als kantoorbediende voor fl/ 67,50 per maand.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze werkte daar als&nbsp;typiste. Bij&nbsp;Schellekens leerde ze Jan Gies kennen, die daar boekhouder was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, inv. nr. 76,&nbsp;Archief Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Gies, Miep: Transcriptie kaart H. Santrouschitz uit Vreemdelingenregister.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>The firm Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens&#39; Embroidery and Pleating Workshops)&nbsp;was located at 5-9 Nieuwe Herengracht from <strong>1915</strong> to <strong>1938</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Miep Gies worked there for four-and-a-half years after leaving a MULO school, according to her foster parents.<sup data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was listed in the staff address book with the address Gaaspstraat 12.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to the Register of Foreign Nationals, she worked in the office at Schellekens for NLG&nbsp;67.50 a month from <strong>1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> She worked there as a typist. At Schellekens she met Jan Gies, who was a bookkeeper there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7dyue\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, inv. nr. 76,&nbsp;Archief Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"dofd8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ucr7r\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Gies, Miep: Transcriptie kaart H. Santrouschitz uit Vreemdelingenregister.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mjuqd\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1927-09-01",
                        "date_end": "1932-12-01",
                        "summary": "From 1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932, Miep Gies worked in the office at Schellekens.",
                        "summary_nl": "Van 1 september 1927 tot 1 december 1932 werkte Miep Gies als kantoorbediende bij Schellekens.",
                        "summary_en": "From 1 September 1927 to 1 December 1932, Miep Gies worked in the office at Schellekens.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Businesses",
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                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name": "Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens Embroidery and Pleating Studios)",
                "name_nl": "Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers",
                "name_en": "Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers (Schellekens Embroidery and Pleating Studios)",
                "uuid": "a7bc55a0-7741-4259-a387-42959e20d899",
                "content": "<p>De firma Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers was van <strong>1915 tot 1938</strong> gevestigd aan de Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Jan Gies werkte hier. Hij woonde in die periode op de adressen Stuyvesantstraat 55 en Maasstraat 10 III, later II.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Die adressen in aanmerking genomen, begon hij bij Schellekens tussen eind <strong>december 1928</strong> en <strong>juli 1931</strong>. Hij ging weg tussen <strong>september 1931</strong> en <strong>januari 1936</strong>.&nbsp;Volgens Miep, die Jan hier heeft leren kennen, werkte hij er als boekhouder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers, toegang 30498: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers , inv. nr. 76:&nbsp;Adresboek personeel Schellekens.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>De firma Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers was van <strong>1915 tot 1938</strong> gevestigd aan de Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9.<sup data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Jan Gies werkte hier. Hij woonde in die periode op de adressen Stuyvesantstraat 55 en Maasstraat 10 III, later II.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Die adressen in aanmerking genomen, begon hij bij Schellekens tussen eind <strong>december 1928</strong> en <strong>juli 1931</strong>. Hij ging weg tussen <strong>september 1931</strong> en <strong>januari 1936</strong>.&nbsp;Volgens Miep, die Jan hier heeft leren kennen, werkte hij er als boekhouder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"h6uhi\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers, toegang 30498: Inleiding op het archief van Schellekens&#39; Borduur- en Plisseerateliers en dochterondernemingen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uydpr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Schellekens Borduur- en Plisseerateliers , inv. nr. 76:&nbsp;Adresboek personeel Schellekens.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujppq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 32-33.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.902096 52.366204)",
                "summary": "Jan and Miep Gies worked for this company.",
                "summary_nl": "Jan en Miep Gies waren werkzaam bij dit bedrijf.",
                "summary_en": "Jan and Miep Gies worked for this company.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Nieuwe Herengracht 5-9",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
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            "score": 1.1646155
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