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                    "name": "010016000133",
                    "title": "Apollohal, 1934",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf Paul Guermonprez. Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
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                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
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                    {
                        "id": 396124583,
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/4453e0fd-6791-44d5-ba9b-34ca31414650/",
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                        "uuid": "4453e0fd-6791-44d5-ba9b-34ca31414650",
                        "name": "Leisure activities, Anne Frank",
                        "name_nl": "Vrijetijdsbesteding Anne Frank",
                        "name_en": "Leisure activities, Anne Frank",
                        "description": "<h1><strong>Sports</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>According to several accounts, Anne was not very strong physically; her limbs dislocated easily.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Nevertheless, she took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practised several other sports.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The gymnastics club was probably led by Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the winter of <strong>1938-1939</strong>, Anne learned to ice skate. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote to her grandmother that she was going ice skating at the artificial ice rink at the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> And on <strong>13 January 1941,</strong> she wrote:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;I spend every free minute at the ice rink. Until now, I still had my old skates that Margot used to wear, those skates have to be screwed on with a little key, and at the ice rink, all my friends had real Figure Skates, which have to be attached to your shoes with nails, and then they don&#39;t come off. I wanted so terribly to have such skates too, and after long nagging, I got them too.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>A <strong>1941</strong> photo shows Anne with other children ice skating in Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anton Witsel received this photo from the father of the frontmost girl in the picture Ansje de Leeuw. According to the caption of the photo, Ansje lived in the United States.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 March 1941,</strong> Anne wrote to her grandmother: <em>&quot;I wish I could start ice skating again, but for that I have to be patient for a while, until the war is over (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Table tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>June 1942, </strong>Anne writes<strong>:</strong> &quot;<em>Five of us girls have formed a club. It&#39;s called The Little Dipper Minus Two. (...)&nbsp; It&#39;s a ping-pong club</em>&quot; .<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes the following about her hobbies: &quot;<em>Dear Kitty, You asked me what my hobbies and interests are and I&#39;d like to answer, but I&#39;d better warn you, I have lots of them, so don&#39;t be surprised</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Writing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In addition to her surviving diaries, stories and letters, Anne also wrote poems in the poetry albums of her friends, including: Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi and Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne loved to read. She got <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden (&#39;Dutch Sagas and Legends&#39;)</em> from the ping-pong club for her thirteenth birthday, but by mistake they gave her volume 2. She then swapped <em>Camera Obscura</em> for volume 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> These books had been written by Josef Cohen. Volume 2 is in the museum collection of the Anne Frank House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Volume 1 was given by Anne shortly before going into hiding to neighbour Toosje Kupers, who still owns it. At the front, Anne&#39;s handwriting bears the dedication<em> &#39;In Memory of Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Family trees</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank told his daughters about family history and individual relatives while in hiding. Anne made family trees based on these.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne also wrote about this in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> These family trees have not been preserved.&nbsp;The family trees Anne had drawn on large sheets of paper have also not been found.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne also made family trees of several European royal houses: &quot;<em>of the French, German, Spanish, English, Austrian, Russian, Norwegian and Dutch royal families. I&#39;ve made great progress with many of them, because for a long time I&#39;ve been taking notes while reading biographies or history books&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;She drew a lot of information for this from Charles V&#39;s biography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;When a vase of flowers fell over shortly afterwards, water poured over her family trees. However, the damage proved limited in the end. Notes on Maria de Medici&#39;, Charles V, William of Orange and Marie Antoinette had to be dried in the attic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>History</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was given many history books by her father. She could not wait to go to the Public Library to continue reading. She also felt strongly about art history. She writes about it: &quot;<em>I&#39;d like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;She shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The things a schoolgirl has to do in the course of a single day! Take me, for example. First I translated a passage on Nelson&#39;s last battle from Dutch into English. Then I read more about the Great Northern War (1700-1721) involving Peter the Great, Charles XII, Augustus the Strong, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania and Denmark, plus the usual dates.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne read the biography of Galileo to the end because it had to go back to the library. She had started it the previous day. Part 2 came the next week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Greek and Roman mythology</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes three days after her 13th birthday: &quot;<em>I will still get Myths of Greece and Rome, paid for with my own money&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> She also writes: <em>(...)&nbsp;I have various books on this subject too. I can name the nine Muses and the seven loves of Zeus. I have the wives of Heracles, etc., etc., down pat&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne also shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got a black cat, named Moortje, about the autumn of 1941.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 11 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944 and 8 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 27 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<h1><strong>Sport</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens verschillende getuigenissen was Anne lichamelijk niet erg sterk; haar ledematen raakten snel uit de kom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Toch zat ze op ritmische gymnastiek en beoefende&nbsp;ze verschillende andere sporten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Het gymnastiekclubje werd waarschijnlijk geleid door Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Schaatsen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In de winter van 1938-1939 leerde&nbsp;Anne schaatsen. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Op <strong>13 december 1940</strong> schreef&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma dat ze gaat schaatsen op de Kunstijsbaan in de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> &nbsp;En op <strong>13 januari 1941</strong> schrijft ze:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Ik ben elk vrij minuutje op de Kunstijsbaan. Ik had tot nu toe nog altijd mijn oude schaatsen die Margot vroeger gedragen heeft, die schaatsen moeten met een sleuteltje aangeschroefd worden, en op de Kunstijsbaan hadden al mijn vriendinnetjes echte Kunstschaatsen, die met spijkers aan je schoenen vastgemaakt moeten worden, en dan gaan ze er niet meer af. Ik wou zo vreselijk graag ook zulke schaatsen hebben, en na lang zeuren, heb ik ze ook gekregen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Een foto uit <strong>1941</strong> toont Anne met andere kinderen op de schaats in het Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Deze foto kreeg&nbsp;Anton Witsel van de vader van het voorste meisje op de foto Ansje de Leeuw. Volgens het bijschrift van de foto woonde&nbsp;Ansje in de Verenigde Staten.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>22 maart 1941</strong> schreef&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma: <em>Ik wou dat ik alweer met schaatsrijden beginnen kon, maar daarvoor moet ik nog een poosje geduld hebben, tot de oorlog voorbij is (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tafeltennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>juni 1942</strong>&nbsp;schrijft Anne: <em>Wij met ons vijven vormen een club genaamd de kleine Beer, minus 2 afgekort d.k.B.-2. (&hellip;) Het is een ping-pongclub</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Over haar hobbies&nbsp;schrijft Anne het volgende: <em>Lieve Kitty, je hebt me gevraagd, wat mijn hobby&#39;s en interessen zijn en daarop wil ik je antwoorden, maar ik waarschuw je, schrik niet, want het zijn er een heleboel.&nbsp;In de eerste plaats: schrijven, maar dat rekent eigenlijk niet als hobby</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Schrijven</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Naast haar overgeleverde dagboeken, verhaaltjes en&nbsp;brieven, heeft&nbsp;Anne ook gedichtjes geschreven in de po&euml;ziealbums van haar vriendinnetjes, o.a:&nbsp;Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi en Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Lezen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne las&nbsp;graag. Ze kreeg&nbsp;van de pingpongclub voor haar dertiende verjaardag <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden</em>, maar per ongeluk gaven ze haar deel 2. Ze ruilde&nbsp;vervolgens de <em>Camera Obscura</em> voor deel 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Deze boeken waren geschreven door Josef Cohen. Deel 2 bevindt zich in de museale collectie van de Anne Frank Stichting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Deel 1 gaf&nbsp;Anne kort voor het onderduiken aan buurmeisje Toosje Kupers, die het nog steeds in bezit heeft. Voorin staat in Annes handschrift de opdracht &#39;<em>Ter Herinnering aan Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Stambomen</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank vertelde&nbsp;zijn dochters tijdens de onderduik over de familiegeschiedenis en over individuele familieleden. Anne maakte op basis daarvan stambomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> &nbsp;Anne schrijft hier ook over in haar dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup>&nbsp;Deze stambomen zijn niet bewaard gebleven: De stambomen die Anne op grote vellen papier had getekend zijn ook niet gevonden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne maakte ook stambomen van diverse Europese vorstenhuizen: <em>Van de Franse, Duitse, Spaanse, Engelse, Oostenrijkse, Russische, Noordse en Nederlandse vorstenfamilies ben ik in alle kranten, boeken en papieren naar stambomen aan &#39;t zoeken. Met vele ben ik al erg ver gevorderd, temeer daar ik allang uit al de biografie&euml;n of geschiedenisboeken, die ik lees, aantekeningen maak</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze haalde&nbsp;hiervoor veel informatie uit de biografie van Karel V.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp; toen er kort daarna een bloemenvaas omviel, stroomde&nbsp;het water over haar stambomen. De schade bleek&nbsp;uiteindelijk echter beperkt. Aantekeningen over Maria de Medici&rsquo;, Karel V, Willem van Oranje en Marie Antoinette moesten op zolder worden gedroogd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Geschiedenis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;van haar vader veel geschiedenisboeken. Ze kon niet wachten tot ze naar de Openbare Bibliotheek kon gaan om daar verder te lezen. Ze voelde&nbsp;ook veel voor kunstgeschiedenis. Ze schrijft daarover: <em>Ik zou graag een jaar naar Parijs en een jaar naar Londen om de taal te leren en kunstgeschiedenis te studeren</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze deelde&nbsp;deze belangstelling met haar vader.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Waar een schoolmeisje in &eacute;&eacute;n dag al niet van hoort, neem mij nu eens. Eerst vertaalde ik van Hollands in Engels een stuk van Nelson&#39;s laatste slag. Daarna nam ik het vervolg van de Noordse oorlog door (1700-1721), van Peter de Grote, Karel XII, Augustus de Sterke, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Voor-Pommeren, Achter-Pommeren en Denemarken + de gebruikelijke jaartallen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne las&nbsp;de biografie van Galile&iuml; uit, omdat het terug moest naar de bibliotheek. Ze was er de vorige dag in begonnen. De volgende week kwam&nbsp;deel 2.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Griekse en Romeinse mythologie</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schrijft drie dagen na haar dertiende verjaardag: <em>Nu krijg ik nog Mythen van Griekenland en Rome van mijn eigen geld</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Ook schrijft ze: <em>(...)&nbsp;hier heb ik verscheidene boeken over. De 9 muzen of 7 liefjes van Zeus kan ik je zo opnoemen. De vrouwen van Heracles enz. enz. ken ik op m&#39;n duimpje.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ook deze belangstelling deelde&nbsp;Anne met haar vader.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne kreeg&nbsp;ongeveer in het najaar van 1941&nbsp;een zwarte poes, die de naam Moortje kreeg.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 11 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 20 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 april 1944 en 8 mei 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 27 april 1944, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 juni 1942, in:<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<h1><strong>Sports</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>According to several accounts, Anne was not very strong physically; her limbs dislocated easily.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Nevertheless, she took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practised several other sports.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The gymnastics club was probably led by Hedda Eisenstaedt.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the winter of <strong>1938-1939</strong>, Anne learned to ice skate. <sup data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote to her grandmother that she was going ice skating at the artificial ice rink at the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> And on <strong>13 January 1941,</strong> she wrote:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;I spend every free minute at the ice rink. Until now, I still had my old skates that Margot used to wear, those skates have to be screwed on with a little key, and at the ice rink, all my friends had real Figure Skates, which have to be attached to your shoes with nails, and then they don&#39;t come off. I wanted so terribly to have such skates too, and after long nagging, I got them too.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"vit19\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>A <strong>1941</strong> photo shows Anne with other children ice skating in Vondelpark.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Anton Witsel received this photo from the father of the frontmost girl in the picture Ansje de Leeuw. According to the caption of the photo, Ansje lived in the United States.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 March 1941,</strong> Anne wrote to her grandmother: <em>&quot;I wish I could start ice skating again, but for that I have to be patient for a while, until the war is over (...).</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Table tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>June 1942, </strong>Anne writes<strong>:</strong> &quot;<em>Five of us girls have formed a club. It&#39;s called The Little Dipper Minus Two. (...)&nbsp; It&#39;s a ping-pong club</em>&quot; .<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Hobbies</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes the following about her hobbies: &quot;<em>Dear Kitty, You asked me what my hobbies and interests are and I&#39;d like to answer, but I&#39;d better warn you, I have lots of them, so don&#39;t be surprised</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Writing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In addition to her surviving diaries, stories and letters, Anne also wrote poems in the poetry albums of her friends, including: Mary Bos, Juultje Ketellapper, Bep Groot Batav&eacute;, Dinie Amelsbeek, Henny Scheerder, Eva Goldberg, Kitty Egyedi and Jacqueline van Maarsen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne loved to read. She got <em>Nederlandsche sagen en legenden (&#39;Dutch Sagas and Legends&#39;)</em> from the ping-pong club for her thirteenth birthday, but by mistake they gave her volume 2. She then swapped <em>Camera Obscura</em> for volume 1.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> These books had been written by Josef Cohen. Volume 2 is in the museum collection of the Anne Frank House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Volume 1 was given by Anne shortly before going into hiding to neighbour Toosje Kupers, who still owns it. At the front, Anne&#39;s handwriting bears the dedication<em> &#39;In Memory of Anne Frank&#39;</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Family trees</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank told his daughters about family history and individual relatives while in hiding. Anne made family trees based on these.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Anne also wrote about this in her diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> These family trees have not been preserved.&nbsp;The family trees Anne had drawn on large sheets of paper have also not been found.<sup data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne also made family trees of several European royal houses: &quot;<em>of the French, German, Spanish, English, Austrian, Russian, Norwegian and Dutch royal families. I&#39;ve made great progress with many of them, because for a long time I&#39;ve been taking notes while reading biographies or history books&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;She drew a lot of information for this from Charles V&#39;s biography.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;When a vase of flowers fell over shortly afterwards, water poured over her family trees. However, the damage proved limited in the end. Notes on Maria de Medici&#39;, Charles V, William of Orange and Marie Antoinette had to be dried in the attic.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>History</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was given many history books by her father. She could not wait to go to the Public Library to continue reading. She also felt strongly about art history. She writes about it: &quot;<em>I&#39;d like to spend a year in Paris and London learning the language and studying art history&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;She shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The things a schoolgirl has to do in the course of a single day! Take me, for example. First I translated a passage on Nelson&#39;s last battle from Dutch into English. Then I read more about the Great Northern War (1700-1721) involving Peter the Great, Charles XII, Augustus the Strong, Stanislaus Lescinsky, Mazeppa, Von G&ouml;rz, Brandenburg, Western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania and Denmark, plus the usual dates.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne read the biography of Galileo to the end because it had to go back to the library. She had started it the previous day. Part 2 came the next week.<sup data-footnote-id=\"do13y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Greek and Roman mythology</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne writes three days after her 13th birthday: &quot;<em>I will still get Myths of Greece and Rome, paid for with my own money&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> She also writes: <em>(...)&nbsp;I have various books on this subject too. I can name the nine Muses and the seven loves of Zeus. I have the wives of Heracles, etc., etc., down pat&quot;</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne also shared this interest with her father.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Moortje</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne got a black cat, named Moortje, about the autumn of 1941.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kvn9l\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Rinat, Ab, transcriptie interview 18 oktober 2006, p. 2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ulb1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_070: Bitte schreiben Sie mir etwas &uuml;ber Anne Frank, p. 2; Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hisxb\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-8: Anne Frank aan Stephan Elias, december 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sdvhi\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vit19\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18-01: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en familie Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6wja5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Het Vrije Volk</em>, 1 april 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mfym1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF-AlF-corr18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern, 22 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5tzee\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jqegf\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7el6r\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank in po&euml;zie-album van Mary Bos, 5 maart 1938 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_017); in album van Juultje Ketellapper (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_018; in album van Dinie Amelsbeek (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_I_019); in album van Bep Groot Batav&eacute;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xvs02\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code B_Achterhuis_VII_067.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ffyp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Milly Stanfield, 26 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eg5yr\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"47yjl\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_263: Otto Frank aan Ren&eacute; Willemsen, 6 juni 1974.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"do13y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 11 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytjym\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 20 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlecw\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 April 1944 and 8 May 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbetl\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 27 April 1944, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1iv4\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 June 1942, in:<em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Anne Frank took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practiced several other sports. Her other hobbies were reading and writing.",
                        "summary_nl": "Anne Frank zat ze op ritmische gymnastiek en beoefende verschillende andere sporten. Andere hobbies van haar waren lezen en schrijven.",
                        "summary_en": "Anne Frank took part in rhythmic gymnastics and practiced several other sports. Her other hobbies were reading and writing.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
                    }
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                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/00b422b7-7011-4acb-bee7-0af3199cd124",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2ce70ffc-474f-4743-a9a8-dd4ed4e59c77"
                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/2e5f78fd-1234-4a2c-ae52-c5853ff4cda4/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Apollohal (Apollo Hall)",
                "name_nl": "Apollohal",
                "name_en": "Apollohal (Apollo Hall)",
                "uuid": "2e5f78fd-1234-4a2c-ae52-c5853ff4cda4",
                "content": "<p>The building opened in&nbsp;<strong>1934</strong>&nbsp;and was used for exhibitions, sporting events and meetings for many years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"my3js\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Political meetings of all kinds were held there. Following the Nuremberg Laws, the Committee for Special Jewish Interests held a protest meeting in the Apollo Hall on <strong>19 September 1935</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7pa01\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The hall also hosted the NSB party after the lost elections of <strong>1937</strong><sup data-footnote-id=\"3x7w5\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>, and &#39;Unity through Democracy&#39; with W. Schermerhorn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fyjj5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1940</strong>, the ice rink of the &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39; at Linnaeusstraat was transferred to the Apollo Hall, and remained in use there until <strong>1949 </strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yctjw\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote&nbsp;to her grandmother that she goes skating at the Ice Rink in the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"crda7\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> On <strong>13 January 1941</strong>, she wrote: &quot;<em>I spend every free minute at the&nbsp;Ice Rink.&quot;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"523p1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"my3js\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollohal\" target=\"_blank\">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollohal</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2012).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7pa01\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De ontrechting der Joden in Duitschland&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 19 september 1935, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3x7w5\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De heer Mussert aan het woord&rdquo;, <em>Het Vaderland</em>, 28 mei 1937, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fyjj5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Eenheid door Democratie houdt propagandavergadering&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 november 1938, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yctjw\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;, in: <em>Ons Amsterdam</em>, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"crda7\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"523p1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Het gebouw dateert van <strong>1934</strong>&nbsp;en werd&nbsp;jarenlang gebruikt voor tentoonstellingen, sportevenementen en vergaderingen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"my3js\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Politieke bijeenkomsten waren er van allerlei soort. Naar aanleiding van de Neurenberger wetten hield het Comit&eacute; voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen op <strong>19 september 1935</strong> een protestvergadering in de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7pa01\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> De zaal bood ook onderdak aan de NSB na de verloren verkiezingen van <strong>1937</strong><sup data-footnote-id=\"3x7w5\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> en aan &lsquo;Eenheid door Democratie&rsquo; met W. Schermerhorn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fyjj5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1940 </strong>werd&nbsp;de installatie van de &lsquo;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&rsquo; aan de Linnaeusstraat overgezet naar de Apollohal, en bleef&nbsp;daar tot <strong>1949 </strong>in gebruik.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yctjw\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>13 december 1940</strong>&nbsp;schrijft&nbsp;Anne aan haar oma dat ze gaat schaatsen op de Kunstijsbaan in de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"crda7\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Op <strong>13 januari 1941</strong> schrijft ze: &#39;<em>Ik ben elk vrij minuutje op de Kunstijsbaan.&#39;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"523p1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"my3js\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollohal\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollohal</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2012).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7pa01\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De ontrechting der Joden in Duitschland&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 19 september 1935, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3x7w5\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De heer Mussert aan het woord&rdquo;, <em>Het Vaderland</em>, 28 mei 1937, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fyjj5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Eenheid door Democratie houdt propagandavergadering&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 november 1938, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yctjw\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;, in: <em>Ons Amsterdam</em>, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"crda7\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"523p1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>The building opened in&nbsp;<strong>1934</strong>&nbsp;and was used for exhibitions, sporting events and meetings for many years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"my3js\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Political meetings of all kinds were held there. Following the Nuremberg Laws, the Committee for Special Jewish Interests held a protest meeting in the Apollo Hall on <strong>19 September 1935</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7pa01\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The hall also hosted the NSB party after the lost elections of <strong>1937</strong><sup data-footnote-id=\"3x7w5\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>, and &#39;Unity through Democracy&#39; with W. Schermerhorn.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fyjj5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1940</strong>, the ice rink of the &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39; at Linnaeusstraat was transferred to the Apollo Hall, and remained in use there until <strong>1949 </strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yctjw\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>13 December 1940</strong>, Anne wrote&nbsp;to her grandmother that she goes skating at the Ice Rink in the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"crda7\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> On <strong>13 January 1941</strong>, she wrote: &quot;<em>I spend every free minute at the&nbsp;Ice Rink.&quot;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"523p1\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"my3js\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollohal\" target=\"_blank\">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollohal</a> (geraadpleegd maart 2012).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7pa01\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De ontrechting der Joden in Duitschland&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 19 september 1935, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3x7w5\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;De heer Mussert aan het woord&rdquo;, <em>Het Vaderland</em>, 28 mei 1937, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fyjj5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Eenheid door Democratie houdt propagandavergadering&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 november 1938, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yctjw\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;, in: <em>Ons Amsterdam</em>, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"crda7\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 december 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"523p1\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_corr_18: Anne Frank aan Alice Frank-Stern en Stephan Elias, 13 januari 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
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                "name": "Arc’s Advertentie- en Uitgeversbedrijf N.V.",
                "name_nl": "Arc’s Advertentie- en Uitgeversbedrijf N.V.",
                "name_en": "Arc’s Advertentie- en Uitgeversbedrijf N.V.",
                "uuid": "e81eeb71-37e6-4299-9a32-d4d419af2117",
                "content": "<p>Arc&#39;s Advertentie- en Uitgeversbedrijf N.V. was located at Damrak 19-22, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"iic19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Telephone 44462.<sup data-footnote-id=\"iic19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> This number also appeared with the addition &#39;Arc&#39; in Otto Frank&#39;s <strong>1937</strong> diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kw4di\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Arc&#39;s had been founded <strong>in the late 1920s</strong>. Precisely because the business world was in great trouble during those years, the agency was able to thrive: advertisers were quicker to adopt a new approach.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g2nij\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the summer of <strong>1936</strong>, Opekta combined an advertising campaign with a promotion in the newspaper&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf. </em>Anyone who came in person to the newspaper&#39;s counters to submit a &#39;Speurder&#39; classified advert costing at least a guilder, published between <strong>28 June</strong> and <strong>4 July</strong> that year, received an&nbsp;Opekta preserving package free of charge. These packages had been made available by the Nederlandsche Opekta Mij. The advertisement announcing this had Arc&#39;s company&#39;s logo in the margin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n2msa\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"iic19\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p. 40.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kw4di\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_001: Agenda Otto Frank 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g2nij\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M.&nbsp;van Rossum, <em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau. De ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>,&nbsp;dissertatie&nbsp;Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012, p. 244.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n2msa\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &quot;Surpriseweek&quot;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 27 juni 1936. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Arc&rsquo;s Advertentie- en Uitgeversbedrijf N.V. was gevestigd op Damrak 19-22, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"iic19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Telefoon 44462.<sup data-footnote-id=\"iic19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Dit nummer stond&nbsp;ook met de toevoeging &#39;Arc&#39; in Otto Franks agenda van <strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kw4di\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Arc&#39;s was <strong>eind jaren twintig</strong> van de vorige eeuw opgericht. Juist doordat het bedrijfsleven in die jaren grote problemen had, kon het bureau goed gedijen: adverteerders waren sneller geneigd een nieuwe aanpak te kiezen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g2nij\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In de zomer van <strong>1936</strong> combineerde Opekta een reclamecampagne met een actie van <em>De Telegraaf. </em>Wie persoonlijk aan de loketten van de krant een &#39;Speurder&#39; ter waarde van minstens een gulden kwam&nbsp;opgeven, verschenen tussen <strong>28 juni</strong> en <strong>4 juli</strong> van dat jaar, kreeg&nbsp;gratis een Opekta-inmaakpakket. Deze pakketten waren&nbsp;door de Nederlandsche Opekta Mij. beschikbaar gesteld. De advertentie die dit aankondigde, had&nbsp;in de marge het beeldmerk van de firma Arc&#39;s.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n2msa\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"iic19\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p. 40.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kw4di\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_001: Agenda Otto Frank 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g2nij\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M.&nbsp;van Rossum, <em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau. De ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>,&nbsp;dissertatie&nbsp;Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012, p. 244.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n2msa\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &quot;Surpriseweek&quot;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 27 juni 1936. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Arc&#39;s Advertentie- en Uitgeversbedrijf N.V. was located at Damrak 19-22, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"iic19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Telephone 44462.<sup data-footnote-id=\"iic19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> This number also appeared with the addition &#39;Arc&#39; in Otto Frank&#39;s <strong>1937</strong> diary.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kw4di\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Arc&#39;s had been founded <strong>in the late 1920s</strong>. Precisely because the business world was in great trouble during those years, the agency was able to thrive: advertisers were quicker to adopt a new approach.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g2nij\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the summer of <strong>1936</strong>, Opekta combined an advertising campaign with a promotion in the newspaper&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf. </em>Anyone who came in person to the newspaper&#39;s counters to submit a &#39;Speurder&#39; classified advert costing at least a guilder, published between <strong>28 June</strong> and <strong>4 July</strong> that year, received an&nbsp;Opekta preserving package free of charge. These packages had been made available by the Nederlandsche Opekta Mij. The advertisement announcing this had Arc&#39;s company&#39;s logo in the margin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n2msa\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"iic19\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p. 40.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kw4di\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_001: Agenda Otto Frank 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g2nij\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>R.P.M.&nbsp;van Rossum, <em>Van advertentiekruier tot reclameadviesbureau. De ontwikkeling in Nederland, de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland voor de Tweede Wereldoorlog</em>,&nbsp;dissertatie&nbsp;Universiteit van Amsterdam, 2012, p. 244.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n2msa\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Advertentie &quot;Surpriseweek&quot;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 27 juni 1936. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89712 52.37672)",
                "summary": "Arc's (Aronson en Compagnons) was an advertising agency that handled a campaign for Opekta.",
                "summary_nl": "Arc's (Aronson en Compagnons) was een reclamebureau dat een campagne voor Opekta verzorgde.",
                "summary_en": "Arc's (Aronson en Compagnons) was an advertising agency that handled a campaign for Opekta.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
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                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1061,
                    "uuid": "08ee627b-60cf-4315-a2e6-2a3aafb2efa1",
                    "name": "010009011403",
                    "title": "De kruising van de Zuider Amstellaan en de Waalstraat, met rechts boekhandel Blankevoort, 1934",
                    "alt": "Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/010009011403_j0BjEw0.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                },
                "latitude": "52.344857",
                "longitude": "4.900771",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 241,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/d2a6e743-4840-476c-b673-b77d04c972b2/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/58b5fe11-0b39-46e0-809e-1e1a5eccb1e7"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/5e6e4c0b-e255-4b81-9abc-a8b22fd9d87c",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "d2a6e743-4840-476c-b673-b77d04c972b2",
                        "name": "Anne Frank is presented with a diary for her 13th birthday",
                        "name_nl": "Anne Frank krijgt een dagboek voor haar dertiende verjaardag",
                        "name_en": "Anne Frank is presented with a diary for her 13th birthday",
                        "content": "<p>Anne Frank was given a red checked diary for her thirteenth birthday on <strong>Sunday 12 June 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"swlug\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Two days later, she wrote in it:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&quot;I&#39;ll begin from the moment I got you, the moment I saw you lying on the table among my other birthday presents. (I went along when you were bought, but that doesn&#39;t count.)&nbsp;On Friday, June 12th I was awake at six o&#39;clock, which isn&#39;t surprising since it was my birthday. (...) A little after seven I went to Daddy and Mama and then to the living room to open my presents, and you were the first thing I saw, maybe one of my nicest presents.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"swlug\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>In a letter to Meyer Levin, Otto Frank wrote: &quot;The diary was bought by my wife&quot;. In his stage adaptation, Levin made it appear that Hanneli Goslar had given the diary to Anne. Otto did not object to this (&quot;liberty of the writer&quot;), but did note that in reality Edith had bought the diary. <sup data-footnote-id=\"nb9en\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"swlug\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, DIary Version A, 14 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nb9en\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_155: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 8 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Anne Frank kreeg&nbsp;voor haar dertiende verjaardag op&nbsp;<strong>zondag 12 juni 1942</strong>&nbsp;een rood geruit dagboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"swlug\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Twee dagen later schrijft ze daarin:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Ik zal maar beginnen vanaf het ogenblik dat ik je gekregen heb, dus dat ik je heb zien liggen op mijn verjaardagstafel, (want het kopen, waar ik ook bij ben geweest telt niet mee.) Vrijdag 12 Juni was ik al om zes uur wakker, en dat is heel begrijpelijk daar ik jarig was. (&hellip;) Om even na zevenen ging ik naar papa en mama en dan naar de huiskamer, om mijn cadeautjes uit te pakken, het was in de eerste plaats jij die ik te zien kreeg, en wat misschien wel een van mijn fijnste cadeaux is.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"swlug\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>In een brief aan Meyer Levin schreef&nbsp;Otto Frank: &#39;<em>The diary was bought by my wife.&#39;</em>&nbsp;Levin deed&nbsp;het in zijn toneelbewerking voorkomen dat Hanneli Goslar&nbsp;het dagboek aan Anne had gegeven. Otto heeft had daar&nbsp;geen bezwaar tegen (&#39;<em>liberty of the write</em>r&#39;), maar merkte wel op dat in werkelijkheid Edith het dagboek had gekocht. <sup data-footnote-id=\"nb9en\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"swlug\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nb9en\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_155: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 8 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Anne Frank was given a red checked diary for her thirteenth birthday on <strong>Sunday 12 June 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"swlug\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Two days later, she wrote in it:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&quot;I&#39;ll begin from the moment I got you, the moment I saw you lying on the table among my other birthday presents. (I went along when you were bought, but that doesn&#39;t count.)&nbsp;On Friday, June 12th I was awake at six o&#39;clock, which isn&#39;t surprising since it was my birthday. (...) A little after seven I went to Daddy and Mama and then to the living room to open my presents, and you were the first thing I saw, maybe one of my nicest presents.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"swlug\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>In a letter to Meyer Levin, Otto Frank wrote: &quot;The diary was bought by my wife&quot;. In his stage adaptation, Levin made it appear that Hanneli Goslar had given the diary to Anne. Otto did not object to this (&quot;liberty of the writer&quot;), but did note that in reality Edith had bought the diary. <sup data-footnote-id=\"nb9en\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"swlug\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, DIary Version A, 14 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nb9en\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_155: Otto Frank aan Meyer Levin, 8 september 1952.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1942-06-12",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "Anne Frank was given a red-checked diary for her 13th birthday. It had been bought at Boekhandel Blankevoort, around the corner.",
                        "summary_nl": "Anne Frank kreeg voor haar dertiende verjaardag een rood geruit dagboek. Het was gekocht bij Boekhandel Blankevoort, om de hoek.",
                        "summary_en": "Anne Frank was given a red-checked diary for her 13th birthday. It had been bought at Boekhandel Blankevoort, around the corner.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                "name": "Blankevoort, Bookshop and Reading Library",
                "name_nl": "Blankevoort, Boekhandel en Leesbibliotheek",
                "name_en": "Blankevoort, Bookshop and Reading Library",
                "uuid": "5e6e4c0b-e255-4b81-9abc-a8b22fd9d87c",
                "content": "<p><em>Address:</em> Zuider Amstellaan 62,&nbsp;Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gd0g5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>This is where the box of cards for the <em>Variet&eacute;</em> game came from, which Anne Frank received for her birthday in <strong>1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa898\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is very likely that the red checkered diary was also bought here, although there is no clear source for this.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The bookshop was owned by Gerrit Blankevoort (1891-1955). He started the company in Groen van Prinstererstraat and moved it to Zuider Amstellaan in <strong>1931</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zssxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gd0g5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek der stad Amsterdam. 85ste jaargang,</em> 1938-1939, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp; Co., p. 117. De Zuider Amstellaan werd na de oorlog hernoemd tot Rooseveltlaan.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa898\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zssxz\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.geheugenvanplanzuid.nl/index.php/architectuur/146-de-geschiedenis-van-boekhandel-blankevoort\">http://www.geheugenvanplanzuid.nl/index.php/architectuur/146-de-geschiedenis-van-boekhandel-blankevoort</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres:</strong> Zuider Amstellaan 62 te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gd0g5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hier kwam&nbsp;het doosje kaartjes voor het Variet&eacute;-spel vandaan, dat Anne Frank in <strong>1942</strong> voor haar verjaardag kreeg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa898\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Zeer waarschijnlijk was&nbsp;ook het roodgeruite dagboekje hier gekocht, hoewel daar geen duidelijke bron voor is.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De boekhandel was het bedrijf van Gerrit Blankevoort (1891-1955). Hij begon&nbsp;het bedrijf in de Groen van Prinstererstraat en verhuisde&nbsp;dit in <strong>1931</strong> naar de Zuider Amstellaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zssxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gd0g5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek der stad Amsterdam. 85ste jaargang,</em> 1938-1939, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp; Co., p. 117. De Zuider Amstellaan werd na de oorlog hernoemd tot Rooseveltlaan.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa898\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 juni 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zssxz\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.geheugenvanplanzuid.nl/index.php/architectuur/146-de-geschiedenis-van-boekhandel-blankevoort\">http://www.geheugenvanplanzuid.nl/index.php/architectuur/146-de-geschiedenis-van-boekhandel-blankevoort</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><em>Address:</em> Zuider Amstellaan 62,&nbsp;Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gd0g5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>This is where the box of cards for the <em>Variet&eacute;</em> game came from, which Anne Frank received for her birthday in <strong>1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fa898\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is very likely that the red checkered diary was also bought here, although there is no clear source for this.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The bookshop was owned by Gerrit Blankevoort (1891-1955). He started the company in Groen van Prinstererstraat and moved it to Zuider Amstellaan in <strong>1931</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zssxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gd0g5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek der stad Amsterdam. 85ste jaargang,</em> 1938-1939, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp; Co., p. 117. De Zuider Amstellaan werd na de oorlog hernoemd tot Rooseveltlaan.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fa898\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 June 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zssxz\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"http://www.geheugenvanplanzuid.nl/index.php/architectuur/146-de-geschiedenis-van-boekhandel-blankevoort\">http://www.geheugenvanplanzuid.nl/index.php/architectuur/146-de-geschiedenis-van-boekhandel-blankevoort</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 14 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.900771 52.344857)",
                "summary": "Bookshop in Amsterdam's Rivierenbuurt neighbourhood, where Anne Frank's red-checked diary was possibly bought.",
                "summary_nl": "Boekhandel in de Amsterdamse Rivierenbuurt, waar mogelijk het roodgeruite dagboek van Anne Frank werd gekocht.",
                "summary_en": "Bookshop in Amsterdam's Rivierenbuurt neighbourhood, where Anne Frank's red-checked diary was possibly bought.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Zuider Amstellaan 62",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    241
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 201,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": null,
                "latitude": "52.35255",
                "longitude": "4.89774",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 205,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/82488322-afe2-47a1-89b8-e4399ad32cb8/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/bb812692-213a-4024-9860-a7909f985762"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/960fd1b1-4b84-4e4b-9eac-145c17dbf2b2"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c22d7f02-9e97-4dc3-a7cf-388ac0bcd8de",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "82488322-afe2-47a1-89b8-e4399ad32cb8",
                        "name": "Hermine Santrouschitz goes to school in Amsterdam",
                        "name_nl": "Hermine Santrouschitz gaat naar school in Amsterdam",
                        "name_en": "Hermine Santrouschitz goes to school in Amsterdam",
                        "content": "<p>Hermine Santrouschitz, better known as Miep Gies, went to the&nbsp;<em>Openbare Lagere School IIe Klasse voor Jongens &amp; Meisjes No. 4 (&#39;Public primary School, 2de class, for boys and girls&#39;)</em>, at Maresingel in Leiden&nbsp;from&nbsp;<strong>1920 </strong>to <strong>1924</strong>. The school was probably situated on the corner of Maresingel and Marnixstraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8l6qx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The building was demolished in the early 1990s.<sup data-footnote-id=\"duoq6\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;After the Nieuwenburg family moved to Amsterdam, Miep briefly went to the Boumanschool.&nbsp;The Boumanschool was on the corner of Hendrik de Keijserstraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3bc7c\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;The building is still there and now has number 246.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3w7kf\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;It currently (2010) houses the Lyc&eacute;e Vincent van Gogh.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pp35h\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>A report for the school year <strong>1923-1924</strong>&nbsp;was preserved. Given the date of the family&#39;s move, Miep switched to this school in the <strong>middle of May</strong>. This is the &#39;Report on Hermine Santrouschitz&#39; for the school year <strong>1923-1924</strong> of the Boumanschool, public school for extended primary education 1st class, Rustenburgerstraat 164. The report was drawn up on<strong> 29 July 1924</strong> and concerns the sixth year. The scale is 1-5.<sup data-footnote-id=\"maild\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Reading 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Writing&nbsp;4</li>\r\n\t<li>Arithmatic 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Dutch 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>History 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Geography 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Drawing 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Gymnastics 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Handicrafts 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Behaviour 5</li>\r\n\t<li>Diligence 5</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Teacher C.E. ten Cate noted: &#39;Goes without exam to the 4-year U.L.O.&#39; A mistake or a misunderstanding, because Miep went to the 3-year ULO.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to her foster parents, Miep went from the Boumanschool to the 3-year MULO on&nbsp;Mauritskade.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7t0iy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;This was the Th&eacute;r&egrave;se Schwartzeschool, Mauritskade 24, incidentally a 4-year ULO, with L.M.C. Brugman as its principal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2xtkj\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;Miep&#39;s foster parents used the term MULO, from the 1857 Education Act, which had officially been changed to ULO in <strong>1920</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0bcnu\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8l6qx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"duoq6\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>E-mail Lida Jansen, 16 maart 2010.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3bc7c\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten, inv. nr. 308: Woningkaart Rustenburgerstraat 164. Jaren later is de school verhuisd naar de hoek Verbindingsstraat-Van Ostadestraat. Dit pand is, zoals op de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief blijkt, inmiddels afgebroken.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3w7kf\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bron: Google Streetview.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pp35h\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: <a href=\"https://lfvvg.com/\" target=\"_blank\">https://lfvvg.com/</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 5 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"maild\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_031: &nbsp;Rapport van Hermine Santrouschitz schooljaar 1923/24.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7t0iy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939. Zij noemden in deze verklaring de Boumanschool niet. Volgens dezelfde verklaring ging Miep na deze school werken bij Schellekens. Dat betekent dat ze in de leeftijd van ongeveer 15 tot 18 jaar de ULO volgde. Volgens Jacques Dane van het Onderwijsmuseum kwam het wel meer voor dat leerlingen pas later naar het voortgezet onderwijs gingen. Dit kon zijn wegens langdurige ziekte of om een betere positie op de arbeidsmarkt te krijgen (e-mail 2 september 2010).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2xtkj\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em>, 71ste jaargang 1924-1925, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp;amp; Co., p. 30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0bcnu\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: <a href=\"http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meer_uitgebreid_lager_onderwijs\" target=\"_blank\">http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meer_uitgebreid_lager_onderwijs</a> (geraadpleegd 5 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Hermine Santrouschitz, beter bekend als Miep Gies, zat in de jaren <strong>1920-1924</strong> op de <em>Openbare Lagere School IIe Klasse voor Jongens &amp; Meisjes No. 4</em> aan de Maresingel in Leiden. Waarschijnlijk stond deze school op de hoek van de Maresingel en de Marnixstraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8l6qx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Dit gebouw is begin jaren negentig afgebroken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"duoq6\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Na de verhuizing van de familie Nieuwenburg naar Amsterdam ging&nbsp;Miep&nbsp;kort naar de Boumanschool.&nbsp;De Boumanschool stond op de hoek van de Hendrik de Keijserstraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3bc7c\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het gebouw is er nog en heeft nu nummer 246.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3w7kf\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het huisvest momenteel (2010) het Lyc&eacute;e Vincent van Gogh.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pp35h\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Er is een rapport voor het schooljaar <strong>1923-1924</strong> bewaard gebleven. Gezien de datum van de&nbsp;verhuizing&nbsp;heeft zij de school pas vanaf <strong>half mei</strong> bezocht.&nbsp;Dit is het <em>Verslag aangaande Hermine Santrouschitz</em> voor het schooljaar <strong>1923-1924</strong> van de <em>Boumanschool, openbare school voor uitgebreid lager onderwijs 1ste klasse</em>, Rustenburgerstraat 164. Het rapport is opgemaakt op <strong>29 juli 1924</strong> en betreft de zesde klas. De schaal is 1-5.<sup data-footnote-id=\"maild\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Lezen 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Schrijven 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Rekenen 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Nederlandsch 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Geschiedenis 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Aardrijkskunde 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Tekenen 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Gymnastiek 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Handwerken 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Gedrag 5</li>\r\n\t<li>Vlijt 5</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Onderwijzeres C.E. ten Cate tekende aan: &#39;<em>Gaat zonder examen naar 4j. U.L.O.&#39;</em>&nbsp;Een vergissing of een misverstand, want Miep ging naar de 3-jarige ULO.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens haar pleegouders ging Miep van de Boumanschool naar de 3-jarige MULO aan de Mauritskade.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7t0iy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Daar was de Th&eacute;r&egrave;se Schwartzeschool, Mauritskade 24, overigens een 4-jarige ULO, met als schoolhoofd L.M.C. Brugman.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2xtkj\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De pleegouders gebruikten de term MULO, die afkomstig is uit de Onderwijswet van 1857, maar die in <strong>1920</strong> officieel is veranderd in ULO.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0bcnu\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8l6qx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"duoq6\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>E-mail Lida Jansen, 16 maart 2010.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3bc7c\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten, inv. nr. 308: Woningkaart Rustenburgerstraat 164. Jaren later is de school verhuisd naar de hoek Verbindingsstraat-Van Ostadestraat. Dit pand is, zoals op de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief blijkt, inmiddels afgebroken.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3w7kf\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bron: Google Streetview.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pp35h\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: <a href=\"https://lfvvg.com/\" target=\"_blank\">https://lfvvg.com/</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 5 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"maild\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_031: &nbsp;Rapport van Hermine Santrouschitz schooljaar 1923/24.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7t0iy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939. Zij noemden in deze verklaring de Boumanschool niet. Volgens dezelfde verklaring ging Miep na deze school werken bij Schellekens. Dat betekent dat ze in de leeftijd van ongeveer 15 tot 18 jaar de ULO volgde. Volgens Jacques Dane van het Onderwijsmuseum kwam het wel meer voor dat leerlingen pas later naar het voortgezet onderwijs gingen. Dit kon zijn wegens langdurige ziekte of om een betere positie op de arbeidsmarkt te krijgen (e-mail 2 september 2010).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2xtkj\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em>, 71ste jaargang 1924-1925, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp;amp; Co., p. 30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0bcnu\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: <a href=\"http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meer_uitgebreid_lager_onderwijs\" target=\"_blank\">http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meer_uitgebreid_lager_onderwijs</a> (geraadpleegd 5 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>Hermine Santrouschitz, better known as Miep Gies, went to the&nbsp;<em>Openbare Lagere School IIe Klasse voor Jongens &amp; Meisjes No. 4 (&#39;Public primary School, 2de class, for boys and girls&#39;)</em>, at Maresingel in Leiden&nbsp;from&nbsp;<strong>1920 </strong>to <strong>1924</strong>. The school was probably situated on the corner of Maresingel and Marnixstraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8l6qx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The building was demolished in the early 1990s.<sup data-footnote-id=\"duoq6\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;After the Nieuwenburg family moved to Amsterdam, Miep briefly went to the Boumanschool.&nbsp;The Boumanschool was on the corner of Hendrik de Keijserstraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3bc7c\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;The building is still there and now has number 246.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3w7kf\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;It currently (2010) houses the Lyc&eacute;e Vincent van Gogh.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pp35h\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>A report for the school year <strong>1923-1924</strong>&nbsp;was preserved. Given the date of the family&#39;s move, Miep switched to this school in the <strong>middle of May</strong>. This is the &#39;Report on Hermine Santrouschitz&#39; for the school year <strong>1923-1924</strong> of the Boumanschool, public school for extended primary education 1st class, Rustenburgerstraat 164. The report was drawn up on<strong> 29 July 1924</strong> and concerns the sixth year. The scale is 1-5.<sup data-footnote-id=\"maild\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Reading 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Writing&nbsp;4</li>\r\n\t<li>Arithmatic 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Dutch 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>History 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Geography 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Drawing 4</li>\r\n\t<li>Gymnastics 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Handicrafts 3&frac12;</li>\r\n\t<li>Behaviour 5</li>\r\n\t<li>Diligence 5</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Teacher C.E. ten Cate noted: &#39;Goes without exam to the 4-year U.L.O.&#39; A mistake or a misunderstanding, because Miep went to the 3-year ULO.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to her foster parents, Miep went from the Boumanschool to the 3-year MULO on&nbsp;Mauritskade.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7t0iy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;This was the Th&eacute;r&egrave;se Schwartzeschool, Mauritskade 24, incidentally a 4-year ULO, with L.M.C. Brugman as its principal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2xtkj\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;Miep&#39;s foster parents used the term MULO, from the 1857 Education Act, which had officially been changed to ULO in <strong>1920</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0bcnu\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8l6qx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"duoq6\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>E-mail Lida Jansen, 16 maart 2010.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3bc7c\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten, inv. nr. 308: Woningkaart Rustenburgerstraat 164. Jaren later is de school verhuisd naar de hoek Verbindingsstraat-Van Ostadestraat. Dit pand is, zoals op de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief blijkt, inmiddels afgebroken.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3w7kf\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bron: Google Streetview.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pp35h\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: <a href=\"https://lfvvg.com/\" target=\"_blank\">https://lfvvg.com/</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 5 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"maild\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Gies_I_031: &nbsp;Rapport van Hermine Santrouschitz schooljaar 1923/24.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7t0iy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Gies_I_018: Verklaring Nieuwenburg-Moene inzake naturalisatie, 8 juni 1939. Zij noemden in deze verklaring de Boumanschool niet. Volgens dezelfde verklaring ging Miep na deze school werken bij Schellekens. Dat betekent dat ze in de leeftijd van ongeveer 15 tot 18 jaar de ULO volgde. Volgens Jacques Dane van het Onderwijsmuseum kwam het wel meer voor dat leerlingen pas later naar het voortgezet onderwijs gingen. Dit kon zijn wegens langdurige ziekte of om een betere positie op de arbeidsmarkt te krijgen (e-mail 2 september 2010).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2xtkj\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em>, 71ste jaargang 1924-1925, Amsterdam: Ellerman, Harms &amp;amp; Co., p. 30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0bcnu\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie: <a href=\"http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meer_uitgebreid_lager_onderwijs\" target=\"_blank\">http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meer_uitgebreid_lager_onderwijs</a> (geraadpleegd 5 september 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": "1924-07-29",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "After moving to Amsterdam, Hermine switched to a school there.",
                        "summary_nl": "Na de verhuizing naar Amsterdam vervolgde Hermine daar haar schoolcarrière.",
                        "summary_en": "After moving to Amsterdam, Hermine switched to a school there.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124416,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/bb812692-213a-4024-9860-a7909f985762/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "bb812692-213a-4024-9860-a7909f985762",
                        "name": "Schools",
                        "name_nl": "Scholen",
                        "name_en": "Schools",
                        "description": "",
                        "description_nl": "",
                        "description_en": "",
                        "summary": "Schools are institutions where education is provided.",
                        "summary_nl": "Scholen zijn instellingen waar onderwijs gegeven wordt.",
                        "summary_en": "Schools are institutions where education is provided.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2390"
                        ],
                        "parent": 396124547,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "related_locations": [
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/81dac615-56bf-4a80-8ca2-cea1cbad240f",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/889ae572-cc0a-4847-b3c9-3bf177af8ecc",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/aa1aadb9-29de-4510-8a6f-dea38cace179",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c90db340-8328-42bf-ac00-f447f3299bbd",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/663c8bc9-dc5c-4dd1-bced-88ce12738280",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c4260f04-7551-463d-89f5-a7ce48eeecd3",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/aa7d60c3-6d94-4f52-a729-96440eeb4d5f"
                ],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/c22d7f02-9e97-4dc3-a7cf-388ac0bcd8de/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Boumanschool",
                "name_nl": "Boumanschool",
                "name_en": "Boumanschool",
                "uuid": "c22d7f02-9e97-4dc3-a7cf-388ac0bcd8de",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89774 52.35255)",
                "summary": "Miep Gies attended the Boumanschool after moving to Amsterdam with her foster parents. \r\nThe building still exists and is now number 246.",
                "summary_nl": "Miep Gies ging na haar verhuizing met haar pleegouders naar Amsterdam naar de Boumanschool. ​\r\nHet gebouw bestaat nog en heeft nu nummer 246.\r\n​",
                "summary_en": "Miep Gies attended the Boumanschool after moving to Amsterdam with her foster parents. \r\nThe building still exists and is now number 246.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Rustenburgerstraat 164",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    205
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 163,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1078,
                    "uuid": "5765e71f-6157-4ac1-b4d0-2f9733235768",
                    "name": "012_008",
                    "title": "Uitzicht vanuit Prinsengracht 263 op de brug over de Bloemgracht, 1954",
                    "alt": "Maria Austria. Maria Austria Instituut Amsterdam",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/012_008_brug_over_bloemgracht.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "In copyright (rechten derden)"
                },
                "latitude": "52.37523",
                "longitude": "4.883286",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 163,
                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1060,
                            "uuid": "60834823-1faa-4d3f-a84f-e1563fb27687",
                            "name": "B_Diversen_B_009",
                            "title": "Brug over Bloemgracht bij Prinsengracht",
                            "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/NL_AsdAFS_MCAF_B-Diversen-I_0009_0001.jpg",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/34bdfcf8-0991-4cdb-adff-8daf1d7b429e/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/2abdc9fe-b0e6-493d-a6cd-a8fd85baabd7",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/7308791d-5bce-455d-9f37-a512450e8951"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/f2004ab1-f62f-43c5-9864-18eea838d81e",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/bb316e57-dfee-461d-9042-d2afff20bd52"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/36c258e4-4437-4030-ae0b-09f4c4906dfe",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "34bdfcf8-0991-4cdb-adff-8daf1d7b429e",
                        "name": "Jan Gies witnessed the arrest",
                        "name_nl": "Jan Gies was getuige van de arrestatie",
                        "name_en": "Jan Gies witnessed the arrest",
                        "content": "<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<p>Jan Gies arrived at the Opekta office as he did every day around noon for lunch, but his wife Miep Gies sent him away again immediately. He was able to escape unhindered, and he also stated that he did not see any SD officers. He returned to his office on Marnixstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>There he considered his options&nbsp;and decided to inform Kleiman&#39;s brother, who worked at Paauwe&#39;s firm on Bloemgracht. Together, from the bridge at Prinsengracht, they watched the rest of what happened. He saw a dark-coloured van parked in front of the building, which apparently had not been there before. He believed this was an Amsterdam police detention van, and in any case not a German vehicle.</p>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>",
                        "content_nl": "<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<p>Jan Gies arriveerde zoals elke dag rond twaalf uur op het kantoor van Opekta voor het middageten, maar zijn vrouw Miep Gies stuurde hem direct weer weg. Hij kon ongehinderd ontkomen, en hij verklaarde ook geen SD&rsquo;ers te hebben gezien. Hij keerde terug naar zijn kantoor aan de Marnixstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Daar overlegde hij met zichzelf wat te doen en besloot Kleimans broer in te lichten, die bij de firma Paauwe aan de Bloemgracht werkte. Samen sloegen ze vanaf de brug bij de Prinsengracht het verdere verloop gade. Hij zag een donkerkleurige bestelwagen voor het pand geparkeerd staan, die er blijkbaar eerder nog niet was. Hij meende dat dit een arrestantenwagen van de Amsterdamse politie was, en in ieder geval geen Duits voertuig.</p>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>",
                        "content_en": "<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<p>Jan Gies arrived at the Opekta office as he did every day around noon for lunch, but his wife Miep Gies sent him away again immediately. He was able to escape unhindered, and he also stated that he did not see any SD officers. He returned to his office on Marnixstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>There he considered his options&nbsp;and decided to inform Kleiman&#39;s brother, who worked at Paauwe&#39;s firm on Bloemgracht. Together, from the bridge at Prinsengracht, they watched the rest of what happened. He saw a dark-coloured van parked in front of the building, which apparently had not been there before. He believed this was an Amsterdam police detention van, and in any case not a German vehicle.</p>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>",
                        "date": "1944-08-04",
                        "date_start": null,
                        "date_end": null,
                        "summary": "After Jan Gies heard that the SD was at Opekta, he and Johannes Kleiman's brother tried to see what was happening from across the canal. They saw the people in hiding and the helpers put into a van for detainees and driven away.",
                        "summary_nl": "Nadat Jan Gies had gehoord dat de SD bij Opekta was, probeerde hij met de broer van Johannes Kleiman vanaf de overkant van de gracht te zien wat er gebeurde. Ze zagen de onderduikers en helpers in een arrestantenwagen stappen en wegrijden.",
                        "summary_en": "After Jan Gies heard that the SD was at Opekta, he and Johannes Kleiman's brother tried to see what was happening from across the canal. They saw the people in hiding and the helpers put into a van for detainees and driven away.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [],
                "related_locations": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/36c258e4-4437-4030-ae0b-09f4c4906dfe/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "The bridge over Bloemgracht Canal",
                "name_nl": "Brug over de Bloemgracht",
                "name_en": "The bridge over Bloemgracht Canal",
                "uuid": "36c258e4-4437-4030-ae0b-09f4c4906dfe",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.883286 52.37523)",
                "summary": "Here, Jan Gies witnessed the arrest of the people in hiding in the Secret Annex.",
                "summary_nl": "Hier was Jan Gies getuige van de arrestatie van de onderduikers in het Achterhuis.",
                "summary_en": "Here, Jan Gies witnessed the arrest of the people in hiding in the Secret Annex.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Prinsengracht",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "",
                "location_events": [
                    163
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        },
        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 173,
                "files": [],
                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1087,
                    "uuid": "006ae213-5fa4-4ce9-aeda-be627a4370f3",
                    "name": "012000008360",
                    "title": "Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam, rond 1930",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/012000008360_2uEXLR8.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                },
                "latitude": "52.363805",
                "longitude": "4.889798",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 249,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/70959786-0cfa-4ff1-8020-1efb44e8a983/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5e0db544-bb56-42cc-9e37-255ea32cc3a4",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/3c09bdb5-077e-4e4e-b3a2-252548326ccc",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b1f2828-0f9d-49a0-bf55-869b818e76ab",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/2cef6f9d-6c1a-4879-a71c-1de745d5eb52"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/1a319571-a93e-4566-9396-a4d6e61833ed",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "70959786-0cfa-4ff1-8020-1efb44e8a983",
                        "name": "Johannes Kleiman worked at Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie",
                        "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkzaam bij de Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie",
                        "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman worked at Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie",
                        "content": "<p>On <strong>19 November 1923</strong>, the <em>Continentale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie</em> was founded in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kdes8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> To obtain Royal Assent, at&nbsp;government instructions on <strong>15 January 1924</strong>, the name was changed to <em>Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c41yu\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Royal assent was granted on <strong>31 January 1924</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e5e4k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>28 February 1924</strong>, the <em>Staatscourant </em>(Government Gazette) published a notification regarding the foundation of the <em>N.V. Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"xxmfo\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nThe company was located at Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam, and its directors were Jacques Heuskin and Jo Kleiman. Its object was: <em>The pursuit of credit business and trade in the broadest sense of the word.</em> The authorised capital was NLG&nbsp;200,000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4x0m9\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The supervisory directors to be appointed by the board of directors were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>A.E. von Saher, Amsterdam.</li>\r\n\t<li>Dr Th. Metz, Frankfurt am Main.</li>\r\n\t<li>Albert Reinhard, Luxembourg.</li>\r\n\t<li>Paul Stanfield, London.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x7ry5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Brief timeline of the company:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li><strong>25 June 1925</strong> Heuskin resigned as director. The company address became Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21, Amsterdam (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"mc0ve\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>2 July 1927</strong> Metz became&nbsp;supervisory director&nbsp;(again?).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ssu25\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>17 July 1928</strong> the address became Frederik Hendrikstraat 24, Amsterdam (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"g61l9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>12 March 1929</strong> the address became Thomsonlaan 25, Haarlem (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"70822\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>23 June 1933</strong> the address became Generaal Vetterstraat 40 I, Amsterdam (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"lrnmm\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>6 December 1933</strong> Metz stepped&nbsp;down as supervisory director. Otto Frank succeeded&nbsp;him the same day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrqjp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 March 1934</strong> the firm moved&nbsp;to Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal 120-126, Amsterdam (where Opekta was also located).<sup data-footnote-id=\"zu1tz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>22 March 1935</strong> the address again became General Vetterstraat 40, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kysq4\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In early <strong>1938</strong> the company moved to Lange Houtstraat 6 in The Hague.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5efpd\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>The <em>Algemeen adresboek der stad Amsterdam </em>(General Address Book of the City of Amsterdam) of <strong>1938-1939</strong> still listed the company at Singel 400, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yzfu1\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> However, the Trade Register did not mention that address, nor did the address book of the previous year.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nThe <em>Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie in Chemische Producten</em> was established at the address Lange Houtstraat 6 in The Hague on <strong>20 June 1938</strong>. No records have yet been encountered indicating any involvement of Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman. <sup data-footnote-id=\"x691b\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kdes8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 1; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, toegang 448, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c41yu\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel<em> </em>Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 11; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e5e4k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel<em> </em>Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 12; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xxmfo\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4x0m9\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874: Akteletter a, 9 april 1924.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x7ry5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 3; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mc0ve\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874: Akteletter c, 25 juni 1925.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ssu25\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter d, 2 juli 1927.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g61l9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter e, 17 juli 1928.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"70822\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter f, 12 mei 1929.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lrnmm\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter g, 23 juni 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrqjp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletters j en k, 6 december 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zu1tz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter m, 15 maart 1934.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kysq4\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter n, 22 maart 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5efpd\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter o, 8 februari 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yzfu1\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen adresboek der stad Amsterdam</em>&nbsp;1938-1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x691b\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Handelsregister Den Haag, toegang 3.17.13.03, inv. nr. 1173, dossier 25511.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Op <strong>19 november 1923</strong> werd in Amsterdam de <em>Continentale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie</em> opgericht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kdes8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Om de Koninklijke bewilliging te krijgen, werd op aanwijzing van regeringswege op <strong>15 januari 1924</strong>&nbsp;de naam gewijzigd in <em>Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c41yu\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Op <strong>31 januari 1924</strong> werd de Koninklijke bewilliging verleend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e5e4k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op <strong>28 februari 1924</strong> publiceerde de <em>Staatscourant</em> de oprichting van de <em>N.V. Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"xxmfo\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;Verschillende zakenrelaties van Otto Frank waren bij dit bedrijf betrokken, onder wie Th. Metz, die ook in Frankfurt had gewoond. Toen Otto in <strong>1933</strong> in Amsterdam kwam wonen,&nbsp;volgde hij hem op als commissaris bij dit bedrijf.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De vennootschap was gevestigd op Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam&nbsp;en de directeuren waren Jacques Heuskin en Jo Kleiman.&nbsp;Doel was: <em>De uitoefening van het credietbedrijf, alsmede den handel in den ruimsten zin des woords.</em>&nbsp;Het maatschappelijk kapitaal bedroeg fl. 200.000,-.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4x0m9\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De commissarissen die de directie moesten benoemen waren:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>A.E. von Saher, Amsterdam.</li>\r\n\t<li>Dr. Th. Metz, Frankfurt am Main.</li>\r\n\t<li>Albert Reinhard, Luxemburg.</li>\r\n\t<li>Paul Stanfield, London.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x7ry5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Korte tijdlijn van het bedrijf:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li><strong>25 juni 1925</strong> Heuskin vertrekt als directeur. Het bedrijfsadres werd (Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres) Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mc0ve\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>2 juli 1927</strong> Metz wordt (opnieuw?) commissaris.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ssu25\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>17 juli 1928</strong> het adres wordt Frederik Hendrikstraat 24, Amsterdam (Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres).<sup data-footnote-id=\"g61l9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>12 maart 1929</strong> het adres wordt Thomsonlaan 25, Haarlem (Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres).<sup data-footnote-id=\"70822\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>23 juni 1933</strong> het adres wordt&nbsp;Generaal Vetterstraat 40 I, Amsterdam&nbsp;(Kleimans priv&eacute;-adres).<sup data-footnote-id=\"lrnmm\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>6 december 1933</strong> Metz treedt terug als commissaris. Otto Frank volgt&nbsp;hem dezelfde dag op.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrqjp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 maart 1934</strong> de firma verhuist&nbsp;naar Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal 120-126, Amsterdam (waar ook Opekta gevestigd is).<sup data-footnote-id=\"zu1tz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>22 maart 1935</strong> het adres wordt opnieuw Generaal Vetterstraat 40, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kysq4\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Begin <strong>1938</strong> het bedrijf verhuist&nbsp;naar de Lange Houtstraat 6 in Den Haag.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5efpd\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup>&nbsp;</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Het <em>Algemeen adresboek der stad Amsterdam</em> van <strong>1938-1939</strong>&nbsp;vermeldde het bedrijf nog op Singel 400, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yzfu1\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> Het Handelsregister vermeldde dat adres echter niet, en het adresboek van het vorige jaar evenmin.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op het adres Lange Houtstraat 6 in Den Haag werd op <strong>20 juni 1938</strong> de <em>Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie in Chemische Producten</em> gevestigd. Er zijn vooralsnog geen gegevens die duiden op enige betrokkenheid van Otto Frank en Jo Kleiman. <sup data-footnote-id=\"x691b\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kdes8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 1; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, toegang 448, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c41yu\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel<em> </em>Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 11; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e5e4k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel<em> </em>Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 12; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xxmfo\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4x0m9\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874: Akteletter a, 9 april 1924.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x7ry5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 3; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mc0ve\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874: Akteletter c, 25 juni 1925.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ssu25\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter d, 2 juli 1927.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g61l9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter e, 17 juli 1928.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"70822\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter f, 12 mei 1929.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lrnmm\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter g, 23 juni 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrqjp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletters j en k, 6 december 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zu1tz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter m, 15 maart 1934.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kysq4\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter n, 22 maart 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5efpd\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter o, 8 februari 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yzfu1\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen adresboek der stad Amsterdam</em>&nbsp;1938-1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x691b\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Handelsregister Den Haag, toegang 3.17.13.03, inv. nr. 1173, dossier 25511.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>On <strong>19 November 1923</strong>, the <em>Continentale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie</em> was founded in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kdes8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> To obtain Royal Assent, at&nbsp;government instructions on <strong>15 January 1924</strong>, the name was changed to <em>Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"c41yu\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Royal assent was granted on <strong>31 January 1924</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e5e4k\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> On <strong>28 February 1924</strong>, the <em>Staatscourant </em>(Government Gazette) published a notification regarding the foundation of the <em>N.V. Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"xxmfo\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nThe company was located at Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam, and its directors were Jacques Heuskin and Jo Kleiman. Its object was: <em>The pursuit of credit business and trade in the broadest sense of the word.</em> The authorised capital was NLG&nbsp;200,000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4x0m9\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The supervisory directors to be appointed by the board of directors were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>A.E. von Saher, Amsterdam.</li>\r\n\t<li>Dr Th. Metz, Frankfurt am Main.</li>\r\n\t<li>Albert Reinhard, Luxembourg.</li>\r\n\t<li>Paul Stanfield, London.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x7ry5\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Brief timeline of the company:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li><strong>25 June 1925</strong> Heuskin resigned as director. The company address became Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21, Amsterdam (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"mc0ve\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>2 July 1927</strong> Metz became&nbsp;supervisory director&nbsp;(again?).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ssu25\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>17 July 1928</strong> the address became Frederik Hendrikstraat 24, Amsterdam (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"g61l9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>12 March 1929</strong> the address became Thomsonlaan 25, Haarlem (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"70822\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>23 June 1933</strong> the address became Generaal Vetterstraat 40 I, Amsterdam (Kleiman&#39;s private address).<sup data-footnote-id=\"lrnmm\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>6 December 1933</strong> Metz stepped&nbsp;down as supervisory director. Otto Frank succeeded&nbsp;him the same day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vrqjp\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 March 1934</strong> the firm moved&nbsp;to Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal 120-126, Amsterdam (where Opekta was also located).<sup data-footnote-id=\"zu1tz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>22 March 1935</strong> the address again became General Vetterstraat 40, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kysq4\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In early <strong>1938</strong> the company moved to Lange Houtstraat 6 in The Hague.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5efpd\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>The <em>Algemeen adresboek der stad Amsterdam </em>(General Address Book of the City of Amsterdam) of <strong>1938-1939</strong> still listed the company at Singel 400, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yzfu1\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> However, the Trade Register did not mention that address, nor did the address book of the previous year.<br />\r\n<br />\r\nThe <em>Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie in Chemische Producten</em> was established at the address Lange Houtstraat 6 in The Hague on <strong>20 June 1938</strong>. No records have yet been encountered indicating any involvement of Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman. <sup data-footnote-id=\"x691b\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kdes8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 1; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, toegang 448, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"c41yu\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel<em> </em>Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 11; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e5e4k\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel<em> </em>Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 12; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xxmfo\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4x0m9\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874: Akteletter a, 9 april 1924.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x7ry5\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijvoegsel Staatscourant, 28 februari 1924, p. 3; NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mc0ve\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Amsterdam, inv. nr. 430, dossier 19874: Akteletter c, 25 juni 1925.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ssu25\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter d, 2 juli 1927.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g61l9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter e, 17 juli 1928.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"70822\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter f, 12 mei 1929.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lrnmm\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter g, 23 juni 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vrqjp\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletters j en k, 6 december 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zu1tz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter m, 15 maart 1934.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kysq4\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter n, 22 maart 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5efpd\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ibidem: Akteletter o, 8 februari 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yzfu1\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen adresboek der stad Amsterdam</em>&nbsp;1938-1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x691b\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Handelsregister Den Haag, toegang 3.17.13.03, inv. nr. 1173, dossier 25511.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1923-11-19",
                        "date_end": "1938-02-08",
                        "summary": "Johannes Kleiman worked at the Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie (Central Company for Trade and Industry). Several of Otto Frank's business associates were involved in this company, including Th. Metz, who had also lived in Frankfurt. When Otto came to live in Amsterdam in 1933, he succeeded him as supervisory director of this company.",
                        "summary_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkte bij de Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie. Otto Frank was commissaris bij dit bedrijf.",
                        "summary_en": "Johannes Kleiman worked at the Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie (Central Company for Trade and Industry). Several of Otto Frank's business associates were involved in this company, including Th. Metz, who had also lived in Frankfurt. When Otto came to live in Amsterdam in 1933, he succeeded him as supervisory director of this company.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 312,
                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1096,
                            "uuid": "707d29eb-58d5-4cdf-b587-4fc002e220a4",
                            "name": "Michael Frank & Zonen",
                            "title": "Michael Frank & Zonen, ontwerp 'Inserrat'.",
                            "alt": "Institut für Stadtgeschichte, Frankfurt am Main.",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Inserrat.PNG",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "Advertentie ('Inserrat') in archief Industrie- und Handelskammer, inv. nr. 177.",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/2854cc8b-52c9-4453-8a07-7522f54eb6c5/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/959f8b47-ce9c-47c8-aefa-bd5149114a4d",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/d4cc4fa5-8701-4923-95a9-77a0e4cf4f00",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/3c09bdb5-077e-4e4e-b3a2-252548326ccc",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b1f2828-0f9d-49a0-bf55-869b818e76ab",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/1a319571-a93e-4566-9396-a4d6e61833ed",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "2854cc8b-52c9-4453-8a07-7522f54eb6c5",
                        "name": "Johannes Kleiman works with Michael Frank & Zonen",
                        "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkzaam bij Michael Frank & Zonen",
                        "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman works with Michael Frank & Zonen",
                        "content": "<p>On&nbsp;<strong>23 May 1924</strong>, Johannes Kleiman and Jacques Heuskin obtained a joint power of attorney for <em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em>, the Amsterdam branch of <em>Michael Frank Bankgesch&auml;ft</em>&nbsp;from Frankfurt am Main. They were authorised for sums up to fl. 20,000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em> moved to Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21 in Amsterdam, the home address of Kleiman. By then, the business was in the process of being liquidated. On account of Heuskin&#39;s dismissal, Kleinman was given full power of attorney.&nbsp;This change was registered with the Chamber of Commerce on <strong>21 July 1925</strong>. Kleiman and&nbsp;<em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em>&nbsp;then moved to Frederik Hendrikstraat 24 in&nbsp;Amsterdam. This change was registered on <strong>23 July 1928</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kleiman remained in office until the dissolution of the firm, which was registered on <strong>12 February 1929</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, Archief Anne Frank 212c-6a: Kopie Handelsregisterdossier 19006. Volgens zijn dochter maakte Kleiman in de tijd dat hij bij Patijn en Van Notten werkte kennis met Otto Frank.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>Op <strong>23 mei 1924</strong> kreeg Johannes Kleiman met Jacques Heuskin een collectieve volmacht voor de firma <em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em>, het Amsterdamse filiaal van het <em>Michael Frank Bankgesch&auml;ft</em> uit Frankfurt am Main. Ze waren bevoegd tot fl. 20.000,=.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em> verhuisde&nbsp;naar de Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21 in&nbsp;Amsterdam, het huisadres van Kleiman. De zaak was toen al in liquidatie. Kleiman kreeg vanwege het ontslag van Heuskin algemene volmacht. Die wijziging werd op <strong>21 juli 1925</strong> ingeschreven bij de Kamer van Koophandel. Vervolgens verhuisden&nbsp;Kleiman en <em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em>&nbsp;naar de Frederik Hendrikstraat 24, Amsterdam. Die wijziging werd op <strong>23 juli 1928</strong> ingeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kleiman bleef in functie tot de opheffing van de zaak, die op <strong>12 februari 1929</strong> werd ingeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, Archief Anne Frank 212c-6a: Kopie Handelsregisterdossier 19006. Volgens zijn dochter maakte Kleiman in de tijd dat hij bij Patijn en Van Notten werkte kennis met Otto Frank.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>On&nbsp;<strong>23 May 1924</strong>, Johannes Kleiman and Jacques Heuskin obtained a joint power of attorney for <em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em>, the Amsterdam branch of <em>Michael Frank Bankgesch&auml;ft</em>&nbsp;from Frankfurt am Main. They were authorised for sums up to fl. 20,000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em> moved to Rombout Hogerbeetsstraat 21 in Amsterdam, the home address of Kleiman. By then, the business was in the process of being liquidated. On account of Heuskin&#39;s dismissal, Kleinman was given full power of attorney.&nbsp;This change was registered with the Chamber of Commerce on <strong>21 July 1925</strong>. Kleiman and&nbsp;<em>Michael Frank &amp; Zonen</em>&nbsp;then moved to Frederik Hendrikstraat 24 in&nbsp;Amsterdam. This change was registered on <strong>23 July 1928</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kleiman remained in office until the dissolution of the firm, which was registered on <strong>12 February 1929</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8qp0t\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, Amsterdam, Archief Anne Frank 212c-6a: Kopie Handelsregisterdossier 19006. Volgens zijn dochter maakte Kleiman in de tijd dat hij bij Patijn en Van Notten werkte kennis met Otto Frank.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1924-05-23",
                        "date_end": "1929-02-12",
                        "summary": "In addition to their work for the Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie, Kleiman and Heuskin also held positions with the firm of Michael Frank & Zonen.",
                        "summary_nl": "Behalve in de Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel & Industrie hadden Kleiman en Heuskin ook functies bij de firma Michael Frank & Zonen.",
                        "summary_en": "In addition to their work for the Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie, Kleiman and Heuskin also held positions with the firm of Michael Frank & Zonen.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124419,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "same_as": [
                            "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                        ],
                        "parent": null,
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/1a319571-a93e-4566-9396-a4d6e61833ed/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie",
                "name_nl": "Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie",
                "name_en": "Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie",
                "uuid": "1a319571-a93e-4566-9396-a4d6e61833ed",
                "content": "",
                "content_nl": "",
                "content_en": "",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.889798 52.363805)",
                "summary": "The company Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie was located at Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam. The directors were Johannes Kleiman and Jacques Heuskin.",
                "summary_nl": "De vennootschap Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie was gevestigd op Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam. De directeuren waren Johannes Kleiman en Jacques Heuskin. Dit was ook het adres van M. Frank en Zonen.",
                "summary_en": "The company Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie was located at Keizersgracht 604, Amsterdam. The directors were Johannes Kleiman and Jacques Heuskin.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Keizersgracht 604",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
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                    "alt": "Fotograaf ANP. Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
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                    "description": "Bioscoop Cineac, gezien naar de hal. Datering 1948.",
                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
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                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name": "Cineac Damrak",
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                "content": "<p>Cinema on the Damrak.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1ie9z\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Path&eacute; opened the first <em>Cinema d&#39;Actualit&eacute;</em> in Paris in <strong>1934</strong>, a cinema where newsreels were shown continuously. On <strong>March 17, 1938</strong>, a branch opened on the Damrak in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rtq50\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Wim Bunjes, who was friends with Miep and Jan Gies, was a projectionist there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vso12\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1ie9z\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cineac_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cineac_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 12 november 2022)</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rtq50\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;1938 in beeld&#39;, fotografisch jaaroverzicht van het <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vso12\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 October 1942 (with 30 September 1942), in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Bioscoop op het Damrak.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1ie9z\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Path&eacute; opende in <strong>1934</strong> de eerste <em>Cinema d&rsquo;Actualit&eacute;</em>&nbsp;in Parijs, een bioscoop waar doorlopend filmjournaals werden vertoond.&nbsp;Op <strong>17 maart 1938</strong> opende een vestiging op het Damrak in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rtq50\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;De met Miep en Jan Gies bevriende Wim Bunjes was er filmoperateur.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vso12\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1ie9z\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cineac_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cineac_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 12 november 2022)</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rtq50\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;1938 in beeld&#39;, fotografisch jaaroverzicht van het <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vso12\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 6 oktober 1942 (bij 30 september 1942), in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Cinema on the Damrak.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1ie9z\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Path&eacute; opened the first <em>Cinema d&#39;Actualit&eacute;</em> in Paris in <strong>1934</strong>, a cinema where newsreels were shown continuously. On <strong>March 17, 1938</strong>, a branch opened on the Damrak in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rtq50\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Wim Bunjes, who was friends with Miep and Jan Gies, was a projectionist there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vso12\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1ie9z\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cineac_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cineac_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 12 november 2022)</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rtq50\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;1938 in beeld&#39;, fotografisch jaaroverzicht van het <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vso12\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 6 October 1942 (with 30 September 1942), in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.894911 52.374882)",
                "summary": "In a Cineac cinema, a continuous show alternated current affairs with documentaries and short films.",
                "summary_nl": "In een Cineac-bioscoop werden in een doorlopende voorstelling actualiteiten afgewisseld met documentaires en korte films.",
                "summary_en": "In a Cineac cinema, a continuous show alternated current affairs with documentaries and short films.",
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                "street": "Damrak",
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                "city": "Amsterdam",
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                "land": "Nederland",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
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                "name_en": "Delia Photo Studio",
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                "content": "<p><strong>Addresses:</strong>&nbsp;Merwedeplein 2a, Amsterdam (&rsquo;37); Waalstraat 45 (&rsquo;39); Noorder Amstellaan 92hs (maart &rsquo;42).<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The advertised activities of the studio were &#39;Photo School&#39;, &#39;Photo Studio&#39; and &#39;Photo Service&#39;. The company was founded on <strong>15 March 1937</strong> and registered on <strong>28 June 1937</strong> by Arnold Meyer and Gertrud Helene Posener.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;However, a number of photos of Margot and Anne Frank that were taken there predate the official registration.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n67q5\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938</strong>, Photo school Delia offered a practical course using a darkroom and studio at Merwedeplein 2a.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lv6f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was dissolved on <strong>1 January 1939</strong>. Posener continued the business alone in Waalstraat. From <strong>26 March 1940</strong>, Joachim Henry Emanuel Pinkus took part in the company. On <strong>17 March 1942</strong>, the studio moved to Noorder Amstellaan 92hs and was closed down by Omnia Treuhand on <strong>1 April 1943</strong>&nbsp;Pinkus restarted the business <strong>12 December 1945</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, toegang 448, inv. nr. 1122: dossier 50109.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n67q5\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijv. Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_AFrank_III_002: Foto van Anne Frank uit 1935;&nbsp; AFS, AFC, reg. code&nbsp;A_MFrank_III_042: Foto van Margot Frank, Amsterdam, 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lv6f1\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Diverse Lessen en Clubs&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 20 maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adressen:</strong>&nbsp;Merwedeplein 2a, Amsterdam (&rsquo;37); Waalstraat 45 (&rsquo;39); Noorder Amstellaan 92hs (maart &rsquo;42).<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De omschreven activiteiten van de studio waren Fotoschool&#39;, &#39;Foto-Atelier&#39;&nbsp;en &#39;Fotodienst&#39;. De vennootschap was opgericht op <strong>15 maart 1937</strong> en ingeschreven op <strong>28 juni 1937</strong> door Arnold Meyer en Gertrud Helene Posener.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Een aantal foto&#39;s van Margot en Anne Frank die daar zijn gemaakt dateren echter van voor de offici&euml;le inschrijving.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n67q5\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938 </strong>bood <em>Fotoschool Delia</em>&nbsp;een praktijkcursus met gebruik van donkere kamer en atelier aan, op het adres Merwedeplein 2a.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lv6f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>1 januari 1939</strong> werd de vennootschap ontbonden. Posener zette het bedrijf alleen voort in de Waalstraat. Vanaf <strong>26 maart 1940</strong> nam Joachim Henry Emanuel Pinkus aan het bedrijf deel. Op <strong>17 maart 1942</strong> verhuisde de studio naar Noorder Amstellaan 92hs en werd op <strong>1 april 1943</strong> door Omnia Treuhand&nbsp;opgeheven. Pinkus startte de zaak opnieuw op <strong>12 december 1945</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief , Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, toegang 448, inv. nr. 1122: dossier 50109.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n67q5\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijv. Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_AFrank_III_002: Foto van Anne Frank uit 1935;&nbsp; AFS, AFC, reg. code&nbsp;A_MFrank_III_042: Foto van Margot Frank, Amsterdam, 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lv6f1\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Diverse Lessen en Clubs&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 20 maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Addresses:</strong>&nbsp;Merwedeplein 2a, Amsterdam (&rsquo;37); Waalstraat 45 (&rsquo;39); Noorder Amstellaan 92hs (maart &rsquo;42).<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The advertised activities of the studio were &#39;Photo School&#39;, &#39;Photo Studio&#39; and &#39;Photo Service&#39;. The company was founded on <strong>15 March 1937</strong> and registered on <strong>28 June 1937</strong> by Arnold Meyer and Gertrud Helene Posener.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;However, a number of photos of Margot and Anne Frank that were taken there predate the official registration.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n67q5\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938</strong>, Photo school Delia offered a practical course using a darkroom and studio at Merwedeplein 2a.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lv6f1\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was dissolved on <strong>1 January 1939</strong>. Posener continued the business alone in Waalstraat. From <strong>26 March 1940</strong>, Joachim Henry Emanuel Pinkus took part in the company. On <strong>17 March 1942</strong>, the studio moved to Noorder Amstellaan 92hs and was closed down by Omnia Treuhand on <strong>1 April 1943</strong>&nbsp;Pinkus restarted the business <strong>12 December 1945</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jal3u\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-3\">c</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Amsterdam, toegang 448, inv. nr. 1122: dossier 50109.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n67q5\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bijv. Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_AFrank_III_002: Foto van Anne Frank uit 1935;&nbsp; AFS, AFC, reg. code&nbsp;A_MFrank_III_042: Foto van Margot Frank, Amsterdam, 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lv6f1\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Diverse Lessen en Clubs&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 20 maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n</div>\r\n</div>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.901683 52.345951)",
                "summary": "Photos of Margot and Anne Frank were taken at the Delia Photo Studio.",
                "summary_nl": "In de Delia Fotostudio zijn foto’s van Margot en Anne Frank gemaakt.",
                "summary_en": "Photos of Margot and Anne Frank were taken at the Delia Photo Studio.",
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                "street": "Merwedeplein 2a",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
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                        "name": "DLB-logo (1).png",
                        "title": "DLB Logo",
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                "latitude": "52.34494",
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                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 396124506,
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                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                        "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                        "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren &#39;30</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                        "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "parent": 396124553,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 396124575,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/5694b8f5-ed82-4489-ae60-9ba4b16d6312/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "5694b8f5-ed82-4489-ae60-9ba4b16d6312",
                        "name": "Leisure activities, Edith Frank",
                        "name_nl": "Vrijetijdsbesteding Edith Frank",
                        "name_en": "Leisure activities, Edith Frank",
                        "description": "<p>Little is known about Edith Frank-H&ouml;llander&#39;s hobbies and leisure activities. A number of sources do reveal that she played tennis, listened to classical music and read a lot. For example, there is a photo of Edith Frank-H&ouml;llander with four other girls and a man in tennis clothes, holding tennis rackets.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gpk19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>She owned a number of gramophone records with classical music. The records are attributed to Edith Frank-Holl&auml;nder because they are described in her handwriting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gsayt\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Many of Edith&#39;s books also survived.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne wrote in her diary <strong>in May 1944</strong> that her mother read everything except detective novels.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ojci9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Otto Frank wrote to his family in a letter dated <strong>19 August 1945</strong>:<em> &#39;Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zrd91\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Edith is also known to have been a visitor to the <em>Deutsche Leihbibliothek</em> on Biesboschstraat in the late 1930s.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gpk19\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_familieledenFrank_III_089; datum en plaats onbekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gsayt\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De gramofoonplaten bevinden zich in het priv&eacute;bezit van de familie Elias.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ojci9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16-19 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zrd91\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan zijn familie, 19 augustus 1945. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Er is weinig bekend over de hobby&#39;s en vrijetijdsbesteding van Edith Frank-H&ouml;llander. Uit&nbsp;een aantal bronnen is wel af te leiden dat zij tenniste, naar klassieke muziek luisterde&nbsp;en veel las.&nbsp;Zo is er een foto van Edith Frank-H&ouml;llander met vier andere meisjes en een man in tenniskledij en met tennisrackets.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gpk19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ze&nbsp;bezat een aantal grammofoonplaten met klassieke muziek. De grammofoonplaten worden toegeschreven aan Edith Frank-Holl&auml;nder omdat ze in haar handschrift zijn beschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gsayt\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Verder zijn er veel boeken van Edith bewaard gebleven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne schrijft <strong>mei 1944</strong> in haar dagboek dat haar moeder alles las, behalve detectives.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ojci9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Otto Frank schreef&nbsp;aan zijn familie in een brief van&nbsp;<strong>19 augustus 1945</strong>: &#39;<em>Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zrd91\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Van Edith is verder bekend dat ze in de late jaren dertig&nbsp;een bezoekster was van de <em>Deutsche Leihbibliothek</em> in de Biesboschstraat.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gpk19\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_familieledenFrank_III_089; datum en plaats onbekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gsayt\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De gramofoonplaten bevinden zich in het priv&eacute;bezit van de familie Elias.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ojci9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16-19 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zrd91\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan zijn familie, 19 augustus 1945. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Little is known about Edith Frank-H&ouml;llander&#39;s hobbies and leisure activities. A number of sources do reveal that she played tennis, listened to classical music and read a lot. For example, there is a photo of Edith Frank-H&ouml;llander with four other girls and a man in tennis clothes, holding tennis rackets.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gpk19\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>She owned a number of gramophone records with classical music. The records are attributed to Edith Frank-Holl&auml;nder because they are described in her handwriting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gsayt\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Many of Edith&#39;s books also survived.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne wrote in her diary <strong>in May 1944</strong> that her mother read everything except detective novels.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ojci9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Otto Frank wrote to his family in a letter dated <strong>19 August 1945</strong>:<em> &#39;Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zrd91\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Edith is also known to have been a visitor to the <em>Deutsche Leihbibliothek</em> on Biesboschstraat in the late 1930s.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gpk19\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_familieledenFrank_III_089; datum en plaats onbekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gsayt\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De gramofoonplaten bevinden zich in het priv&eacute;bezit van de familie Elias.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ojci9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16-19 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zrd91\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan zijn familie, 19 augustus 1945. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "Edith Frank enjoyed listening to classical music and loved to read.",
                        "summary_nl": "Edith Frank luisterde graag naar klassieke muziek en hield van lezen.",
                        "summary_en": "Edith Frank enjoyed listening to classical music and loved to read.",
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                        "parent": 396124413,
                        "files": []
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/f139a0d3-6359-4ad4-946d-b2ee153e7b99/",
                "published": true,
                "name": "Deutsche Leihbibliothek",
                "name_nl": "Deutsche Leihbibliothek",
                "name_en": "Deutsche Leihbibliothek",
                "uuid": "f139a0d3-6359-4ad4-946d-b2ee153e7b99",
                "content": "<p><strong>Addresses</strong>: Biesboschstraat 65hs, Amsterdam;<sup data-footnote-id=\"5guxk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Cliostraat 30 (nevenvestiging).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The D.L.B. was an initiative of K.W. Hirsch. Post-war correspondence showed that Edith Frank was among the clientele of this lending library <strong>before 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ndyhs\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The D.L.B. advertised in a circular the availability of all new releases and the assurance that customers would be expertly advised. The borrowing rate was ten cents per week, the costs of a subscription started at 75 cents per month. If so desired, the books were delivered to your home. Although the circular was written entirely in German, the letterhead reads (in Dutch) <em>Duitsche Leesbibliotheek</em>. (German Lending Library).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Stamps against anti-Semitism from Austria were also sold at the library. Those stamps were an initiative of Viennese Irene Harand from Vienna. They showed Jewish scientists with great merits for humanity.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2gokv\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5guxk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p. 288; Leo Baeck Institute (New York), Robert Weltsch Collection, omslag 7185, zionist corr. 1938 - &#39;39: Circulaire &quot;Duitsche Leesbibliotheek&quot;, maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Leo Baeck Institute, Robert Weltsch Collection: Circulaire &quot;Duitsche Leesbibliotheek&quot;, maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ndyhs\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_132: Otto Frank aan R. Harben, 10 oktober 1947 en v.v. 18 oktober 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2gokv\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;De Harand-zegels in Nederland&quot;, <em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>, 10 december 1937.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adressen</strong>: Biesboschstraat 65hs, Amsterdam;<sup data-footnote-id=\"5guxk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Cliostraat 30 (nevenvestiging).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De D.L.B.&nbsp;was een initiatief van K.W. Hirsch. Uit naoorlogse correspondentie bleek dat Edith Frank voor <strong>1940 </strong>tot de client&egrave;le van deze leesbibliotheek behoorde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ndyhs\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De D.L.B. adverteerde in een circulaire met de beschikbaarheid&nbsp;alle nieuwe uitgaven en de belofte dat klanten vakkundig geadviseerd zouden worden. Het leentarief was tien cent per week, de kosten van een abonnement waren (vanaf) 75 cent per maand. Desgewenst werden de boeken thuisbezorgd. Hoewel de circulaire geheel in het Duits was gesteld, staat in het briefhoofd <em>Duitsche Leesbibliotheek</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Bij de bibliotheek werden ook uit Oostenrijk afkomstige zegels tegen het antisemitisme verkocht. Die zegels waren een initatief van de Weense Irene Harand. Ze toonden Joodse wetenschappers met grote verdiensten voor de mensheid. <sup data-footnote-id=\"2gokv\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5guxk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p. 288; Leo Baeck Institute (New York), Robert Weltsch Collection, omslag 7185, zionist corr. 1938 - &#39;39: Circulaire &quot;Duitsche Leesbibliotheek&quot;, maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Leo Baeck Institute, Robert Weltsch Collection: Circulaire &quot;Duitsche Leesbibliotheek&quot;, maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ndyhs\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_132: Otto Frank aan R. Harben, 10 oktober 1947 en v.v. 18 oktober 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2gokv\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;De Harand-zegels in Nederland&quot;, <em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>, 10 december 1937.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Addresses</strong>: Biesboschstraat 65hs, Amsterdam;<sup data-footnote-id=\"5guxk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Cliostraat 30 (nevenvestiging).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The D.L.B. was an initiative of K.W. Hirsch. Post-war correspondence showed that Edith Frank was among the clientele of this lending library <strong>before 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ndyhs\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The D.L.B. advertised in a circular the availability of all new releases and the assurance that customers would be expertly advised. The borrowing rate was ten cents per week, the costs of a subscription started at 75 cents per month. If so desired, the books were delivered to your home. Although the circular was written entirely in German, the letterhead reads (in Dutch) <em>Duitsche Leesbibliotheek</em>. (German Lending Library).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Stamps against anti-Semitism from Austria were also sold at the library. Those stamps were an initiative of Viennese Irene Harand from Vienna. They showed Jewish scientists with great merits for humanity.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2gokv\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5guxk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Adresboek voor de stad Amsterdam</em> 1938, p. 288; Leo Baeck Institute (New York), Robert Weltsch Collection, omslag 7185, zionist corr. 1938 - &#39;39: Circulaire &quot;Duitsche Leesbibliotheek&quot;, maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9rgze\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Leo Baeck Institute, Robert Weltsch Collection: Circulaire &quot;Duitsche Leesbibliotheek&quot;, maart 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ndyhs\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_132: Otto Frank aan R. Harben, 10 oktober 1947 en v.v. 18 oktober 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2gokv\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;De Harand-zegels in Nederland&quot;, <em>Nieuw Israelietisch Weekblad</em>, 10 december 1937.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89679 52.34494)",
                "summary": "The Deutsche Leihbibliothek (D.L.B. - German Lending Library) was a library for German literature in Amsterdam South.",
                "summary_nl": "De Deutsche Leihbibliothek, of D.L.B., was een bibliotheek voor Duitse literatuur in Amsterdam-Zuid.\r\nDuitsche Leesbibliotheek.",
                "summary_en": "The Deutsche Leihbibliothek (D.L.B. - German Lending Library) was a library for German literature in Amsterdam South.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Biesboschstraat 65 huis",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "Noord-Holland",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": []
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
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        {
            "type": "location",
            "instance": {
                "id": 110,
                "files": [],
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                "latitude": "52.375382",
                "longitude": "4.884107",
                "events": [
                    {
                        "id": 300,
                        "main_image": {
                            "id": 1030,
                            "uuid": "e3de02f3-2f19-438e-a125-e55e0c833657",
                            "name": "Briefhoofd hotel Schiller",
                            "title": "Briefhoofd hotel Schiller",
                            "alt": "Beeldbank Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                            "url": "",
                            "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/010194001013.jpg",
                            "filetype": "image",
                            "description": "Briefhoofd van Hotel Schiller.",
                            "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                            "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                        },
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/be0bb154-8874-4670-a856-1a51909a7b74/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82"
                        ],
                        "persons": [],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "be0bb154-8874-4670-a856-1a51909a7b74",
                        "name": "Wine stock stolen from Hotel Schiller",
                        "name_nl": "Wijnvoorraad van hotel Schiller gestolen",
                        "name_en": "Wine stock stolen from Hotel Schiller",
                        "content": "<p>On the night of <strong>11 to 12 January 1943</strong>, unknown persons broke the cellar lock and made off with 24 cases of wine. Six hundred bottles in all, which, according to the owner, represented a total value of nine thousand guilders. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller reported the theft to the Marnixstraat police station on the afternoon of <strong>12 January 1943</strong>. The &#39;atelier&#39; was also notified, meaning that the criminal investigation department started looking for fingerprints and other traces at the scene.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is not known to what extent the criminal investigation extended to the surrounding area.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In de nacht van <strong>11 op 12 januari 1943</strong> braken onbekenden het kelderslot open en verdwenen met&nbsp;24 kisten wijn. Bij elkaar&nbsp;ging het om zeshonderd flessen, die volgens de eigenaar een totale waarde van negenduizend gulden vertegenwoordigden. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller deed er in de middag van <strong>12 januari</strong> op bureau Marnixstraat aangifte van. Ook werd het &#39;atelier&#39; ingelicht, wat betekent dat de recherche er naar vingerafdrukken en andere sporen ging zoeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;In hoeverre het rechercheonderzoek zich tot de omgeving uitstrekte is niet bekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "content_en": "<p>On the night of <strong>11 to 12 January 1943</strong>, unknown persons broke the cellar lock and made off with 24 cases of wine. Six hundred bottles in all, which, according to the owner, represented a total value of nine thousand guilders. Hotelier Friedrich Schiller reported the theft to the Marnixstraat police station on the afternoon of <strong>12 January 1943</strong>. The &#39;atelier&#39; was also notified, meaning that the criminal investigation department started looking for fingerprints and other traces at the scene.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;It is not known to what extent the criminal investigation extended to the surrounding area.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0t12q\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 6385: rapport Marnixstraat, 12-13 januari 1943, mut. 15.45.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1943-01-11",
                        "date_end": "1943-01-12",
                        "summary": "Large quantities of wine were stolen from the basement of Hotel Schiller on Prinsengracht 261, right next to the Secret Annex.",
                        "summary_nl": "Uit de kelder van Prinsengracht 261, direct naast het Achterhuis, werd een grote wijnvoorraad van hotel Schiller gestolen.",
                        "summary_en": "Large quantities of wine were stolen from the basement of Hotel Schiller on Prinsengracht 261, right next to the Secret Annex.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    },
                    {
                        "id": 281,
                        "main_image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/aff97e8a-4130-4482-aab1-6f0b7cbbeaa4/",
                        "subjects": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/36f1f8d1-cb6d-4f52-86b6-5c356c441af5"
                        ],
                        "persons": [
                            "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/ece3fba8-5b1e-4d3e-984e-8d190e2148ea"
                        ],
                        "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "aff97e8a-4130-4482-aab1-6f0b7cbbeaa4",
                        "name": "Burglary at the Elhoek frim",
                        "name_nl": "Inbraak bij de firma Elhoek",
                        "name_en": "Burglary at the Elhoek frim",
                        "content": "<p>One of the neighboring buildings next to the Secret Annex was home to the upholsterer&#39;s store Elhoek. In <strong>November 1941</strong>, money had already been stolen from the electric meter at Elhoek. On the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943</strong>, money and a typewriter were stolen from the business.</p>",
                        "content_nl": "<p>In de een van de buurpanden naast het Achterhuis was&nbsp;stoffeerderzaak Elhoek gevestigd.&nbsp;In <strong>november 1941</strong> was er bij Elhoek al eens geld uit de elektrameter gestolen. In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943&nbsp;</strong>werd&nbsp;er geld en een schrijfmachine uit het bedrijf gestolen.</p>",
                        "content_en": "<p>One of the neighboring buildings next to the Secret Annex was home to the upholsterer&#39;s store Elhoek. In <strong>November 1941</strong>, money had already been stolen from the electric meter at Elhoek. On the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943</strong>, money and a typewriter were stolen from the business.</p>",
                        "date": null,
                        "date_start": "1943-04-07",
                        "date_end": "1943-04-08",
                        "summary": "Burglars stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the business.",
                        "summary_nl": "Insluipers ontvreemdden zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine uit het bedrijf.",
                        "summary_en": "Burglars stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the business.",
                        "same_as": null,
                        "files": []
                    }
                ],
                "subjects": [
                    {
                        "id": 196,
                        "image": null,
                        "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                        "published": true,
                        "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                        "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                        "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                        "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                        "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                        "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                        "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
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                        "published": true,
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                        "name": "Businesses",
                        "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                        "name_en": "Businesses",
                        "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                        "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                        "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                        "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                        "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
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                "name": "Elhoek",
                "name_nl": "Elhoek, Firma",
                "name_en": "Elhoek",
                "uuid": "6ef7b88e-bdae-4edb-8265-23201452f19b",
                "content": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Prinsengracht 261, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was located in the neighbouring building at Prinsengracht 263. Elhoek was also a leather goods manufacturer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uy155\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The name was a combination of the names of business partners Van Elburg and Hoekstra. The workshops were on the second and third floors. When the weather was nice, the staff sometimes ate on the roof at lunchtime. They sometimes heard voices and therefore knew that there were people in the Secret Annex. However, they did not realize that these were people in hiding and they thought that the part of the building belonged to the Keg Tea and Coffee company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hendrik Johan van Elburg, one of the business partners,&nbsp;reported that intruders had stolen an amount of six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the company during the night of <strong>7-8 April&nbsp;1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Bevolkingsregister, woningkaarten, inv. nr. 283: Woningkaart Prinsengracht 261. Referred to by Anne as <em>furniture-making shop</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uy155\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder, <em>Lijst met namen en adressen der bij het Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder ingeschreven (&hellip;)</em>, Doetinchem: Misset, 1941, p. 89.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Pels, H.: Mededeling H. Pels, mei 1995.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013: Rapport bureau Warmoesstraat, 8-9 april 1943, 17.18 uur.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p><strong>Adres</strong>: Prinsengracht 261, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De firma was gevestid in het&nbsp;buurpand van Prinsengracht 263. Elhoek was ook lederwarenfabrikant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uy155\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> De naam was een samentrekking van de namen Van Elburg en Hoekstra. De werkplaatsen waren op de tweede en derde verdieping. Het personeel at bij mooi weer tussen de middag wel eens in de dakgoot. Ze hoorden soms stemmen en wisten daardoor dat er mensen in het Achterhuis waren. Ze realiseerden zich echter niet dat het hier om onderduikers ging en ze dachten dat het deel van het pand van de firma Keg Thee en Koffie was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Firmant Hendrik Johan van Elburg meldde dat insluipers in de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> een bedrag van&nbsp;zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine uit het bedrijf hadden gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Bevolkingsregister, woningkaarten, inv. nr. 283: Woningkaart Prinsengracht 261. Wordt door Anne aangeduid als: <em>meubelmakerij</em>. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 11 juli 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometehus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uy155\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder, <em>Lijst met namen en adressen der bij het Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder ingeschreven (&hellip;)</em>, Doetinchem: Misset, 1941, p. 89.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Pels, H.: Mededeling H. Pels, mei 1995.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013: Rapport bureau Warmoesstraat, 8-9 april 1943, 17.18 uur.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p><strong>Address</strong>: Prinsengracht 261, Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The company was located in the neighbouring building at Prinsengracht 263. Elhoek was also a leather goods manufacturer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uy155\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The name was a combination of the names of business partners Van Elburg and Hoekstra. The workshops were on the second and third floors. When the weather was nice, the staff sometimes ate on the roof at lunchtime. They sometimes heard voices and therefore knew that there were people in the Secret Annex. However, they did not realize that these were people in hiding and they thought that the part of the building belonged to the Keg Tea and Coffee company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hendrik Johan van Elburg, one of the business partners,&nbsp;reported that intruders had stolen an amount of six hundred guilders and a typewriter from the company during the night of <strong>7-8 April&nbsp;1943</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7qnl1\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Bevolkingsregister, woningkaarten, inv. nr. 283: Woningkaart Prinsengracht 261. Referred to by Anne as <em>furniture-making shop</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 11 July 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uy155\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder, <em>Lijst met namen en adressen der bij het Rijksbureau voor Huiden en Leder ingeschreven (&hellip;)</em>, Doetinchem: Misset, 1941, p. 89.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oivs9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Getuigenarchief, Pels, H.: Mededeling H. Pels, mei 1995.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2z65d\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013: Rapport bureau Warmoesstraat, 8-9 april 1943, 17.18 uur.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.884107 52.375382)",
                "summary": "Furniture upholstery firm 'Elhoek' was located at Prinsengracht 261, next to Otto Frank's premises at Prinsengracht 263.",
                "summary_nl": "Meubelstoffeerderij Elhoek was gevestigd naast het bedrijfspand van Otto Frank.\r\n​",
                "summary_en": "Furniture upholstery firm 'Elhoek' was located at Prinsengracht 261, next to Otto Frank's premises at Prinsengracht 263.",
                "same_as": null,
                "street": "Prinsengracht 261",
                "zipcode": "",
                "city": "Amsterdam",
                "state": "",
                "land": "Nederland",
                "location_events": [
                    300,
                    281
                ]
            },
            "score": 1.3162779
        }
    ]
}