GET /en/api/search?q=last_name:Frank
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/2f29f327-a41e-4953-99e3-ba796ceb3868/",
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                "first_name": "Jakob",
                "last_name": "Frank",
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                "title": "Jakob Frank",
                "title_nl": "Jakob Frank",
                "title_en": "Jakob Frank",
                "content": "<p>Jakob Frank was a cousin of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"90hto\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;He was the son of Emile Frank, a brother of Otto Frank&#39;s father. He was an industrialist by profession and &#39;Administrateur-delegu&eacute; Banque Commerciale&#39;;<sup data-footnote-id=\"drken\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> &nbsp;&lsquo;Commissions &ndash; Representations&rsquo;;<sup data-footnote-id=\"drken\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; bank manager.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lzz2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 June 1914</strong>, &#39;Eugen genannt Jakob Frank&#39;, in the French version &#39;Eug&egrave;ne dit Jacques Franck&#39;, was granted Luxembourg nationality.<sup data-footnote-id=\"olk40\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;In&nbsp;<strong>1922</strong>&nbsp;he was involved in the &lsquo;Banque Commerciale&rsquo;, with partners A.A. Dreher and Erwin Lindenlaub.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In the <strong>1930s</strong>, he was a &#39;membre suppleant&#39;&nbsp;of &#39;Groupe 4. &mdash; Banques&#39;&nbsp;of the Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 July 1945</strong> Julius Holl&auml;nder wrote to Otto Frank that his (OF&#39;s) uncle J. Frank was on his way to Luxembourg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3utp2\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> The above business connections justify the conclusion that Anne is referring to this Jakob in her note of <strong>8 May 1944</strong>. With his wife he gave Erich and Leni Elias a &#39;money gift&#39; on the occasion of their engagement.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8jc54\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"olk40\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"90hto\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to him as <em>Jacob [...] in Luxemburg</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty,&nbsp; London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"drken\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>, 19 juli 1920.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lzz2q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>,&nbsp;15 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"olk40\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Memorial du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg,&nbsp;</em>No. 39, 15 juni 1914, p. 731.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>, 12 juni 1933 en 15 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3utp2\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_073: Julius Holl&auml;nder aan Otto Frank, 25 juli 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8jc54\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_pdoc_02: Gastenboek.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Jakob Frank was een neef van Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"90hto\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij was de zoon van Emile Frank, een broer van de vader van Otto Frank. Van beroep was&nbsp;hij industrieel en &lsquo;Administrateur-delegu&eacute; Banque Commerciale&rsquo;;<sup data-footnote-id=\"drken\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> &nbsp;&lsquo;Commissions &ndash; Representations&rsquo;;<sup data-footnote-id=\"drken\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; bankdirecteur.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lzz2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op&nbsp;<strong>5 juni 1914</strong>&nbsp;kreeg&nbsp;&lsquo;Eugen genannt Jakob Frank&rsquo;, in de Franse redactie &lsquo;Eug&egrave;ne dit Jacques Franck&rsquo;, de Luxemburgse nationaliteit.<sup data-footnote-id=\"olk40\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;In&nbsp;<strong>1922</strong>&nbsp;was hij betrokken bij de &lsquo;Banque Commerciale&rsquo;, met als partners&nbsp;A.A. Dreher&nbsp;en Erwin Lindenlaub.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de&nbsp;<strong>jaren dertig</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;hij &lsquo;membre suppleant&rsquo; van &lsquo;Groupe 4. &ndash; Banques&rsquo; van de Luxemburgse Kamer van Koophandel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op<strong>&nbsp;25 juli 1945&nbsp;</strong>schreef&nbsp;Julius Holl&auml;nder&nbsp;aan Otto Frank dat zijn (Otto&rsquo;s) oom J. Frank op weg was&nbsp;naar Luxemburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3utp2\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Bovenstaande zakelijke verbindingen wettigen de conclusie dat&nbsp;Anne in haar notitie van&nbsp;<strong>8 mei 1944</strong>&nbsp;op deze Jakob doelt. Met zijn vrouw gaf&nbsp;hij Erich en Leni Elias een &lsquo;Geldgeschenk&rsquo; ter gelegenheid van hun verloving.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8jc54\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"olk40\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"90hto\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wordt door Anne aangeduid als: <em>Jacob [...] in Luxemburg</em>. Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 8 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"drken\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>, 19 juli 1920.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lzz2q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>,&nbsp;15 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"olk40\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Memorial du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg,&nbsp;</em>No. 39, 15 juni 1914, p. 731.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>, 12 juni 1933 en 15 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3utp2\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_073: Julius Holl&auml;nder aan Otto Frank, 25 juli 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8jc54\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_pdoc_02: Gastenboek.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Jakob Frank was a cousin of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"90hto\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;He was the son of Emile Frank, a brother of Otto Frank&#39;s father. He was an industrialist by profession and &#39;Administrateur-delegu&eacute; Banque Commerciale&#39;;<sup data-footnote-id=\"drken\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> &nbsp;&lsquo;Commissions &ndash; Representations&rsquo;;<sup data-footnote-id=\"drken\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; bank manager.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lzz2q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 June 1914</strong>, &#39;Eugen genannt Jakob Frank&#39;, in the French version &#39;Eug&egrave;ne dit Jacques Franck&#39;, was granted Luxembourg nationality.<sup data-footnote-id=\"olk40\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;In&nbsp;<strong>1922</strong>&nbsp;he was involved in the &lsquo;Banque Commerciale&rsquo;, with partners A.A. Dreher and Erwin Lindenlaub.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In the <strong>1930s</strong>, he was a &#39;membre suppleant&#39;&nbsp;of &#39;Groupe 4. &mdash; Banques&#39;&nbsp;of the Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 July 1945</strong> Julius Holl&auml;nder wrote to Otto Frank that his (OF&#39;s) uncle J. Frank was on his way to Luxembourg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3utp2\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> The above business connections justify the conclusion that Anne is referring to this Jakob in her note of <strong>8 May 1944</strong>. With his wife he gave Erich and Leni Elias a &#39;money gift&#39; on the occasion of their engagement.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8jc54\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"olk40\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"90hto\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to him as <em>Jacob [...] in Luxemburg</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty,&nbsp; London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"drken\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>, 19 juli 1920.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lzz2q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>,&nbsp;15 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"olk40\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Memorial du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg,&nbsp;</em>No. 39, 15 juni 1914, p. 731.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f6gw2\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>M&eacute;morial&nbsp;du&nbsp;Grand-Duch&eacute; de Luxembourg</em>, 12 juni 1933 en 15 mei 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3utp2\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_073: Julius Holl&auml;nder aan Otto Frank, 25 juli 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8jc54\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds, Bazel, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_pdoc_02: Gastenboek.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1882-08-13",
                "death_date": "1947-12-29",
                "gender": "male",
                "birth_place": "Karlsruhe",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Luxemburg",
                "death_country": "Luxemburg",
                "summary": "Jakob Frank was a cousin of Otto Frank.",
                "summary_nl": "Jakob Frank was een neef van Otto Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Jakob Frank was a cousin of Otto Frank.",
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                        "id": 520,
                        "uuid": "10d44821-c9ad-46bb-afb0-cc2301129ac6",
                        "name": "AH 25 3 1906 O",
                        "title": "Algemeen Handelsblad, 25 maart 1906, ochtendeditie",
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                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/AH%2025%203%201906%20O_0.png",
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                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/062c4fb2-0f4b-4534-a271-9b749d1a0618/",
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                "uuid": "062c4fb2-0f4b-4534-a271-9b749d1a0618",
                "first_name": "Michael",
                "last_name": "Frank",
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                "title": "Michael Frank",
                "title_nl": "Michael Frank",
                "title_en": "Michael Frank",
                "content": "<p>Michael Frank was the father of Otto Frank<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5cqg\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> and grandfather of Anne and Margot. Michael Frank married Alice Betty Stern on <strong>3 January 1886</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"843bl\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; Around <strong>1900</strong>, he founded the &lsquo;Bankhaus Michael Frank&rsquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kbbi9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>1906</strong>, he searched the Dutch market for released bonds of the &#39;Peninsular Koper Maatschappij&#39; and was prepared to pay one thousand guilders each for them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x07lw\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nMichael Frank and his wife had three sons: Robert, Otto and Herbert; and a daughter Hel&egrave;ne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Shortly before his death Michael Frank received an invitation from the &#39;k&ouml;nigliche Kriegsministerium&#39; to an opening of an &#39;Offiziersheim&#39; on <strong>20 August 1909</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5lqtx\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;He died while his son Otto was in New York.&nbsp;The rabbi Caesar Seligman gave a eulogy, a transcript of which has been preserved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eqp7v\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses</em>:&nbsp;G&auml;rtnerweg 58, Frankfurt am Main, idem 40, Jordanstrasse (later Mertonstrasse) 4.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o03i5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5cqg\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"843bl\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Basel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_01: Feestboekje &ldquo;Zur Feier der Verm&auml;hlung des Fr&auml;ulein Alice Stern mit Herrn Michael Frank&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kbbi9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J&uuml;rgen Steen, Wolf von Wolzogen, <em>Anne aus Frankfurt. Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks, </em>Frankfurt am Main:&nbsp;Historisches Museum, 1990, p.&nbsp; 22.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x07lw\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Handelsblad,</em> 25 maart 1906, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_02: Familien-Stammbuch Michael Frank en Alice Stern.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5lqtx\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_bdoc_03: &ldquo;Auf allerh&ouml;chsten Befehl&hellip;.&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eqp7v\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_10: &lsquo;Trauer-Rede an der Bahre des Herrn Michael Frank, 19 September 1909&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o03i5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, research Wolf von Wolzogen: Kopie gezinskaart.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Michael Frank was de vader van Otto Frank<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5cqg\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> en de grootvader van Anne en Margot.&nbsp;Michael Frank trouwde op&nbsp;<strong>3 januari 1886</strong>&nbsp;met Alice Betty Stern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"843bl\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Omstreeks&nbsp;<strong>1900&nbsp;</strong>richtte hij het &lsquo;Bankhaus Michael Frank&rsquo; op.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kbbi9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;In&nbsp;<strong>1906&nbsp;</strong>speurde&nbsp;hij de Nederlandse markt af naar vrijgekomen obligaties van de &#39;Peninsular Koper Maatschappij&#39;, en was bereid daar duizend gulden per stuk voor te betalen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x07lw\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nMichael Frank en zijn vrouw kregen drie zonen: Robert, Otto en Herbert;&nbsp;en een dochter Hel&egrave;ne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Kort voor zijn dood kreeg&nbsp;Michael Frank van het &lsquo;k&ouml;nigliche Kriegsministerium&rsquo; een uitnodiging voor de opening van een &lsquo;Offiziersheim&rsquo; op&nbsp;<strong>20 augustus 1909</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5lqtx\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij overleed&nbsp;terwijl zijn zoon Otto in New York verbleef.&nbsp;De rabbijn Caesar Seligman hield een grafrede, waarvan een afschrift bewaard is gebleven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eqp7v\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegeven</em>s.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Adressen</em>:&nbsp;G&auml;rtnerweg 58, Frankfurt am Main, idem 40, Jordanstrasse (later Mertonstrasse) 4.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o03i5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5cqg\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 8 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"843bl\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_01: Feestboekje &ldquo;Zur Feier der Verm&auml;hlung des Fr&auml;ulein Alice Stern mit Herrn Michael Frank&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kbbi9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J&uuml;rgen Steen, Wolf von Wolzogen, <em>Anne aus Frankfurt. Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks, </em>Frankfurt am Main:&nbsp;Historisches Museum, 1990, p.&nbsp; 22.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x07lw\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;5% Mackay-Obligati&euml;n&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Algemeen Handelsblad,</em> 25 maart 1906, ochtendeditie, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_02: Familien-Stammbuch Michael Frank en Alice Stern.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5lqtx\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_bdoc_03: &ldquo;Auf allerh&ouml;chsten Befehl&hellip;.&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eqp7v\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_10: &lsquo;Trauer-Rede an der Bahre des Herrn Michael Frank, 19 September 1909&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o03i5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, research Wolf von Wolzogen: Kopie gezinskaart.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Michael Frank was the father of Otto Frank<sup data-footnote-id=\"o5cqg\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> and grandfather of Anne and Margot. Michael Frank married Alice Betty Stern on <strong>3 January 1886</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"843bl\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; Around <strong>1900</strong>, he founded the &lsquo;Bankhaus Michael Frank&rsquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kbbi9\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>1906</strong>, he searched the Dutch market for released bonds of the &#39;Peninsular Koper Maatschappij&#39; and was prepared to pay one thousand guilders each for them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"x07lw\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nMichael Frank and his wife had three sons: Robert, Otto and Herbert; and a daughter Hel&egrave;ne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Shortly before his death Michael Frank received an invitation from the &#39;k&ouml;nigliche Kriegsministerium&#39; to an opening of an &#39;Offiziersheim&#39; on <strong>20 August 1909</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5lqtx\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;He died while his son Otto was in New York.&nbsp;The rabbi Caesar Seligman gave a eulogy, a transcript of which has been preserved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eqp7v\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses</em>:&nbsp;G&auml;rtnerweg 58, Frankfurt am Main, idem 40, Jordanstrasse (later Mertonstrasse) 4.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o03i5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o5cqg\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 8 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"843bl\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Basel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_01: Feestboekje &ldquo;Zur Feier der Verm&auml;hlung des Fr&auml;ulein Alice Stern mit Herrn Michael Frank&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kbbi9\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J&uuml;rgen Steen, Wolf von Wolzogen, <em>Anne aus Frankfurt. Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks, </em>Frankfurt am Main:&nbsp;Historisches Museum, 1990, p.&nbsp; 22.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"x07lw\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Algemeen Handelsblad,</em> 25 maart 1906, ochtendeditie.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1vbzb\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_02: Familien-Stammbuch Michael Frank en Alice Stern.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5lqtx\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_bdoc_03: &ldquo;Auf allerh&ouml;chsten Befehl&hellip;.&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eqp7v\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_pdoc_10: &lsquo;Trauer-Rede an der Bahre des Herrn Michael Frank, 19 September 1909&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o03i5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, research Wolf von Wolzogen: Kopie gezinskaart.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1851-10-09",
                "death_date": "1909-09-17",
                "gender": "male",
                "birth_place": "Landau",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "death_country": "Duitsland",
                "summary": "Michael Frank was Otto Frank's father and Anne and Margot's grandfather.",
                "summary_nl": "Michael Frank was de vader van Otto Frank en de grootvader van Anne en Margot.",
                "summary_en": "Michael Frank was Otto Frank's father and Anne and Margot's grandfather.",
                "same_as": null,
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 33.865997
        },
        {
            "type": "person",
            "instance": {
                "id": 2305,
                "image": {
                    "id": 1183,
                    "uuid": "b6de57f9-3ff5-4b23-abdc-060117f3668d",
                    "name": "A_OFrank_III_182 - uitsnede",
                    "title": "Foto van Otto en Robert Frank in uniform, niet gedateerd",
                    "alt": "Fototgraaf: onbekend. Collectie: Anne Frank Stichting.",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/A_OFrank_III_182_-_Robert_Frank.jpg",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor het publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek Domein"
                },
                "pictures": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/62b6739b-5dcb-4d45-9bed-448c865e5220/",
                "subjects": [],
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "62b6739b-5dcb-4d45-9bed-448c865e5220",
                "first_name": "Robert Hermann",
                "last_name": "Frank",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Robert Frank",
                "title_nl": "Robert Frank",
                "title_en": "Robert Frank",
                "content": "<p>Robert (Rob, Robo) Frank was Otto&#39;s older brother and the oldest child in the family. Like Otto, Robert attended Lessing Gymnasium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lu0y5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij was artistic. Between <strong>1895 &ndash; 1897</strong> he wrote poems in a school notebook and on loose sheets of paper, which he then pasted into the notebook.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ag896\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> He created illustrations for a number of poems and stories. Other illustrations that he made were also kept. One of those was entitled &ldquo;Der sterbende Gallier&rdquo; (The Dying Gaul).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ziwys\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In later illustrations he depicted his wartime experiences. For example, he drew his sleeping accommodation, which was a trench under a church graveyard.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ofall\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Like his brothers Herbert and Otto, Robert served in the First World War. On <strong>4 September 1916 </strong>he sent his sister Leni a postcard of himself on a horse. At the time he was a non-commissioned officer with a mounted infantry regiment.<sup data-footnote-id=\"skzkj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> On <strong>27 June 1918 </strong>Otto sent him a postcard of himself in the uniform of a luitenant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p81w2\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>18 July 1922 </strong>Robert married Anna Charlotte (Lotte) Witt (1900-1974) from Magdeburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qj6xq\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp; Owing to his artisitc interests, he ended up working for the art dealer Louis Ricard in the Frankfurtse Kaiserstrasse. His father invested money in that company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rwqn2\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> For his young nephew Stephan Elias (nicknamed &ldquo;B&uuml;b&uuml;&rdquo;), he made a booklet entitled: <em>Robo nimmt ihn. Das Bilderbuch f&uuml;r B&uuml;b&uuml;</em>, with drawings and verses.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j2axr\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert and Lotte left for London in <strong>1933</strong>. He worked there as an independent art dealer.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Otto Frank came back from Auschwitz, there was limited opportunity to send letters to his family in Switzerland. Therefore, he corresponded chiefly with his brother and sister-in-law in London.&nbsp; They received Otto&#39;s message of Edith&#39;s death on <strong>6 June 1945</strong>. Otto had returned to Amsterdam just three days beforehand. On <strong>21 June 1945 </strong>Otto received a telegram from them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"i5etl\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> They also sent him a package of relief supplies.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8pdtd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> From correpsondence it can be derived that Otto asked Robert in July to inform the family of the deaths of Margot and Anne.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert applied for naturalisation in Britain. For the procedure, an advertisment appeared in the press, inviting poeple to submit objections on the grounds that they were valid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"62360\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> He received British nationality on <strong>17 August 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"be5hp\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1947 </strong>Robert two pieces of a triptych, &lsquo;The Last Judgement&rsquo; and &lsquo;The Plains of Heaven&rsquo; by John Martin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p1xux\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert Frank died on <strong>23</strong> <strong>May </strong><strong>1953</strong> and was cremated on <strong>28 May</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kv1qb\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j0ki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup><em> Addresses:</em> Frankfurt am Main; 1B King Street, St. James Square, London SW1 (1938);<sup data-footnote-id=\"xu309\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> 39 Royal Gardens, SW7 (about 1947).<sup data-footnote-id=\"mwxpc\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lu0y5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Manfred Capellmann u.a., <em>Wer war Henry Wolfskehl? Auf der Suche nach j&uuml;dischen Sch&uuml;lern und Lehrern am Lessing-Gymnasium 1897-1938</em>. Eine Ausstellung der Archiv-AG des Lessing-Gymnasiums Frankfurt am Main im Museum Judengasse. 20. Januar bis 06. M&auml;rz 2000, Frankfurt am Main: Selbstverlag, 2000, p. 73; Verzeichnis der f&uuml;r Reif erkl&auml;rten Sch&uuml;ler der Oberprima des Lessing-Gymnasiums zu Frankfurt a. M., p. 26-27.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ag896\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), FEFA, RoF_pdoc_001: Schrift met &lsquo;Gedichte&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ziwys\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, RoF_pdoc_001: Potloodtekening &ldquo;Der sterbende Gallier&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ofall\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_006: Briefkaart &ldquo;Durchschnitt durch meine Bude unter der Kirchhofmauer&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"skzkj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, LeF_corr_001: Bnsichtkaart &ldquo;Unteroffz. Frank 1. Eskadron J&auml;ger Regt. zu Pferde 5.&rdquo;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p81w2\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, RoF_corr_001: Ansichtkaart &ldquo;Lt. Frank, Lichtmesstrupp 139, D. Feldpost 2046&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qj6xq\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Huwelijksindex Hessen, <a href=\"https://www.myheritage.com/\" target=\"_blank\">www.myheritage.com</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rwqn2\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_005: Brief op briefpapier Ricard d.d. 26 augustus 1902; Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, London: Penguin, 2003, p. 11.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j2axr\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, StE_pdoc_001: &ldquo;Robo nimmt ihn. Bilderbuch f&uuml;r das B&uuml;b&uuml;&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i5etl\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_071: Telegram Robert en Lotte Frank aan Otto Frank, in Otto&rsquo;s handschrift &ldquo;21/VI 45&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8pdtd\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Robert en Lotte Frank, 26 juli 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"62360\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007, Uitgeknipte annonce, bron en datum niet bekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"be5hp\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>National Archives UK, Londen, Home Office, Immigration and Nationality Department, referentie HO 334/164/19091: naturalisatiecertificaat voor R.H. Frank, 17 augustus 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p1xux\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927</a>, en <a href=\"https://portal.annefrank.nl/proxy/5826e728/https/www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kv1qb\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_010: Agenda 1953, 28 mei.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j0ki3\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA_AlF_pdoc_002: Familien-Stammbuch Michael Frank en Alice Betty Frank-Stern; AFS, AFC, , reg. code OFA_010: Agenda 1953, 23 en 24 mei.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xu309\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007: Briefpapier R.H. Frank.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mwxpc\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007: Knipsel van onbekende datum en herkomst.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Robert (Rob, Robo) Frank was een oudere broer van Otto en het oudste kind in het gezin.&nbsp;Net als Otto bezocht&nbsp;Robert het Lessing Gymnasium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lu0y5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij was&nbsp;kunstzinnig aangelegd. In de jaren <strong>1895 &ndash; 1897</strong> schreef&nbsp;hij gedichten in een schoolschrift en op - daarin geplakte - losse vellen papier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ag896\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Bij een aantal gedichten en verhalen had&nbsp;hij illustraties gemaakt. Ook zijn er andere illustraties van hem bewaard gebleven. Een daarvan was getiteld &ldquo;Der sterbende Gallier&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ziwys\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In latere illustraties verbeeldde&nbsp;hij zijn oorlogservaringen. Zo tekende&nbsp;hij zijn slaapplaats in een loopgraaf onder een kerkhof.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ofall\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert deed, net als zijn broers Herbert en Otto, dienst in de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Hij stuurde&nbsp;zijn zus Leni op <strong>4 september 1916 </strong>een ansichtkaart van zichzelf te paard. Hij was toen&nbsp;onderofficier bij een bereden Jagers-regiment.<sup data-footnote-id=\"skzkj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Otto stuurde&nbsp;hem op <strong>27 juni 1918 </strong>een ansichtkaart van zichzelf in het uniform van een luitenant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p81w2\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert trouwde&nbsp;op <strong>18 juli 1922 </strong>met Anna Charlotte (Lotte) Witt (1900-1974) uit Magdeburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qj6xq\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp; Door zijn artistieke belangstelling vond&nbsp;hij een werkkring bij de kunsthandel Louis Ricard in de Frankfurtse Kaiserstrasse. Zijn vader investeerde&nbsp;geld in dat bedrijf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rwqn2\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup>&nbsp;Voor zijn neefje Stephan Elias (bijgenaamd &ldquo;B&uuml;b&uuml;&rdquo;) maakte hij een boekje getiteld: <em>Robo nimmt ihn. Das Bilderbuch f&uuml;r B&uuml;b&uuml;</em>, met tekeningen en versjes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j2axr\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert en Lotte vertrokken in <strong>1933 </strong>naar Londen. Hij werkte daar verder als zelfstandig kunsthandelaar.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen Otto Frank terugkwam uit Auschwitz, was&nbsp;het versturen van brieven naar zijn familie in Zwitserland maar beperkt mogelijk. Daarom correspondeerde&nbsp;hij vooral met zijn broer en schoonzus in Londen. Zij ontvingen Ottos bericht over Ediths dood op <strong>6 juni 1945</strong>. Otto was toen net drie dagen in Amsterdam terug. Op <strong>21 juni 1945 </strong>ontving&nbsp;Otto een telegram van hen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"i5etl\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Ook stuurden ze hem een pakket met hulpgoederen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8pdtd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Uit de correspondentie is op te maken dat Otto in juli aan Robert vroeg&nbsp;de familie in te lichten over de dood van Margot en Anne.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert vroeg&nbsp;naturalisatie tot Brit aan. In die procedure verscheen&nbsp;een advertentie in de pers waarin diegenen die menen gegronde bezwaren te kunnen aanvoeren, werden uitgenodigd dit te doen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"62360\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Hij kreeg&nbsp;de Britse nationaliteit op <strong>17 augustus 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"be5hp\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1947 </strong>kocht Robert twee delen van een drieluik, &lsquo;The Last Judgement&rsquo; en &lsquo;The Plains of Heaven&rsquo; door John Martin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p1xux\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert Frank overleed&nbsp;op <strong>23</strong> <strong>mei</strong> <strong>1953</strong> en werd op <strong>28 mei </strong>gecremeerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kv1qb\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"45dzm\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> <em>Adres(sen):</em> Frankfurt am Main; 1B King Street, St. James Square, Londen SW1 (1938);<sup data-footnote-id=\"xu309\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> 39 Royal Gardens, SW7 (ca. 1947).<sup data-footnote-id=\"mwxpc\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lu0y5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Manfred Capellmann u.a., <em>Wer war Henry Wolfskehl? Auf der Suche nach j&uuml;dischen Sch&uuml;lern und Lehrern am Lessing-Gymnasium 1897-1938</em>. Eine Ausstellung der Archiv-AG des Lessing-Gymnasiums Frankfurt am Main im Museum Judengasse. 20. Januar bis 06. M&auml;rz 2000, Frankfurt am Main: Selbstverlag, 2000, p. 73; Verzeichnis der f&uuml;r Reif erkl&auml;rten Sch&uuml;ler der Oberprima des Lessing-Gymnasiums zu Frankfurt a. M., p. 26-27..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ag896\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, FEFA, RoF_pdoc_001: Schrift met &lsquo;Gedichte&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ziwys\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, RoF_pdoc_001: Potloodtekening &ldquo;Der sterbende Gallier&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ofall\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_006: Briefkaart &ldquo;Durchschnitt durch meine Bude unter der Kirchhofmauer&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"skzkj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, LeF_corr_001: Bnsichtkaart &ldquo;Unteroffz. Frank 1. Eskadron J&auml;ger Regt. zu Pferde 5.&rdquo;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p81w2\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, RoF_corr_001: Ansichtkaart &ldquo;Lt. Frank, Lichtmesstrupp 139, D. Feldpost 2046&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qj6xq\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Huwelijksindex Hessen, <a href=\"https://www.myheritage.com/\" target=\"_blank\">www.myheritage.com</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rwqn2\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_005: Brief op briefpapier Ricard d.d. 26 augustus 1902; Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, London: Penguin, 2003, p. 11.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j2axr\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, StE_pdoc_001: &ldquo;Robo nimmt ihn. Bilderbuch f&uuml;r das B&uuml;b&uuml;&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i5etl\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_071: Telegram Robert en Lotte Frank aan Otto Frank, in Otto&rsquo;s handschrift &ldquo;21/VI 45&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8pdtd\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Robert en Lotte Frank, 26 juli 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"62360\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007, Uitgeknipte annonce, bron en datum niet bekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"be5hp\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>National Archives UK, Londen, Home Office, Immigration and Nationality Department, referentie HO 334/164/19091: naturalisatiecertificaat voor R.H. Frank, 17 augustus 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p1xux\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927</a>, en <a href=\"https://portal.annefrank.nl/proxy/5826e728/https/www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kv1qb\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_010: Agenda 1953, 28 mei.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"45dzm\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA_AlF_pdoc_002: Familien-Stammbuch Michael Frank en Alice Betty Frank-Stern; AFS, AFC, , reg. code OFA_010: Agenda 1953, 23 en 24 mei.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xu309\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007: Briefpapier R.H. Frank.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mwxpc\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007: Knipsel van onbekende datum en herkomst.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                "content_en": "<p>Robert (Rob, Robo) Frank was Otto&#39;s older brother and the oldest child in the family. Like Otto, Robert attended Lessing Gymnasium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lu0y5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij was artistic. Between <strong>1895 &ndash; 1897</strong> he wrote poems in a school notebook and on loose sheets of paper, which he then pasted into the notebook.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ag896\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> He created illustrations for a number of poems and stories. Other illustrations that he made were also kept. One of those was entitled &ldquo;Der sterbende Gallier&rdquo; (The Dying Gaul).<sup data-footnote-id=\"ziwys\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> In later illustrations he depicted his wartime experiences. For example, he drew his sleeping accommodation, which was a trench under a church graveyard.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ofall\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Like his brothers Herbert and Otto, Robert served in the First World War. On <strong>4 September 1916 </strong>he sent his sister Leni a postcard of himself on a horse. At the time he was a non-commissioned officer with a mounted infantry regiment.<sup data-footnote-id=\"skzkj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> On <strong>27 June 1918 </strong>Otto sent him a postcard of himself in the uniform of a luitenant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p81w2\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>18 July 1922 </strong>Robert married Anna Charlotte (Lotte) Witt (1900-1974) from Magdeburg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qj6xq\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp; Owing to his artisitc interests, he ended up working for the art dealer Louis Ricard in the Frankfurtse Kaiserstrasse. His father invested money in that company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rwqn2\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> For his young nephew Stephan Elias (nicknamed &ldquo;B&uuml;b&uuml;&rdquo;), he made a booklet entitled: <em>Robo nimmt ihn. Das Bilderbuch f&uuml;r B&uuml;b&uuml;</em>, with drawings and verses.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j2axr\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert and Lotte left for London in <strong>1933</strong>. He worked there as an independent art dealer.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Otto Frank came back from Auschwitz, there was limited opportunity to send letters to his family in Switzerland. Therefore, he corresponded chiefly with his brother and sister-in-law in London.&nbsp; They received Otto&#39;s message of Edith&#39;s death on <strong>6 June 1945</strong>. Otto had returned to Amsterdam just three days beforehand. On <strong>21 June 1945 </strong>Otto received a telegram from them.<sup data-footnote-id=\"i5etl\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> They also sent him a package of relief supplies.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8pdtd\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> From correpsondence it can be derived that Otto asked Robert in July to inform the family of the deaths of Margot and Anne.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert applied for naturalisation in Britain. For the procedure, an advertisment appeared in the press, inviting poeple to submit objections on the grounds that they were valid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"62360\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> He received British nationality on <strong>17 August 1946</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"be5hp\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1947 </strong>Robert two pieces of a triptych, &lsquo;The Last Judgement&rsquo; and &lsquo;The Plains of Heaven&rsquo; by John Martin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p1xux\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Robert Frank died on <strong>23</strong> <strong>May </strong><strong>1953</strong> and was cremated on <strong>28 May</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kv1qb\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"j0ki3\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup><em> Addresses:</em> Frankfurt am Main; 1B King Street, St. James Square, London SW1 (1938);<sup data-footnote-id=\"xu309\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> 39 Royal Gardens, SW7 (about 1947).<sup data-footnote-id=\"mwxpc\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lu0y5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Manfred Capellmann u.a., <em>Wer war Henry Wolfskehl? Auf der Suche nach j&uuml;dischen Sch&uuml;lern und Lehrern am Lessing-Gymnasium 1897-1938</em>. Eine Ausstellung der Archiv-AG des Lessing-Gymnasiums Frankfurt am Main im Museum Judengasse. 20. Januar bis 06. M&auml;rz 2000, Frankfurt am Main: Selbstverlag, 2000, p. 73; Verzeichnis der f&uuml;r Reif erkl&auml;rten Sch&uuml;ler der Oberprima des Lessing-Gymnasiums zu Frankfurt a. M., p. 26-27.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ag896\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), FEFA, RoF_pdoc_001: Schrift met &lsquo;Gedichte&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ziwys\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, RoF_pdoc_001: Potloodtekening &ldquo;Der sterbende Gallier&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ofall\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_006: Briefkaart &ldquo;Durchschnitt durch meine Bude unter der Kirchhofmauer&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"skzkj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, LeF_corr_001: Bnsichtkaart &ldquo;Unteroffz. Frank 1. Eskadron J&auml;ger Regt. zu Pferde 5.&rdquo;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p81w2\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, RoF_corr_001: Ansichtkaart &ldquo;Lt. Frank, Lichtmesstrupp 139, D. Feldpost 2046&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qj6xq\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Huwelijksindex Hessen, <a href=\"https://www.myheritage.com/\" target=\"_blank\">www.myheritage.com</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rwqn2\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_005: Brief op briefpapier Ricard d.d. 26 augustus 1902; Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, London: Penguin, 2003, p. 11.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j2axr\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, StE_pdoc_001: &ldquo;Robo nimmt ihn. Bilderbuch f&uuml;r das B&uuml;b&uuml;&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"i5etl\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_071: Telegram Robert en Lotte Frank aan Otto Frank, in Otto&rsquo;s handschrift &ldquo;21/VI 45&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8pdtd\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Robert en Lotte Frank, 26 juli 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"62360\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007, Uitgeknipte annonce, bron en datum niet bekend.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"be5hp\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>National Archives UK, Londen, Home Office, Immigration and Nationality Department, referentie HO 334/164/19091: naturalisatiecertificaat voor R.H. Frank, 17 augustus 1946.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p1xux\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927</a>, en <a href=\"https://portal.annefrank.nl/proxy/5826e728/https/www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kv1qb\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_010: Agenda 1953, 28 mei.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"j0ki3\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA_AlF_pdoc_002: Familien-Stammbuch Michael Frank en Alice Betty Frank-Stern; AFS, AFC, , reg. code OFA_010: Agenda 1953, 23 en 24 mei.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xu309\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007: Briefpapier R.H. Frank.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mwxpc\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, FEFA, AlF_corr_007: Knipsel van onbekende datum en herkomst.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                "birth_date": "1886-10-07",
                "death_date": "1952-05-23",
                "gender": "male",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "",
                "death_country": "",
                "summary": "Robert Frank was the oldest brother of Otto Frank.",
                "summary_nl": "Robert Frank was de oudste broer van Otto Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Robert Frank was the oldest brother of Otto Frank.",
                "same_as": null,
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 33.865997
        },
        {
            "type": "person",
            "instance": {
                "id": 2301,
                "image": {
                    "id": 1182,
                    "uuid": "371883f2-522d-467e-bc69-82047a4bd2ba",
                    "name": "A_FamilieledenFrank_III_034",
                    "title": "Foto van Otto Frank (rechts) met v.l.n.r. zijn broers en zus Herbert, Robert en Helène, 1911",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/c525f18e-8eee-5409-f3af-e8b9a75dda52.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor het publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek Domein"
                },
                "pictures": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/d4cc4fa5-8701-4923-95a9-77a0e4cf4f00/",
                "subjects": [],
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "d4cc4fa5-8701-4923-95a9-77a0e4cf4f00",
                "first_name": "Herbert August",
                "last_name": "Frank",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Herbert August Frank",
                "title_nl": "Herbert August Frank",
                "title_en": "Herbert August Frank",
                "content": "<p>Herbert Frank was the youngest brother of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6phm3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> He married the American Hortense Rah Schott, who lived in Aachen, on <strong>12 April 1922</strong>. The marriage was dissolved on <strong>16 August 1932</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fxyi7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In <strong>April 1932</strong> Herbert was arrested for a transaction that violated the regulations for trading securities with foreign countries that had been in force since <strong>1931</strong>. When he was released on <strong>14 May 1932</strong>, he left for Paris. He informed the court that he was suffering material and mental harm because of how long the case has dragged on.<sup data-footnote-id=\"flry3\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> &nbsp;Herbert stayed in France for about twenty years. During the war, he ended up in a camp for stateless refugees in Gurs. In <strong>1955</strong>, he joined his family in Switzerland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"faxhb\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"284kd\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6phm3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to him as <em>Herbi</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 October 1942, 1st, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fxyi7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler, <em>&quot;Groeten en liefs aan allen&quot;. Het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank, </em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, p. 128.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"flry3\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Die verschobene Million&quot;, <em>Die Neueste Zeitung</em>, 12 oktober 1932.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"faxhb\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD) (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. dr., Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"284kd\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Melissa M&uuml;ller, <em>Anne Frank. De biografie</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1998, p. 301.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Herbert Frank was de jongste broer van Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6phm3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Hij trouwde&nbsp;op <strong>12 april 1922</strong> met de Amerikaanse Hortense Rah Schott, die in Aken woonde. Het huwelijk werd&nbsp;op <strong>16 augustus 1932</strong> ontbonden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fxyi7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In <strong>april &lsquo;32</strong> werd&nbsp;Herbert gearresteerd wegens een transactie die in strijd was met sinds <strong>1931 </strong>geldende bepalingen voor effectenhandel met het buitenland. Toen hij op <strong>14 mei 1932</strong> vrijkwam, vertrok&nbsp;hij naar Parijs. Hij deelde&nbsp;de rechtbank mee dat hij door het lang aanslepen van de zaak materiele en geestelijke schade leed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"flry3\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> &nbsp;Herbert bleef&nbsp;zo&rsquo;n twintig jaar in Frankrijk. Hij kwam&nbsp;tijdens de oorlog in het kamp voor stateloze vluchtelingen in Gurs terecht. In <strong>1955 </strong>voegde&nbsp;hij zich bij zijn familie in Zwitserland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"faxhb\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"284kd\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6phm3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wordt door Anne aangeduid als: <em>Herbi</em>. Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 oktober 1942, 1e, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fxyi7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler, <em>&quot;Groeten en liefs aan allen&quot;. Het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank, </em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, p. 128.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"flry3\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Die verschobene Million&quot;, <em>Die Neueste Zeitung</em>, 12 oktober 1932.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"faxhb\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD) (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uigebr. dr., Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"284kd\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Melissa M&uuml;ller, <em>Anne Frank. De biografie</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1998, p. 301.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
                "content_en": "<p>Herbert Frank was the youngest brother of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6phm3\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> He married the American Hortense Rah Schott, who lived in Aachen, on <strong>12 April 1922</strong>. The marriage was dissolved on <strong>16 August 1932</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fxyi7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In <strong>April 1932</strong> Herbert was arrested for a transaction that violated the regulations for trading securities with foreign countries that had been in force since <strong>1931</strong>. When he was released on <strong>14 May 1932</strong>, he left for Paris. He informed the court that he was suffering material and mental harm because of how long the case has dragged on.<sup data-footnote-id=\"flry3\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> &nbsp;Herbert stayed in France for about twenty years. During the war, he ended up in a camp for stateless refugees in Gurs. In <strong>1955</strong>, he joined his family in Switzerland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"faxhb\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"284kd\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6phm3\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to him as <em>Herbi</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 October 1942, 1st, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fxyi7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler, <em>&quot;Groeten en liefs aan allen&quot;. Het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank, </em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, p. 128.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"flry3\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Die verschobene Million&quot;, <em>Die Neueste Zeitung</em>, 12 oktober 1932.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"faxhb\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (NIOD) (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. dr., Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"284kd\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Melissa M&uuml;ller, <em>Anne Frank. De biografie</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1998, p. 301.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>",
                "birth_date": "1891-10-31",
                "death_date": "1987-03-20",
                "gender": "male",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "",
                "death_country": "",
                "summary": "Herbert Frank was the youngest brother of Otto Frank.",
                "summary_nl": "Herbert Frank was de jongste broer van Otto Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Herbert Frank was the youngest brother of Otto Frank.",
                "same_as": null,
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 33.865997
        },
        {
            "type": "person",
            "instance": {
                "id": 193,
                "image": {
                    "id": 168,
                    "uuid": "2d675b73-de06-4ea6-ae94-3f427033b518",
                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_027.086",
                    "title": "Margot Frank, Amsterdam, mei 1939",
                    "alt": "Polyfoto. Fotocollectie: Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/9c2717fe-2305-e3c1-33eb-8cac8fb8d7aa.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "Pasfoto in zwart wit van Margot Frank uit een fotoalbum, genomen bij Polyfoto in Amsterdam op mei 1939, foto op p.54 in album van Anne Frank met groene kaft met foto's gemaakt tussen 1929 en 1942.\r\nBijschrift in handschrift Anne: 'Mei 1939'.",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                },
                "pictures": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/e4a1ba76-6838-4779-9853-b332dcee8815/",
                "subjects": [
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/2abdc9fe-b0e6-493d-a6cd-a8fd85baabd7",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/3684c3f2-ba86-43cb-a9ed-73e6ec6c6189",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f7a52f10-0b1d-40cf-9d2f-26bb239d8b2e",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/ea60d7fb-e3c0-4a79-9764-2ea6133e64b3",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d251b2da-a36c-453f-ab92-dc3b7e340ad3",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/6cfc1e3f-c379-46f9-aa08-c51f49467223",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/89ad83b6-7251-4c78-8356-6e7b08955b2b",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/82b03c90-8415-4bd9-bd97-09dc42d94819",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/5f313320-29fb-4364-a148-5b9111f12e47",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/ad79033a-4baa-45b8-b5bf-29761518e60f",
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/7e611418-a939-409e-9e0c-7f667267f009"
                ],
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "e4a1ba76-6838-4779-9853-b332dcee8815",
                "first_name": "Margot Betti",
                "last_name": "Frank",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Margot Frank",
                "title_nl": "Margot Frank",
                "title_en": "Margot Frank",
                "content": "<p>Margot was born on <strong>16 February 1926 </strong>in the <em>Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein</em> clinic in Frankfurt am Main.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pbud5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was 54 centimetres long and weighed 8 pounds.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jfoq8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was the frst child of Otto Frank and Edith Holl&auml;nder.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>She attended the Ludwig Richterschule from <strong>April 1932 </strong>to <strong>March 1933</strong>. In that month she transferred to the Varrentrappschule. This transfer coincided with the family&#39;s move to Dantestrasse and was undoubtedly related to it. When her parents decided to leave Germany, Margot first went to stay with her grandmother in Aachen. There she attended the J&uuml;dische Volksschule on Bergdriesch until <strong>22 December</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In Amsterdam Margot went to the Jeker School and subsequently to the Municipal Lyceum for Girls. Pretty soon she was getting good grades in most subjects, which indicates that she had had no trouble mastering the Dutch language. In the summer of <strong>1941</strong>, segregation of education was imposed and Margot and her friend Jetteke Frijda had to leave the Girls&#39; Lyceum. They both went to the Jewish Lyceum.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot was a sporty person. Among other things, she rowed&nbsp;and played tennis. With some classmates from the Girls&#39; Lyceum, she rowed with a club located under the Berlage Bridge. When Margot and the coach &mdash; who was also Jewish &mdash; were banned from sports, the other girls also stopped.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 July 1942 </strong>Margot was summoned to report for a German labour camp. Her parents decided to accelerate their long-standing plans to go into hiding. On the morning of <strong>6 July</strong>, Margot cycled to Prinsengracht 263, accompanied by Miep Gies. The rest of the family followed on foot.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot was quiet and withdrawn by nature. In the Secret Annex, she mainly read and did schoolwork. She took a Latin course through LOI, obtaining good marks. What is known about Margot&#39;s life in the Secret Annex comes mainly from Anne&#39;s diary. Only Otto Frank and Miep Gies have said anything more about it. Miep did not remember having exchanged a word with her during this period. After the arrest on <strong>4 August 1944</strong>, Margot was sent via Westerbork to Auschwitz. For the first eight weeks she was with her mother and Anne. In <strong>late October or early November</strong>, the girls were put on a transport to Germany and ended up in Bergen Belsen. Margot contracted typhus and died in <strong>Februay 1945, </strong>probably shortly&nbsp;before her 19th birthday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aqo39\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pbud5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De kliniek heet nu:&nbsp;<em>Krankenhaus Maingau vom Roten Kreuz</em>.&nbsp;In 1890 opende het &#39;Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz&#39; in Frankfurt am Main het Maingau-Krankenhaus, <a href=\"https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html</a> (geraadpleegd december 2015).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jfoq8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_MFrank_III_045: Fotoalbum &ldquo;Unser Kind&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aqo39\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Literature: Menno Metselaar, &#39;A Margot Frank House? The forgotten sister of Anne&#39;, in Anne Frank Magazine 2000, p. 28-35; Anco Mali, <em>Margot Frank en de anderen</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2005; Sophie Zijlstra, <em>Margot</em>, Amsterdam: Querido, 2012; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in the Secret Annexe: who was who?</em>, Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2015.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Margot kwam op <strong>16 februari 1926</strong> ter wereld in de kliniek van de <em>Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein</em>&nbsp;te Frankfurt am Main.<sup data-footnote-id=\"n78ti\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Ze was 54 centimeter lang en woog&nbsp;8 pond.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bifsf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze was het eerste kind van Otto Frank en Edith H&ouml;llander.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ze bezocht&nbsp;van&nbsp;<strong>april 1932</strong>&nbsp;tot maart&nbsp;<strong>1933</strong>&nbsp;de&nbsp;<em>Ludwig Richterschule</em>. In die maand stapte ze over naar de&nbsp;<em>Varrentrappschule</em>. Deze overstap viel samen met de verhuizing van het gezin naar de Dantestrasse, en hing&nbsp;er ongetwijfeld mee samen. Toen haar ouders besloten Duitsland te verlaten, ging&nbsp;Margot eerst naar haar oma in Aken. Daar bezocht ze tot&nbsp;<strong>22 december</strong>&nbsp;de <em>J&uuml;dische Volksschule</em>&nbsp;aan de Bergdriesch.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In Amsterdam ging Margot naar de&nbsp;Jekerschool, en vervolgens naar het &lsquo;Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes&rsquo;. Al vrij snel haalde&nbsp;ze voor de meeste vakken goede cijfers, wat aantoonde&nbsp;dat ze zich de Nederlandse taal gemakkelijk eigen maakte. In de <strong>zomer van 1941</strong> werd&nbsp;de segregatie van het onderwijs in gang gezet en moesten Margot en haar vriendin Jetteke Frijda het Meisjeslyceum verlaten. Beiden gingen&nbsp;naar het&nbsp;Joods Lyceum.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot was sportief. Ze deed&nbsp;onder meer aan roeien en tennis. Met enkele klasgenoten van het Meisjeslyceum roeide&nbsp;ze bij een club onder de Berlagebrug. Toen Margot en de - ook Joodse - coach van sportbeoefening werden uitgesloten, hielden ook de andere meisjes het voor gezien.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op&nbsp;<strong>5 juli 194</strong>2 werd&nbsp;Margot opgeroepen zich voor een Duits werkkamp te melden. Haar ouders besloten de al langer bestaande onderduikplannen te versnellen. In de ochtend van&nbsp;<strong>6 juli</strong>&nbsp;fietste Margot onder begeleiding van&nbsp;Miep Gies naar Prinsengracht 263. De rest van het gezin volgde&nbsp;lopend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot was stil en teruggetrokken van aard. In het Achterhuis las&nbsp;en leerde&nbsp;ze vooral. Ze volgde&nbsp;met goede resultaten een cursus Latijn bij het LOI. Wat bekend is over Margots leven in het Achterhuis komt vooral uit het dagboek van Anne. Alleen&nbsp;Otto Frank en&nbsp;Miep Gies hebben daar nog iets over gezegd. Miep herinnerde&nbsp;zich niet in deze periode een woord met haar te hebben gewisseld. Na de arrestatie op <strong>4 augustus 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;Margot via Westerbork in Auschwitz terecht. De eerste acht weken was ze samen met haar moeder en&nbsp;Anne. <strong>Eind oktober</strong> of <strong>begin november</strong> werden de meisjes op transport gezet naar Duitsland en belandden in Bergen-Belsen. Margot kreeg&nbsp;vlektyfus en overleed&nbsp;in <strong>februari 1945</strong>, waarschijnlijk kort voor haar&nbsp;19e verjaardag.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6qt2b\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"n78ti\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De kliniek heet nu:&nbsp;<em>Krankenhaus Maingau vom Roten Kreuz</em>.&nbsp;In 1890 opende het &#39;Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz&#39; in Frankfurt am Main het Maingau-Krankenhaus, <a href=\"https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html</a> (geraadpleegd december 2015).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bifsf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_MFrank_III_045: Fotoalbum &ldquo;Unser Kind&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6qt2b\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Literatuur: Menno Metselaar, &#39;Het Margot Frank Huis? De vergeten zus van Anne&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine</em> 2000, p. 28-35; Anco Mali, <em>Margot Frank en de anderen</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2005; Sophie&nbsp; Zijlstra, <em>Margot</em>, Amsterdam: Querido, 2012; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in het Achterhuis: wie was wie?</em>, Amsterdam: Rainbow, 2014.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Margot was born on <strong>16 February 1926 </strong>in the <em>Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein</em> clinic in Frankfurt am Main.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pbud5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She was 54 centimetres long and weighed 8 pounds.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jfoq8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was the frst child of Otto Frank and Edith Holl&auml;nder.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>She attended the Ludwig Richterschule from <strong>April 1932 </strong>to <strong>March 1933</strong>. In that month she transferred to the Varrentrappschule. This transfer coincided with the family&#39;s move to Dantestrasse and was undoubtedly related to it. When her parents decided to leave Germany, Margot first went to stay with her grandmother in Aachen. There she attended the J&uuml;dische Volksschule on Bergdriesch until <strong>22 December</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In Amsterdam Margot went to the Jeker School and subsequently to the Municipal Lyceum for Girls. Pretty soon she was getting good grades in most subjects, which indicates that she had had no trouble mastering the Dutch language. In the summer of <strong>1941</strong>, segregation of education was imposed and Margot and her friend Jetteke Frijda had to leave the Girls&#39; Lyceum. They both went to the Jewish Lyceum.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot was a sporty person. Among other things, she rowed&nbsp;and played tennis. With some classmates from the Girls&#39; Lyceum, she rowed with a club located under the Berlage Bridge. When Margot and the coach &mdash; who was also Jewish &mdash; were banned from sports, the other girls also stopped.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 July 1942 </strong>Margot was summoned to report for a German labour camp. Her parents decided to accelerate their long-standing plans to go into hiding. On the morning of <strong>6 July</strong>, Margot cycled to Prinsengracht 263, accompanied by Miep Gies. The rest of the family followed on foot.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot was quiet and withdrawn by nature. In the Secret Annex, she mainly read and did schoolwork. She took a Latin course through LOI, obtaining good marks. What is known about Margot&#39;s life in the Secret Annex comes mainly from Anne&#39;s diary. Only Otto Frank and Miep Gies have said anything more about it. Miep did not remember having exchanged a word with her during this period. After the arrest on <strong>4 August 1944</strong>, Margot was sent via Westerbork to Auschwitz. For the first eight weeks she was with her mother and Anne. In <strong>late October or early November</strong>, the girls were put on a transport to Germany and ended up in Bergen Belsen. Margot contracted typhus and died in <strong>Februay 1945, </strong>probably shortly&nbsp;before her 19th birthday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aqo39\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pbud5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>De kliniek heet nu:&nbsp;<em>Krankenhaus Maingau vom Roten Kreuz</em>.&nbsp;In 1890 opende het &#39;Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz&#39; in Frankfurt am Main het Maingau-Krankenhaus, <a href=\"https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html</a> (geraadpleegd december 2015).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jfoq8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_MFrank_III_045: Fotoalbum &ldquo;Unser Kind&rdquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aqo39\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Literature: Menno Metselaar, &#39;A Margot Frank House? The forgotten sister of Anne&#39;, in Anne Frank Magazine 2000, p. 28-35; Anco Mali, <em>Margot Frank en de anderen</em>, Soesterberg: Aspekt, 2005; Sophie Zijlstra, <em>Margot</em>, Amsterdam: Querido, 2012; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in the Secret Annexe: who was who?</em>, Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2015.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1926-02-16",
                "death_date": null,
                "gender": "female",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Bergen-Belsen",
                "death_country": "Duitsland",
                "summary": "Margot Frank was the sister of Anne Frank.",
                "summary_nl": "Margot Frank was de zus van Anne Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Margot Frank was the sister of Anne Frank.",
                "same_as": [
                    "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_biografieen/Margot-Frank"
                ],
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                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_027.098",
                    "title": "Anne Frank, Amsterdam, mei 1942",
                    "alt": "Polyfoto. Fotocollectie: Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/e2721f7d-9990-e64e-aaf7-085e8c37b11d.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "Pasfoto in zwart wit van Anne Frank uit een fotoalbum, genomen bij Polyfoto in Amsterdam in mei 1942, foto op p.55 in album van Anne Frank met groene kaft met foto's gemaakt tussen 1929 en 1942.\r\nBijschrift in handschrift Anne: 'Mei 1942'.",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
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                "first_name": "Annelies Marie",
                "last_name": "Frank",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Anne Frank",
                "title_nl": "Anne Frank",
                "title_en": "Anne Frank",
                "content": "<p>Annelies Marie (Anne) Frank was born on <strong>12 June 1929</strong>, in the Germany city Frankfurt am Main.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wvqif\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Anne was the second child of Otto Frank and Edith Holl&auml;nder and was preceded by Margot. Like her sister Margot, Anne was born in the clinic of the <em>Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3k121\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was 54 centimetres long and weighed 8&frac14; pounds.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v9ruq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> A clinic register indicates that <em>&#39;Saugling&#39; Frank</em> was a <em>&#39;Junge&#39;</em> (boy) and that Anne remained at the clinic with Edith for twelve days after the birth.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3d436\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;According to maid K&auml;thi Stilgenbauer, the obstetrician was Professor Traugott.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zicjx\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After her parents&#39; decision to leave Germany, Anne initially lived with her mother and Margot with her grandmother in Aachen. Margot moved permanently to Amsterdam in <strong>December 1933</strong>; Anne had to wait until <strong>February 1934</strong>. From <strong>April 1934</strong> to <strong>July 1935</strong> she went to the kindergarten class at the 6th Montessori school. In<strong> August 1935</strong> Anne went to the first grade of said school. After the sixth grade she was supposed to stay at the school for a seventh year, but due to educational segregation this was not possible. She was accepted at the Jewish Lyceum, and so went to secondary school after all. Anne described her classmates and various incidents at the Jewish Lyceum in her diary and <em>Verhaaltjesboek</em> (Book of tales). Anne&#39;s health was not very good. She was often ill and couldn&#39;t take part in gymnastics because her arms and legs dislocated easily. This also affected her when she wanted to do gymnastics in the Secret Annex.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was the only person who documented the hiding period in the Secret Annex extensively. Only Otto Frank and Miep Gies have added to and corrected this information. This means that everything we know about the hiding period is highly coloured by Anne&#39;s perception. Margot also kept a diary, but it has not survived.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the arrest on <strong>4 August 1944</strong>, Anne ended up in Auschwitz via Westerbork. For the first eight weeks Anne was with her mother and Margot. In <strong>late October</strong> or <strong>early November</strong> the girls were put on a transport to Germany and ended up in Bergen Belsen. Like Margot, Anne contracted typhus and died in <strong>February 1945</strong>, shortly after her sister, at the age of 15.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gvqo8\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wvqif\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Standesamt Frankfurt am Main, Geboorteakte nr. 484, 17 juni 1929.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3k121\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het heet nu het Krankenhaus Maingau vom Roten Kreuz. In 1890 opende het &#39;Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz&#39; hier het Maingau-Krankenhaus, <a href=\"http://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd december 2015).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v9ruq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_AFrank_III_027: Fotoalbum met foto&#39;s gemaakt tussen 1929 en 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3d436\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Research Von Wolzogen voor:&nbsp;J&uuml;rgen Steen, Wolf von Wolzogen,&nbsp;<em>Anne aus Frankfurt. Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks,&nbsp;</em>Frankfurt am Main:&nbsp;Historisches Museum, 1990, Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, 2.4.1./1. Volgens de notatie van Von Wolzogen komt dit uit het &#39;Soc.Druck.-Archiv&#39;. Volgens H.P. Dieterich van &#39;Societ&auml;ts Verlag&#39; is alle archief in WO2 verwoest (email 17 november 2009). Hij verwijst naar het archief van de kliniek, maar daarvoor geldt hetzelfde.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zicjx\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Schnabel, <em>Anne Frank. Spur eines Kindes</em>, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer,&nbsp; 1958, p. 15. Dit moet ongetwijfeld zijn professor Traugott, gynaecoloog en verloskundige, die ook bij de geboorte van Margot was. Von Wolzogen noemt ook Traugott (zie noot 4).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gvqo8\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Literature: Mirjam Pressler, <em>The story of Anne Frank</em>, London: MacMillan Children&#39;s Books, 1999; Carol Ann Lee, <em>Roses from the earth: the biography of Anne Frank</em>, London : Viking, 1999; Francine Prose, <em>Anne Frank: the book, the life, the afterlife</em>, New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2009; Hans Ulrich, <em>Who was Anne Frank? Her life, the Annex and her death: a short biography</em>, Laren: Verbum, 2010; Melissa M&uuml;ller, <em>Anne Frank: the biography,&nbsp;</em>upd. and exp. ed., London: Bloomsbury, 2013; Aukje Vergeest,<em> Anne Frank in the Secret Annexe: who was who?</em>, Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2015; David Barnouw, <a href=\"https://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Frank\" target=\"_blank\">Frank, Annelies Marie</a>, in: <em>Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland</em>, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Annelies Marie (Anne) Frank werd op <strong>12 juni 1929</strong> geboren in Frankfurt am Main.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ns0k8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Anne was het tweede kind van Otto Frank en Edith Holl&auml;nder en werd&nbsp;voorafgegaan door Margot. Net als haar zus Margot kwam ze ter wereld in de kliniek van de <em>Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sr3a8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Ze was 54 centimeter lang en woog 8&frac14; pond.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g88l1\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;In een register van de kliniek is aangegeven dat <em>&#39;Saugling&#39; Frank</em> een <em>&#39;Junge&#39; </em>(jongen) was&nbsp;en dat Anne met Edith na de geboorte twaalf dagen in de kliniek bleef.<sup data-footnote-id=\"uaywr\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Volgens dienstmeisje&nbsp;K&auml;thi Stilgenbauer was&nbsp;de verloskundige professor Traugott.<sup data-footnote-id=\"615mu\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na het besluit van haar ouders om Duitsland te verlaten, woonde Anne aanvankelijk met haar moeder en Margot bij haar grootmoeder in Aken. Margot ging in <strong>december 1933</strong> definitief naar Amsterdam; Anne moest nog tot <strong>februari 1934</strong> wachten. Van <strong>april 1934</strong> tot<strong> juli 1935 </strong>ging ze naar de kleuterklas van de 6e Montessorischool. In <strong>augustus 1935</strong> ging Anne naar eerste klas van dezelfde school. Na de zesde klas moest ze eigenlijk nog een zevende jaar op de school blijven, maar als gevolg van de segregatie in het onderwijs ging dat niet door. Ze werd aangenomen op het Joods Lyceum en ging dus toch middelbaar onderwijs volgen. Haar klasgenoten en verschillende voorvallen op het Joods Lyceum beschreef Anne in haar dagboek en in haar Verhaaltjesboek. Anne had geen erg goede gezondheid. Ze was vaak ziek en ze kon niet aan gym meedoen omdat haar armen en benen snel uit de kom schoten. Ook toen ze in het Achterhuis aan gymnastiek wilde doen, kreeg ze hier last van.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was de enige die de onderduikperiode in het Achterhuis uitgebreid heeft gedocumenteerd. Alleen Otto Frank en Miep Gies hebben hierop enige aanvullingen en correcties gegeven. Dit betekent dat alles wat we over de onderduikperiode weten in hoge mate door Annes perceptie is gekleurd. Ook Margot hield een dagboek bij, maar dat is niet bewaard geleven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na de arrestatie op <strong>4 augustus 1944</strong> kwam Anne via Westerbork in Auschwitz terecht. De eerste acht weken was Anne samen met haar moeder en Margot. <strong>Eind oktober of begin november </strong>werden de meisjes op transport gezet naar Duitsland en belandden in Bergen-Belsen. Anne kreeg net als Margot vlektyfus en overleed in <strong>februari 1945</strong>, kort na haar zuster, op 15-jarige leeftijd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx0mp\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ns0k8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Standesamt Frankfurt am Main, Geboorteakte nr. 484, 17 juni 1929.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sr3a8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het heet nu het Krankenhaus Maingau vom Roten Kreuz. In 1890 opende het &#39;Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz&#39; hier het Maingau-Krankenhaus, <a href=\"http://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd december 2015).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g88l1\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_AFrank_III_027: Fotoalbum met foto&#39;s gemaakt tussen 1929 en 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"uaywr\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Research Von Wolzogen voor:&nbsp;J&uuml;rgen Steen, Wolf von Wolzogen,&nbsp;<em>Anne aus Frankfurt. Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks,&nbsp;</em>Frankfurt am Main:&nbsp;Historisches Museum, 1990, Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, 2.4.1./1. Volgens de notatie van Von Wolzogen komt dit uit het &#39;Soc.Druck.-Archiv&#39;. Volgens H.P. Dieterich van &#39;Societ&auml;ts Verlag&#39; is alle archief in WO2 verwoest (email 17 november 2009). Hij verwijst naar het archief van de kliniek, maar daarvoor geldt hetzelfde.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"615mu\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Schnabel, <em>Anne Frank. Spur eines Kindes</em>, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer,&nbsp; 1958, p. 15. Dit moet ongetwijfeld zijn professor Traugott, gynaecoloog en verloskundige, die ook bij de geboorte van Margot was. Von Wolzogen noemt ook Traugott (zie noot 4).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx0mp\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Literatuur: Mirjam Pressler, <em>Daar verlang ik zo naar: het levensverhaal van Anne Frank</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1993 Carol Ann Lee, <em>Anne Frank 1929-1945: pluk rozen op aarde en vergeet mij niet</em>, Amsterdam: Olympus, 2001; Carol Ann Lee, <em>Anne Frank, 1929-1945: het leven van een jong meisje: de definitieve biografie</em>, Amsterdam: Balans, 2009; Francine Prose, <em>Anne Frank: haar boek, haar leven, haar voortbestaan</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas, 2009; Hans Ulrich, <em>Wie was Anne Frank? Haar leven, het Achterhuis en haar door: een korte biografie voor jong en oud</em>, Laren: Verbum, 2010; Bart Funnekotter, <em>Anne Frank in een notendop</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2011; Melissa M&uuml;ller, <em>Anne Frank: de biografie</em>, 5e, geheel herz. dr., Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2013; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in het Achterhuis: wie was wie?</em>, Amsterdam: Rainbow, 2014; David Barnouw, <a href=\"https://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Frank\" target=\"_blank\">Frank, Annelies Marie</a>, in: <em>Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland</em>, 2018; Martin van Gelderen &amp; Frank van Vree, <em>&#39;Joods kind dat weet van eeuwen heeft&#39;: Anne Frank als vluchtelinge, schrijfster en icoon</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2022; Ronald Leopold e.a., <em>Anne Frank: leven, werk en betekenis</em>, Amsterdam: Queriod, 2023.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Annelies Marie (Anne) Frank was born on <strong>12 June 1929</strong>, in the Germany city Frankfurt am Main.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wvqif\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Anne was the second child of Otto Frank and Edith Holl&auml;nder and was preceded by Margot. Like her sister Margot, Anne was born in the clinic of the <em>Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3k121\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> She was 54 centimetres long and weighed 8&frac14; pounds.<sup data-footnote-id=\"v9ruq\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> A clinic register indicates that <em>&#39;Saugling&#39; Frank</em> was a <em>&#39;Junge&#39;</em> (boy) and that Anne remained at the clinic with Edith for twelve days after the birth.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3d436\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;According to maid K&auml;thi Stilgenbauer, the obstetrician was Professor Traugott.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zicjx\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After her parents&#39; decision to leave Germany, Anne initially lived with her mother and Margot with her grandmother in Aachen. Margot moved permanently to Amsterdam in <strong>December 1933</strong>; Anne had to wait until <strong>February 1934</strong>. From <strong>April 1934</strong> to <strong>July 1935</strong> she went to the kindergarten class at the 6th Montessori school. In<strong> August 1935</strong> Anne went to the first grade of said school. After the sixth grade she was supposed to stay at the school for a seventh year, but due to educational segregation this was not possible. She was accepted at the Jewish Lyceum, and so went to secondary school after all. Anne described her classmates and various incidents at the Jewish Lyceum in her diary and <em>Verhaaltjesboek</em> (Book of tales). Anne&#39;s health was not very good. She was often ill and couldn&#39;t take part in gymnastics because her arms and legs dislocated easily. This also affected her when she wanted to do gymnastics in the Secret Annex.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne was the only person who documented the hiding period in the Secret Annex extensively. Only Otto Frank and Miep Gies have added to and corrected this information. This means that everything we know about the hiding period is highly coloured by Anne&#39;s perception. Margot also kept a diary, but it has not survived.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the arrest on <strong>4 August 1944</strong>, Anne ended up in Auschwitz via Westerbork. For the first eight weeks Anne was with her mother and Margot. In <strong>late October</strong> or <strong>early November</strong> the girls were put on a transport to Germany and ended up in Bergen Belsen. Like Margot, Anne contracted typhus and died in <strong>February 1945</strong>, shortly after her sister, at the age of 15.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gvqo8\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wvqif\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Standesamt Frankfurt am Main, Geboorteakte nr. 484, 17 juni 1929.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3k121\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het heet nu het Krankenhaus Maingau vom Roten Kreuz. In 1890 opende het &#39;Vaterl&auml;ndische Frauenverein vom Roten Kreuz&#39; hier het Maingau-Krankenhaus, <a href=\"http://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.rotkreuzkliniken.de/geschichte.html</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd december 2015).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"v9ruq\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_AFrank_III_027: Fotoalbum met foto&#39;s gemaakt tussen 1929 en 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3d436\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Research Von Wolzogen voor:&nbsp;J&uuml;rgen Steen, Wolf von Wolzogen,&nbsp;<em>Anne aus Frankfurt. Leben und Lebenswelt Anne Franks,&nbsp;</em>Frankfurt am Main:&nbsp;Historisches Museum, 1990, Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, 2.4.1./1. Volgens de notatie van Von Wolzogen komt dit uit het &#39;Soc.Druck.-Archiv&#39;. Volgens H.P. Dieterich van &#39;Societ&auml;ts Verlag&#39; is alle archief in WO2 verwoest (email 17 november 2009). Hij verwijst naar het archief van de kliniek, maar daarvoor geldt hetzelfde.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zicjx\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Schnabel, <em>Anne Frank. Spur eines Kindes</em>, Frankfurt am Main: Fischer,&nbsp; 1958, p. 15. Dit moet ongetwijfeld zijn professor Traugott, gynaecoloog en verloskundige, die ook bij de geboorte van Margot was. Von Wolzogen noemt ook Traugott (zie noot 4).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gvqo8\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Literature: Mirjam Pressler, <em>The story of Anne Frank</em>, London: MacMillan Children&#39;s Books, 1999; Carol Ann Lee, <em>Roses from the earth: the biography of Anne Frank</em>, London : Viking, 1999; Francine Prose, <em>Anne Frank: the book, the life, the afterlife</em>, New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2009; Hans Ulrich, <em>Who was Anne Frank? Her life, the Annex and her death: a short biography</em>, Laren: Verbum, 2010; Melissa M&uuml;ller, <em>Anne Frank: the biography,&nbsp;</em>upd. and exp. ed., London: Bloomsbury, 2013; Aukje Vergeest,<em> Anne Frank in the Secret Annexe: who was who?</em>, Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2015; David Barnouw, <a href=\"https://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/Frank\" target=\"_blank\">Frank, Annelies Marie</a>, in: <em>Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland</em>, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1929-06-12",
                "death_date": null,
                "gender": "female",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Bergen-Belsen",
                "death_country": "Duitsland",
                "summary": "Anne Frank was a Jewish girl who became world-famous thanks to the diary she wrote during the Second World War, while she was in hiding in the Achterhuis (the Annex) on Prinsengracht in Amsterdam.",
                "summary_nl": "Anne Frank was een Joods meisje dat wereldberoemd is geworden door het dagboek dat ze schreef tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog, toen ze ondergedoken zat in het Achterhuis aan de Prinsengracht in Amsterdam.",
                "summary_en": "Anne Frank was a Jewish girl who became world-famous thanks to the diary she wrote during the Second World War, while she was in hiding in the Achterhuis (the Annex) on Prinsengracht in Amsterdam.",
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                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_055.133",
                    "title": "Otto Frank, Amsterdam, mei 1936",
                    "alt": "Fotocollectie: Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/e73c20a4-8bb2-307d-f5f0-2d93291a2009.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "Pasfoto in zwart wit van Otto Frank uit een fotoalbum, genomen bij Polyfoto in Amsterdam in mei 1936, foto op p.52 in het album 'Blanco Monster Electro Huishoudboek 1937'. Bijschrift in handschrift Anne: 'mei 1936'.",
                    "author": "Conclusie herkomst: kan worden ingezet voor het publiek.",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein"
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                "first_name": "Otto Heinrich",
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                "title": "Otto Frank",
                "title_nl": "Otto Frank",
                "title_en": "Otto Frank",
                "content": "<p>Otto Heinrich Frank was born on Sunday, <strong>12 May 1889</strong> in Frankfurt am Main, the son of <em>Kaufman</em> (merchant) Michael Frank and Alice Betty Frank-Stern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"osvjv\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Otto was the second child of a family of four children, all born in Frankfurt am Main. He had two brothers,&nbsp;Robert Hermann and Herbert August,&nbsp;and a sister named Hel&egrave;ne. At the time of Otto Frank&#39;s birth, the Frank family lived at G&auml;rtnerweg 58 in Frankfurt am Main.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Jewish Frank family belonged to the wealthy circles of Frankfurt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0nv0p\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Otto&#39;s father Michael managed to set up a successful banking business in the last decades of the nineteenth century. The family was a typical product of the German <em>Bildungsb&uuml;rgertum</em>. After attending the Lessing Gymnasium, Otto went to the University of Heidelberg for a summer semester, where he took art history classes. After this he completed an apprenticeship at the Ferdinand Sander bank in Frankfurt. Then he left for New York. He worked as an intern at Macy&#39;s and at a bank in the Financial District. Back in Germany, he worked for Fenestra, a manufacturer of various steel constructions and industrial installations. After the outbreak of World War I, Otto worked in a horseshoe factory before joining the army.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>August 1915</strong>, he joined the Third Regiment <em>Fussartillerie</em>&nbsp;in Mainz. After his training, his unit ended up in the area of Bapaume. Otto was a telephone operator and observer, so he was at some distance from the actual battle line. After his demobilisation he took over the management of the family bank. The company had fallen on hard times due to the economic and political chaos in Germany. In <strong>1923</strong> Otto and some relatives in Amsterdam founded two companies in the financial sector. Jo Kleiman was involved in both companies as managing director and deputy manager.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1925 </strong>Otto married Edith Holl&auml;nder. Her family had a business very similar to Fenestra. The couple had two daughters, Margot and Anne. The economic situation worsened after <strong>1929</strong>. The political climate in Germany also deteriorated rapidly. After Hitler&#39;s rise to power, Otto and his family moved to Amsterdam. In the <strong>summer of 1933</strong> Otto founded the Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij. In <strong>December 1933</strong> he became a supervisory director of the &#39;Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie&#39;, of which Kleiman was a director. At the <strong>end of the 1930s</strong>, an attempt to set up a business in England came to nothing. The &#39;Centrale Maatschappij&#39; disappeared, after which Otto and Kleiman concentrated on building up Pectacon.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the early stages of the war Otto tried to emigrate with his family to the United States, which failed due to the impossible procedure and bureaucracy. When the persecution measures increased, the plan to go into hiding was born. At&nbsp;Kleiman&#39;s initiative, the Secret Annex&nbsp;was made ready for this. The family moved into the hiding place on <strong>6 July 1942</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto was the only one of the eight people in hiding to return from Auschwitz after the arrest and deportation. He resumed his work and also did a lot to place orphaned Jewish children with relatives or foster families. He also&nbsp;edited Anne&#39;s diary and made sure it was published.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b0mhr\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> He saw Anne as a representative of all the murdered Jewish children and hoped that her diary would bring mankind to its senses.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After his return Otto lived with Miep and Jan Gies for seven years. He then moved to Basel and married Elfriede Markovits, who had had similar war experiences. He continued corresponding&nbsp;until an advanced age about Anne and her world of ideas, especially with young people from all over the world. He died in a Swiss hospital at the age of 91.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"osvjv\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_058: Geburtsurkunde Standesamt Frankfurt am Main I nr. 1789 (afschrift, 19 oktober 1953). Op de akte staat verder vermeld dat beide ouders isra&euml;litisch en in Frankfurt woonachtig zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0nv0p\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>For biographies, see:&nbsp;Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, London: Viking, 2002; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in the Secret Annexe: who was who?</em>, Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2015.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b0mhr\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Karen Bartlett. <em>The diary that changed the world: the remarkable story of Otto Frank and the diary of Anne Frank</em>, London: Biteback Publishing, 2022; Sandra van Beek, <em>Geschiedenis van het dagboek: Otto Frank en Het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Pluijm, 2022.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Otto Heinrich Frank werd&nbsp;geboren op zondag <strong>12 mei 1889</strong> in Frankfurt am Main, als zoon van&nbsp;<em>Kaufman</em> (koopman) Michael Frank en Alice Betty Frank-Stern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ps0n\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup><br />\r\nOtto Heinrich was&nbsp;het tweede kind uit een gezin van vier kinderen, allen geboren in Frankfurt am Main. Hij had twee broers,&nbsp;Robert Hermann en Herbert August,&nbsp;en een zus, genaamd Hel&egrave;ne. Ten tijde van Otto Franks geboorte woonde&nbsp;het gezin Frank op G&auml;rtnerweg 58&nbsp;te Frankfurt am Main.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>De Joodse familie Frank behoorde&nbsp;tot de gegoede kringen van Frankfurt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4vud1\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Otto&rsquo;s vader Michael slaagde&nbsp;erin de laatste decennia van de negentiende eeuw in een succesvol bankbedrijf op te zetten. De familie was een typisch product van het Duitse <em>Bildungsb&uuml;rgertum</em>. Na het doorlopen van het Lessing Gymnasium ging&nbsp;Otto voor een zomersemester naar de universiteit van Heidelberg, waar hij colleges kunstgeschiedenis volgde. Hierna doorliep&nbsp;hij een leertijd bij de bank Ferdinand Sander in Frankfurt. Vervolgens vertrok&nbsp;hij naar New York. Hij werkte als stagiair in Macy&rsquo;s en bij een bank in het Financial District. Terug in Duitsland werkte hij bij Fenestra, een fabrikant van allerhande staalconstructies en industri&euml;le installaties. Na het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog werkte Otto, alvorens in het leger te gaan, bij een hoefijzerfabriek.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>augustus 1915</strong> kwam&nbsp;hij terecht bij het derde <em>Regiment Fu&szlig;artillerie</em> in Mainz. Na zijn opleiding kwam&nbsp;zijn eenheid in de omgeving van Bapaume terecht. Otto was telefonist en waarnemer, waardoor hij op enige afstand van de daadwerkelijke gevechtslinie zat. Na zijn demobilisatie nam&nbsp;hij de leiding van de familiebank op zich. Het bedrijf was door de economische en politieke chaos in Duitsland in zwaar weer terechtgekomen. In <strong>1923</strong> richtten Otto en enkele familieleden in Amsterdam twee bedrijven op die zich in de financi&euml;le sector bewogen. Jo Kleiman was bij beide bedrijven als directeur en procuratiehouder betrokken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1925</strong> trouwde&nbsp;Otto met&nbsp;Edith Holl&auml;nder. Haar familie had&nbsp;een bedrijf dat grote overeenkomsten vertoonde&nbsp;met Fenestra. Uit het huwelijk werden de dochters Margot en Anne geboren. Na <strong>1929</strong> werd&nbsp;de economische situatie slechter. Ook het politieke klimaat in Duitsland verslechterde&nbsp;snel. Na Hitlers machtsovername vertrokken Otto en zijn gezin naar Amsterdam. Otto richtte in de zomer van <strong>1933</strong> de Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij op. In <strong>december &#39;33</strong> werd&nbsp;hij commissaris van de &lsquo;Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie&rsquo;, waarvan&nbsp;Kleiman&nbsp;directeur was. <strong>Eind jaren dertig</strong> liep&nbsp;een poging een zaak in Engeland op te zetten op niets uit. De &lsquo;Centrale Maatschappij&rsquo; verdween, waarna Otto en Kleiman zich op de opbouw van Pectacon toelegden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In de beginfase van de oorlog probeerde&nbsp;Otto met zijn gezin naar de Verenigde Staten te emigreren, wat als gevolg van de onmogelijke procedure en bureaucratie mislukte. Toen de vervolgingsmaatregelen toenamen, ontstond&nbsp;het plan om onder te duiken. Op initiatief van Kleiman werd&nbsp;het Achterhuis hiervoor gereed gemaakt. Op <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> betrok&nbsp;het gezin de schuilplaats.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto was de enige van de acht onderduikers die na de arrestatie en deportatie uit Auschwitz terugkeerde. Hij hervatte zijn werk en deed&nbsp;daarnaast veel om Joodse kinderen die ouderloos uit de oorlog kwamen bij familie of pleeggezinnen onder te brengen. Bovendien redigeerde&nbsp;hij Annes dagboek en zorgde&nbsp;dat het uitgegeven werd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"79kwm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Hij zag&nbsp;Anne als representante van alle vermoorde Joodse kinderen en hoopte dat haar dagboek de mensheid tot bezinning zou&nbsp;brengen.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto woonde&nbsp;na terugkeer zeven jaar bij&nbsp;Miep&nbsp;en Jan Gies. Hij vertrok&nbsp;vervolgens naar Bazel en trouwde&nbsp;met Elfriede Markovits, die vergelijkbare oorlogservaringen had. Tot op hoge leeftijd correspondeerde&nbsp;hij met vooral jongeren van over de hele wereld over Anne en haar idee&euml;nwereld. Hij overleed&nbsp;op 91-jarige leeftijd in een Zwitsers ziekenhuis.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ps0n\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_058: Geburtsurkunde Standesamt Frankfurt am Main I nr. 1789 (afschrift, 19 oktober 1953). Op de akte staat verder vermeld dat beide ouders isra&euml;litisch en in Frankfurt woonachtig zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4vud1\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voor biografie&euml;n, zie:&nbsp;Carol Ann Lee, <em>Het verborgen leven van Otto Frank: de biografie</em>, Amsterdam: Balans, 2002; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in het Achterhuis: wie was wie?</em>, Amsterdam: Rainbouw, 2014.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"79kwm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Karen Bartlett. <em>The diary that changed the world: the remarkable story of Otto Frank and the diary of Anne Frank</em>, London: Biteback Publishing, 2022; Sandra van Beek, <em>Geschiedenis van het dagboek: Otto Frank en Het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Pluijm, 2022.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Otto Heinrich Frank was born on Sunday, <strong>12 May 1889</strong> in Frankfurt am Main, the son of <em>Kaufman</em> (merchant) Michael Frank and Alice Betty Frank-Stern.<sup data-footnote-id=\"osvjv\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Otto was the second child of a family of four children, all born in Frankfurt am Main. He had two brothers,&nbsp;Robert Hermann and Herbert August,&nbsp;and a sister named Hel&egrave;ne. At the time of Otto Frank&#39;s birth, the Frank family lived at G&auml;rtnerweg 58 in Frankfurt am Main.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Jewish Frank family belonged to the wealthy circles of Frankfurt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0nv0p\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Otto&#39;s father Michael managed to set up a successful banking business in the last decades of the nineteenth century. The family was a typical product of the German <em>Bildungsb&uuml;rgertum</em>. After attending the Lessing Gymnasium, Otto went to the University of Heidelberg for a summer semester, where he took art history classes. After this he completed an apprenticeship at the Ferdinand Sander bank in Frankfurt. Then he left for New York. He worked as an intern at Macy&#39;s and at a bank in the Financial District. Back in Germany, he worked for Fenestra, a manufacturer of various steel constructions and industrial installations. After the outbreak of World War I, Otto worked in a horseshoe factory before joining the army.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>August 1915</strong>, he joined the Third Regiment <em>Fussartillerie</em>&nbsp;in Mainz. After his training, his unit ended up in the area of Bapaume. Otto was a telephone operator and observer, so he was at some distance from the actual battle line. After his demobilisation he took over the management of the family bank. The company had fallen on hard times due to the economic and political chaos in Germany. In <strong>1923</strong> Otto and some relatives in Amsterdam founded two companies in the financial sector. Jo Kleiman was involved in both companies as managing director and deputy manager.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1925 </strong>Otto married Edith Holl&auml;nder. Her family had a business very similar to Fenestra. The couple had two daughters, Margot and Anne. The economic situation worsened after <strong>1929</strong>. The political climate in Germany also deteriorated rapidly. After Hitler&#39;s rise to power, Otto and his family moved to Amsterdam. In the <strong>summer of 1933</strong> Otto founded the Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij. In <strong>December 1933</strong> he became a supervisory director of the &#39;Centrale Maatschappij voor Handel en Industrie&#39;, of which Kleiman was a director. At the <strong>end of the 1930s</strong>, an attempt to set up a business in England came to nothing. The &#39;Centrale Maatschappij&#39; disappeared, after which Otto and Kleiman concentrated on building up Pectacon.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the early stages of the war Otto tried to emigrate with his family to the United States, which failed due to the impossible procedure and bureaucracy. When the persecution measures increased, the plan to go into hiding was born. At&nbsp;Kleiman&#39;s initiative, the Secret Annex&nbsp;was made ready for this. The family moved into the hiding place on <strong>6 July 1942</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto was the only one of the eight people in hiding to return from Auschwitz after the arrest and deportation. He resumed his work and also did a lot to place orphaned Jewish children with relatives or foster families. He also&nbsp;edited Anne&#39;s diary and made sure it was published.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b0mhr\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> He saw Anne as a representative of all the murdered Jewish children and hoped that her diary would bring mankind to its senses.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After his return Otto lived with Miep and Jan Gies for seven years. He then moved to Basel and married Elfriede Markovits, who had had similar war experiences. He continued corresponding&nbsp;until an advanced age about Anne and her world of ideas, especially with young people from all over the world. He died in a Swiss hospital at the age of 91.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"osvjv\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_058: Geburtsurkunde Standesamt Frankfurt am Main I nr. 1789 (afschrift, 19 oktober 1953). Op de akte staat verder vermeld dat beide ouders isra&euml;litisch en in Frankfurt woonachtig zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0nv0p\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>For biographies, see:&nbsp;Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, London: Viking, 2002; Aukje Vergeest, <em>Anne Frank in the Secret Annexe: who was who?</em>, Amsterdam: Anne Frank House, 2015.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b0mhr\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Karen Bartlett. <em>The diary that changed the world: the remarkable story of Otto Frank and the diary of Anne Frank</em>, London: Biteback Publishing, 2022; Sandra van Beek, <em>Geschiedenis van het dagboek: Otto Frank en Het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Pluijm, 2022.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1889-05-12",
                "death_date": "1980-08-19",
                "gender": "male",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Bazel",
                "death_country": "Zwitserland",
                "summary": "Otto Frank was the father of Margot and Anne Frank.",
                "summary_nl": "Otto Frank was de vader van Margot en Anne Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Otto Frank was the father of Margot and Anne Frank.",
                "same_as": [
                    "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_biografieen/Otto-Frank"
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 33.865997
        },
        {
            "type": "person",
            "instance": {
                "id": 2299,
                "image": null,
                "pictures": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/cbe508d0-8378-4061-ba5c-911b1f9dbed9/",
                "subjects": [],
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "cbe508d0-8378-4061-ba5c-911b1f9dbed9",
                "first_name": "Anna Charlotte",
                "last_name": "Frank - Witt",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Lotte Frank - Witt",
                "title_nl": "Lotte Frank - Witt",
                "title_en": "Lotte Frank - Witt",
                "content": "<p>Anna Charlotte (Lotte/Lotti)&nbsp;Witt was married to Robert Hermann Frank, an older brother of Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>She was a daughter of Gustav Heinrich Witt and Elise Witt &mdash; Wesarg, and had two sisters: Paula (1907) Anneliese Olga (1916).<sup data-footnote-id=\"b6twq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Her father was a policeman, and the non-Jewish Lotte herself worked at the Ricard art gallery as Robert&#39;s secretary. Apparently, her future mother-in-law Alice Frank was initially opposed to the marriage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fs70s\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Her marriage to Robert Hermann Frank took place on <strong>1 July</strong>&nbsp;<strong>1922</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"og17o\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;When the Frank family successively left Frankfurt around <strong>1933</strong>, she and her husband went to London. There they lived in Westminster and Kensington and lived through the Blitz&nbsp;and the further bombing during the Second World War.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the death of her husband, her brother-in-law Otto supported her with small amounts of money. Between the summer of <strong>1954 </strong>and the autumn of <strong>1956 </strong>this amounted to three gifts of 50 pounds.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujsod\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On<strong> 28 March 1972</strong>, she drew up her will.<sup data-footnote-id=\"subkk\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> On her death in <strong>1974</strong>, Lotti left two paintings &quot;in memory of her husband Robert Frank&quot; to the Tate Gallery in London. These were two parts of a triptych by John Martin, &#39;The Last Judgement&#39; and &#39;The Plains of Heaven&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oepv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;The Tate Gallery had already owned the third part, &#39;The Great Day of his Wrath&#39;, since <strong>1945</strong>, so the triptych was now complete again. In <strong>2011-2012</strong> the triptych was part of an exhibition about Martin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qjmsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Lotti Frank&#39;s estate included another several dozen paintings, some by Martin and some by painters from his &#39;school&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fhpzc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"og17o\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><sup data-footnote-id=\"aga7e\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses:&nbsp;</em>Ffm; 1B King Street, St. James Square, London SW1 (Westminster).</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b6twq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/records/elise-wesarg-24-zsm2j3\">https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/records/elise-wesarg-24-zsm2j3</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fs70s\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, Londen: Penguin Books, 2003, p. 21.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"og17o\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Huwelijksindex Hessen, 1849 &ndash; 1931 op <a href=\"http://www.myheritage.com/\">www.myheritage.com</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujsod\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Lotte Frank - Witt, 6 juli 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"subkk\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Jersey Archive, St. Helier (UK), Principal Registry of the Family Division, D/Y/B1/216/34: testament A.C. Witt, weduwe van R. Frank (kopie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oepv8\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927</a>, en <a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qjmsg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/john-martin-apocalypse\">https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/john-martin-apocalypse</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fhpzc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Familienarchiv, reg. code FEFA_StE_bdoc_007: Lijst &lsquo;24/2380 Mrs. A.C. Frank deceased&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aga7e\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_031: agenda 1974, 6 augustus.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Anna Charlotte (Lotte/Lotti)&nbsp;Witt was gehuwd&nbsp;met Robert Hermann Frank, een oudere broer van Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ze was een dochter van Gustav Heinrich Witt en Elise Witt &ndash; Wesarg, en had&nbsp;twee zussen: Paula (1907) Anneliese Olga (1916).<sup data-footnote-id=\"b6twq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Haar vader was politieagent, en de niet-Joodse Lotte werkte zelf bij kunsthandel Ricard als Roberts secretaresse. Naar het schijnt was&nbsp;haar aanstaande schoonmoeder Alice Frank aanvankelijk tegen dit huwelijk.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fs70s\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het huwelijk met Robert Hermann Frank werd&nbsp;gesloten op <strong>1 juli 1922</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"og17o\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen rond <strong>1933 </strong>de familie Frank successievelijk uit Frankfurt vertrok, ging zij met haar man naar Londen. Daar woonden ze in Westminster en Kensington en maakten daar de &lsquo;<em>Blitzkrieg&rsquo;</em> en de verdere bombardementen tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog door.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na het overlijden van haar man steunde&nbsp;zwager Otto haar met kleine geldbedragen. Tussen de zomer van <strong>1954 </strong>en de herfst van <strong>1956 </strong>ging&nbsp;het om drie maal 50 pond.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujsod\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>28 maart 1972 </strong>stelde&nbsp;ze haar wilsbeschikking op.<sup data-footnote-id=\"subkk\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> Bij haar dood in <strong>1974</strong> liet&nbsp;Lotti &lsquo;ter nagedachtenis van haar echtgenoot Robert Frank&rsquo; twee schilderijen na aan de Tate Gallery in Londen. Het ging&nbsp;om twee delen van een drieluik van John Martin, &lsquo;The Last Judgement&rsquo; en &lsquo;The Plains of Heaven&rsquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oepv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;De Tate Gallery had het derde deel &lsquo;The Great Day of his Wrath&rsquo; al sinds <strong>1945</strong> in bezit en hierdoor werd&nbsp;het drieluik dus weer compleet. In <strong>2011 - 2012 </strong>was het drieluik onderdeel van een tentoonstelling over Martin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qjmsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Tot de verdere nalatenschap van Lotti Frank behoorden nog enkele tientallen schilderijen, deels van Martin en van schilders uit zijn &lsquo;school.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"fhpzc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"og17o\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><sup data-footnote-id=\"aga7e\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Adressen:</em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Ffm; 1B King Street, St. James Square, Londen SW1 (Westminster).</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b6twq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/records/elise-wesarg-24-zsm2j3\">https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/records/elise-wesarg-24-zsm2j3</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fs70s\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, Londen: Penguin Books, 2003, p. 21.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"og17o\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Huwelijksindex Hessen, 1849 &ndash; 1931 op <a href=\"http://www.myheritage.com/\">www.myheritage.com</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujsod\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Lotte Frank - Witt, 6 juli 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"subkk\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Jersey Archive, St. Helier (UK), Principal Registry of the Family Division, D/Y/B1/216/34: testament A.C. Witt, weduwe van R. Frank (kopie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oepv8\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927</a>, en <a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qjmsg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/john-martin-apocalypse\">https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/john-martin-apocalypse</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fhpzc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Fonds, Bazel, Familienarchiv, reg. code FEFA_StE_bdoc_007: Lijst &lsquo;24/2380 Mrs. A.C. Frank deceased&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aga7e\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_031: agenda 1974, 6 augustus.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Anna Charlotte (Lotte/Lotti)&nbsp;Witt was married to Robert Hermann Frank, an older brother of Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>She was a daughter of Gustav Heinrich Witt and Elise Witt &mdash; Wesarg, and had two sisters: Paula (1907) Anneliese Olga (1916).<sup data-footnote-id=\"b6twq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Her father was a policeman, and the non-Jewish Lotte herself worked at the Ricard art gallery as Robert&#39;s secretary. Apparently, her future mother-in-law Alice Frank was initially opposed to the marriage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fs70s\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Her marriage to Robert Hermann Frank took place on <strong>1 July</strong>&nbsp;<strong>1922</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"og17o\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;When the Frank family successively left Frankfurt around <strong>1933</strong>, she and her husband went to London. There they lived in Westminster and Kensington and lived through the Blitz&nbsp;and the further bombing during the Second World War.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the death of her husband, her brother-in-law Otto supported her with small amounts of money. Between the summer of <strong>1954 </strong>and the autumn of <strong>1956 </strong>this amounted to three gifts of 50 pounds.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ujsod\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On<strong> 28 March 1972</strong>, she drew up her will.<sup data-footnote-id=\"subkk\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> On her death in <strong>1974</strong>, Lotti left two paintings &quot;in memory of her husband Robert Frank&quot; to the Tate Gallery in London. These were two parts of a triptych by John Martin, &#39;The Last Judgement&#39; and &#39;The Plains of Heaven&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oepv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;The Tate Gallery had already owned the third part, &#39;The Great Day of his Wrath&#39;, since <strong>1945</strong>, so the triptych was now complete again. In <strong>2011-2012</strong> the triptych was part of an exhibition about Martin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qjmsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Lotti Frank&#39;s estate included another several dozen paintings, some by Martin and some by painters from his &#39;school&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fhpzc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"og17o\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><sup data-footnote-id=\"aga7e\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses:&nbsp;</em>Ffm; 1B King Street, St. James Square, London SW1 (Westminster).</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b6twq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/records/elise-wesarg-24-zsm2j3\">https://www.ancestry.ca/genealogy/records/elise-wesarg-24-zsm2j3</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fs70s\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Carol Ann Lee, <em>The hidden life of Otto Frank</em>, Londen: Penguin Books, 2003, p. 21.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"og17o\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Huwelijksindex Hessen, 1849 &ndash; 1931 op <a href=\"http://www.myheritage.com/\">www.myheritage.com</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ujsod\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Lotte Frank - Witt, 6 juli 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"subkk\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Jersey Archive, St. Helier (UK), Principal Registry of the Family Division, D/Y/B1/216/34: testament A.C. Witt, weduwe van R. Frank (kopie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oepv8\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-last-judgement-t01927</a>, en <a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928\">https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/martin-the-plains-of-heaven-t01928</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qjmsg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/john-martin-apocalypse\">https://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-britain/exhibition/john-martin-apocalypse</a>&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 20 augustus 2020).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fhpzc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Fonds (AFF), Bazel, Familienarchiv, reg. code FEFA_StE_bdoc_007: Lijst &lsquo;24/2380 Mrs. A.C. Frank deceased&rsquo;.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aga7e\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_031: agenda 1974, 6 augustus.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1900-08-26",
                "death_date": "1974-08-06",
                "gender": "female",
                "birth_place": "Maagdenburg",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Londen",
                "death_country": "Groot-Brittannië",
                "summary": "Lotte Witt was a sister-in-law of Otto Frank.",
                "summary_nl": "Lotte Witt was een schoonzus van Otto Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Lotte Witt was a sister-in-law of Otto Frank.",
                "same_as": null,
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 25.015919
        },
        {
            "type": "person",
            "instance": {
                "id": 2298,
                "image": {
                    "id": 1196,
                    "uuid": "98978624-8530-43e5-b651-c19a5773309d",
                    "name": "A_AFrank_III_027.107",
                    "title": "Foto van Alice Frank-Stern, geen datering",
                    "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Collectie Eckert-lijst",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/ebf1d3be-3cb5-ca60-9e1e-3779944837a7.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor het publiek",
                    "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                },
                "pictures": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/e85cd0a9-9b82-4e36-a757-4ce8aa576c1a/",
                "subjects": [
                    "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/cba6570e-40ed-48dd-b995-143067f0e417"
                ],
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "e85cd0a9-9b82-4e36-a757-4ce8aa576c1a",
                "first_name": "Alice Betty",
                "last_name": "Frank - Stern",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Alice Frank-Stern",
                "title_nl": "Alice Frank - Stern",
                "title_en": "Alice Frank-Stern",
                "content": "<p>Alice Frank-Stern was Otto Frank&#39;s mother and grandmother of Anne and Margot..<sup data-footnote-id=\"zwagp\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On<strong> 3 January 1886</strong> she married Michael Frank. The couple had three sons: Robert, Otto and Herbert,&nbsp;and a daughter, Hel&egrave;ne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbqvr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In <strong>September &#39;33</strong> she moved from Frankfurt am Main to Basel in Switzerland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"458h3\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zsad5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses:&nbsp;</em>Herbstgasse 11, Basel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bdhht\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zwagp\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to her as <em>Omi</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A,&nbsp;14 June 1942, 19 - 30 June 1942, 2nd, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbqvr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler &amp; Gert Elias, <em>Treasures from the attic : the extraordinary story of Anne Frank&#39;s family</em>, New York, NY: Doubleday, 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"458h3\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank Fonds, Basel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_odoc_02: Be&euml;digde verklaring met boedelbeschrijving inzake verhuizing Frankfurt am Main naar Zwitserland, 21 september 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zsad5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_010: Agenda Otto Frank 1953.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bdhht\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Alice Betty Frank Stern, 5 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Alice Frank-Stern was de moeder van Otto Frank en de grootmoeder van Anne en Margot.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zwagp\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Op <strong>3 januari 1886</strong> trouwde&nbsp;ze met&nbsp;Michael Frank. Het echtpaar kreeg&nbsp;drie zonen: Robert, Otto en Herbert;&nbsp;en een dochter Hel&egrave;ne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bwp4p\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>september &lsquo;33 </strong>verhuisde&nbsp;ze van Frankfurt am Main naar Bazel in Zwitserland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"458h3\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"zsad5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Adressen:&nbsp;</em>Herbstgasse 11, Bazel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bdhht\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zwagp\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wordt door Anne aangeduid als: <em>Omi</em>. Anne Frank, Dagboek A,&nbsp;14 juni 1942, 19 - 30 juni 1942, 2e, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bwp4p\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler &amp; Gerti Elias,&nbsp;<em>&#39;Groeten en liefs aan allen&#39;: het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank</em>,&nbsp;Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"458h3\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank Fonds, Bazel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_odoc_02: Be&euml;digde verklaring met boedelbeschrijving inzake verhuizing Frankfurt am Main naar Zwitserland, 21 september 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zsad5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_010: Agenda Otto Frank 1953.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bdhht\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Alice Betty Frank Stern, 5 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Alice Frank-Stern was Otto Frank&#39;s mother and grandmother of Anne and Margot..<sup data-footnote-id=\"zwagp\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On<strong> 3 January 1886</strong> she married Michael Frank. The couple had three sons: Robert, Otto and Herbert,&nbsp;and a daughter, Hel&egrave;ne.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cbqvr\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In <strong>September &#39;33</strong> she moved from Frankfurt am Main to Basel in Switzerland.<sup data-footnote-id=\"458h3\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Source personal data</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zsad5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses:&nbsp;</em>Herbstgasse 11, Basel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bdhht\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zwagp\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to her as <em>Omi</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A,&nbsp;14 June 1942, 19 - 30 June 1942, 2nd, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cbqvr\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler &amp; Gert Elias, <em>Treasures from the attic : the extraordinary story of Anne Frank&#39;s family</em>, New York, NY: Doubleday, 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"458h3\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Familiearchief Anne Frank Fonds, Basel, Alice Frank, AFF_AlF_odoc_02: Be&euml;digde verklaring met boedelbeschrijving inzake verhuizing Frankfurt am Main naar Zwitserland, 21 september 1933.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zsad5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_010: Agenda Otto Frank 1953.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bdhht\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Alice Betty Frank Stern, 5 juli 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1865-12-20",
                "death_date": "1953-03-19",
                "gender": "female",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "Bazel",
                "death_country": "Zwitserland",
                "summary": "Alice Frank-Stern was Otto Frank's mother and grandmother of Anne and Margot.",
                "summary_nl": "Alice Frank-Stern was de moeder van Otto Frank en de grootmoeder van Anne en Margot.",
                "summary_en": "Alice Frank-Stern was Otto Frank's mother and grandmother of Anne and Margot.",
                "same_as": null,
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 25.015919
        },
        {
            "type": "person",
            "instance": {
                "id": 2166,
                "image": {
                    "id": 1213,
                    "uuid": "9a1e19bd-bad8-4bd1-ac2f-b9503f3aebfe",
                    "name": "A_FamilieledenFrank_III_045",
                    "title": "Foto van Leni Frank, rond 1919.",
                    "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting Amsterdam",
                    "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/b0aefa51-2583-d074-8c20-9ded0a87765d.jpg",
                    "path": null,
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "De collectie kan worden ingezet voor medewerkers van de AFS",
                    "copyright": "Rechthebbende(n) onbekend"
                },
                "pictures": [],
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/personen/308cb417-1a5b-4d34-a3a8-cd37c396227a/",
                "subjects": [],
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "308cb417-1a5b-4d34-a3a8-cd37c396227a",
                "first_name": "Helène",
                "last_name": "Elias - Frank",
                "infix": "",
                "title": "Leni Elias - Frank",
                "title_nl": "Leni Elias - Frank",
                "title_en": "Leni Elias - Frank",
                "content": "<p>Hel&egrave;ne Elias-Frank (Leni, Lunni) ) was the younger sister of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tfzen\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She got engaged to Erich Elias on <strong>28 November 1920</strong>. Among the many &#39;Grat&uuml;lanten&#39; were Franz Kahn, Albert Dreher, Felix Uhry and Paul Stanfield.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> On <strong>16 March 1921</strong> she was married in Frankfurt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3eblm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;They had two sons, Stephan (<strong>1921-1980</strong>) and Bernd (Buddy) (<strong>1925-2015</strong>).<sup data-footnote-id=\"5e0ty\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank and his family sent a card to Leni on <strong>5 July 1942</strong> (the day before they went into hiding), which indicated in cryptic terms that something was going on.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; Because of the business she was running at the time, Otto characterised his sister in <strong>1945&nbsp;</strong>as &quot;ein gewaltiges Handelsfrauchen&quot;.&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"gba08\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4f5py\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses</em>:&nbsp;Gundelfingerstrasse 139, Basel (1936).<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ppqo\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tfzen\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to her as <em>Aunt Leni</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 19-30 June 1942, 2nd, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;Fmiliearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, AFF, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_odoc_002: Gastenboek.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3eblm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Bazel, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Formulier &bdquo;B&uuml;rgerrechtsbureau Basel&ldquo;, gestempeld 17 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5e0ty\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler &amp; Gert Elias, <em>Treasures from the attic : the extraordinary story of Anne Frank&#39;s family</em>, New York, NY: Doubleday, 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gba08\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 11 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4f5py\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Formulier &bdquo;B&uuml;rgerrechtsbureau Basel&ldquo;, gestempeld 17 oktober 1941; Mirjam Pressler, <em>&quot;Groeten en liefs aan allen&quot;. Het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, p. 405.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ppqo\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Vorberufung&rsquo; 10 februari 1936. &nbsp;Herbstgasse 11, Bazel; AFF, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_corr_05: Briefkaart.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Hel&egrave;ne Elias - Frank (Leni, Lunni) was&nbsp;de jongere zus van Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tfzen\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Ze verloofde&nbsp;zich op&nbsp;<strong>28 november 1920</strong>&nbsp;met&nbsp;Erich Elias. Onder de vele &sbquo;Grat&uuml;lanten&lsquo; waren Franz Kahn, Albert Dreher, Felix Uhry en Paul Stanfield.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Op&nbsp;<strong>16 maart 1921</strong>&nbsp;trouwde&nbsp;ze in Frankfurt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3eblm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ze kregen twee zoons, Stephan (<strong>1921-1980</strong>) en Bernd (Buddy) (<strong>1925-2015</strong>).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57c8g\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank en zijn gezin stuurden op&nbsp;<strong>5 juli 1942&nbsp;</strong>(de dag voor de onderduik) een kaart naar Leni, die in cryptische bewoordingen aangaf dat er iets gaande was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto typeerde zijn zus in <strong>1945</strong>, vanwege de zaak die ze toen had, als &#39;ein gewaltiges Handelsfrauchen&#39;.&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"gba08\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0qst6\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Adres</em>:&nbsp;Gundelfingerstrasse 139, Basel (1936).<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ppqo\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tfzen\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wordt door Anne aangeduid als: <em>tante Leni</em>. Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 19-30 juni 1942, 2e, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;Familiearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, AFF, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_odoc_002: Gastenboek.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3eblm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Formulier &bdquo;B&uuml;rgerrechtsbureau Basel&ldquo;, gestempeld 17 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57c8g\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler &amp; Gerti Elias,&nbsp;<em>&#39;Groeten en liefs aan allen&#39;: het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank</em>,&nbsp;Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gba08\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 11 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0qst6\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Formulier &bdquo;B&uuml;rgerrechtsbureau Basel&ldquo;, gestempeld 17 oktober 1941; Mirjam Pressler, <em>&quot;Groeten en liefs aan allen&quot;. Het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, p. 405.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ppqo\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Vorberufung&rsquo; 10 februari 1936. &nbsp;Herbstgasse 11, Bazel; AFF, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_corr_05: Briefkaart.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Hel&egrave;ne Elias-Frank (Leni, Lunni) ) was the younger sister of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tfzen\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> She got engaged to Erich Elias on <strong>28 November 1920</strong>. Among the many &#39;Grat&uuml;lanten&#39; were Franz Kahn, Albert Dreher, Felix Uhry and Paul Stanfield.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> On <strong>16 March 1921</strong> she was married in Frankfurt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3eblm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;They had two sons, Stephan (<strong>1921-1980</strong>) and Bernd (Buddy) (<strong>1925-2015</strong>).<sup data-footnote-id=\"5e0ty\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank and his family sent a card to Leni on <strong>5 July 1942</strong> (the day before they went into hiding), which indicated in cryptic terms that something was going on.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; Because of the business she was running at the time, Otto characterised his sister in <strong>1945&nbsp;</strong>as &quot;ein gewaltiges Handelsfrauchen&quot;.&nbsp;<sup data-footnote-id=\"gba08\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Bron persoonsgegevens</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4f5py\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;<em>Addresses</em>:&nbsp;Gundelfingerstrasse 139, Basel (1936).<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ppqo\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tfzen\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne refers to her as <em>Aunt Leni</em>. Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 19-30 June 1942, 2nd, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ts5z\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;Fmiliearchief Anne Frank-Fonds (AFF), Bazel, AFF, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_odoc_002: Gastenboek.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3eblm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Bazel, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Formulier &bdquo;B&uuml;rgerrechtsbureau Basel&ldquo;, gestempeld 17 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5e0ty\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mirjam Pressler &amp; Gert Elias, <em>Treasures from the attic : the extraordinary story of Anne Frank&#39;s family</em>, New York, NY: Doubleday, 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gba08\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_072: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 11 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4f5py\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Formulier &bdquo;B&uuml;rgerrechtsbureau Basel&ldquo;, gestempeld 17 oktober 1941; Mirjam Pressler, <em>&quot;Groeten en liefs aan allen&quot;. Het verhaal van de familie van Anne Frank</em>, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2010, p. 405.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ppqo\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFF, Erich Elias, AFF_ErE_odoc_07: Vorberufung&rsquo; 10 februari 1936. &nbsp;Herbstgasse 11, Bazel; AFF, Leni Frank, AFF_LeF_corr_05: Briefkaart.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "birth_date": "1893-09-08",
                "death_date": "1986-10-02",
                "gender": "female",
                "birth_place": "Frankfurt am Main",
                "birth_country": "Duitsland",
                "death_place": "",
                "death_country": "",
                "summary": "Leni Frank was Otto Frank's younger sister.",
                "summary_nl": "Leni Frank was de jongere zus van Otto Frank.",
                "summary_en": "Leni Frank was Otto Frank's younger sister.",
                "same_as": null,
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 25.015919
        }
    ]
}