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{
    "next": null,
    "previous": null,
    "count": 8,
    "total": 1109,
    "language": "en",
    "results": [
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 110,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 90,
                    "files": [],
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                    "latitude": "52.341072",
                    "longitude": "4.89387",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 110,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/9e8d5ed0-2487-48bc-9a05-8c593599f121/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/e668255b-67ef-4ad1-8f2e-fdc1084aff25"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7f401256-5ce0-43cd-a15a-94336d90290d",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/780d0c9f-f8fa-4ab1-89a0-515fd117716c",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/b7ed3286-394a-4bc0-b6b8-9e52c196b353"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/36a662f9-f828-44ad-9609-bd8901c723f4",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "9e8d5ed0-2487-48bc-9a05-8c593599f121",
                            "name": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Rivierenlaan",
                            "name_nl": "Fritz Pfeffer ingeschreven op de Rivierenlaan",
                            "name_en": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Rivierenlaan",
                            "content": "<p>He&nbsp;lived here with landlady Stephanie Meijer-Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he also met Otto Frank, of whom Meijer-Schuster was a childhood friend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Charlotte Kaletta continued to live here during the occupation years. Koos Vorrink, a prominent member of the SDAP,&nbsp;also lived at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Hij woonde hier bij hospita Stephanie Meijer - Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hier leerde hij ook Otto Frank kennen, van wie Meijer - Schuster een jeugdvriendin&nbsp;was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Charlotte Kaletta bleef hier gedurende de bezettingsjaren wonen. Ook SDAP-prominent&nbsp;Koos Vorrink woonde&nbsp;op dit adres.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>He&nbsp;lived here with landlady Stephanie Meijer-Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he also met Otto Frank, of whom Meijer-Schuster was a childhood friend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Charlotte Kaletta continued to live here during the occupation years. Koos Vorrink, a prominent member of the SDAP,&nbsp;also lived at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1940-05-19",
                            "date_end": "1940-06-17",
                            "summary": "Pfeffer moved in here shortly after the German invasion and stayed for about a month.",
                            "summary_nl": "Pfeffer trok hier kort na de Duitse inval in en verbleef er ongeveer een maand.",
                            "summary_en": "Pfeffer moved in here shortly after the German invasion and stayed for about a month.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124506,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                            "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                            "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                            "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                            "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren dertig</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren dertig</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                            "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                            "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124553,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
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                            "parent": 396124413,
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                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Rivierenlaan 270-I",
                    "name_nl": "Rivierenlaan 270-I",
                    "name_en": "Rivierenlaan 270-I",
                    "uuid": "36a662f9-f828-44ad-9609-bd8901c723f4",
                    "content": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "content_en": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.89387 52.341072)",
                    "summary": "Home of Stephanie Meijer-Schuster. Fritz Pfeffer was registered at this address for a month. His wife Charlotte Kaletta lived here from 1940 to 1946. Prominent SDAP member Koos Vorrink, a leading social-democrat, also lived at this address. Currently President Kennedylaan.",
                    "summary_nl": "Woning van Stephanie Meijer-Schuster. Op dit adres stond Fritz Pfeffer een maand ingeschreven. Zijn vrouw Charlotte Kaletta woonde hier van 1940 tot 1946. Ook prominent SDAP'er Koos Vorrink woonde op dit adres. Tegenwoordig President Kennedylaan.",
                    "summary_en": "Home of Stephanie Meijer-Schuster. Fritz Pfeffer was registered at this address for a month. His wife Charlotte Kaletta lived here from 1940 to 1946. Prominent SDAP member Koos Vorrink, a leading social-democrat, also lived at this address. Currently President Kennedylaan.",
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                    "street": "Rivierenlaan 270-I",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        110
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                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/9e8d5ed0-2487-48bc-9a05-8c593599f121/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "9e8d5ed0-2487-48bc-9a05-8c593599f121",
                "name": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Rivierenlaan",
                "name_nl": "Fritz Pfeffer ingeschreven op de Rivierenlaan",
                "name_en": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Rivierenlaan",
                "content": "<p>He&nbsp;lived here with landlady Stephanie Meijer-Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he also met Otto Frank, of whom Meijer-Schuster was a childhood friend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Charlotte Kaletta continued to live here during the occupation years. Koos Vorrink, a prominent member of the SDAP,&nbsp;also lived at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Hij woonde hier bij hospita Stephanie Meijer - Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hier leerde hij ook Otto Frank kennen, van wie Meijer - Schuster een jeugdvriendin&nbsp;was.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Charlotte Kaletta bleef hier gedurende de bezettingsjaren wonen. Ook SDAP-prominent&nbsp;Koos Vorrink woonde&nbsp;op dit adres.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>He&nbsp;lived here with landlady Stephanie Meijer-Schuster.<sup data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he also met Otto Frank, of whom Meijer-Schuster was a childhood friend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Charlotte Kaletta continued to live here during the occupation years. Koos Vorrink, a prominent member of the SDAP,&nbsp;also lived at this address.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"89hi5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d1kqh\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_OFrank_I_015: &quot;Erkl&auml;rung&quot; Otto Frank, 4 september 1951. Dit betekent dat de herinnering van Miep Gies, dat Pfeffer al in &#39;38-&#39;39 bij de Merwedeplein-soir&eacute;es aanwezig was, niet juist kan zijn.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aytj6\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkinsgsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnumme 5445), inv. nr. 299: Woningkaart Rivierenlaan 270-I.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1940-05-19",
                "date_end": "1940-06-17",
                "summary": "Pfeffer moved in here shortly after the German invasion and stayed for about a month.",
                "summary_nl": "Pfeffer trok hier kort na de Duitse inval in en verbleef er ongeveer een maand.",
                "summary_en": "Pfeffer moved in here shortly after the German invasion and stayed for about a month.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
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                "persons": [
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            "score": 2.0
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        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 111,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 91,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.345025",
                    "longitude": "4.877395",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 111,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/3ffc5149-6e44-430e-8b1c-28ac6aa4ff6e/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/e668255b-67ef-4ad1-8f2e-fdc1084aff25"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b3014b3-ca3b-4610-9b37-1832324f43a2",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/780d0c9f-f8fa-4ab1-89a0-515fd117716c"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/697cb023-79af-4e61-864a-49adce1e8f82",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "3ffc5149-6e44-430e-8b1c-28ac6aa4ff6e",
                            "name": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Bernard Zweerskade",
                            "name_nl": "Fritz Pfeffer ingeschreven op de Bernard Zweerskade",
                            "name_en": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Bernard Zweerskade",
                            "content": "<p>Pfeffer was registered at Bernard Zweerskade 20 III from <strong>19 June 1940</strong> to <strong>9 November 1944</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he occupied an attic room, which he rented from Felix Mittwoch. On <strong>30 November 1942</strong>, i.e. about two weeks after Pfeffer went into hiding,<sup data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Mittwoch wrote a message to the Immigration&nbsp;Department. He informed them that Pfeffer had told him he was going&nbsp;to hospital because of a kidney ailment. As Mittwoch did not see or hear from Pfeffer after that, he notified the department that Pfeffer had moved out.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Since Pfeffer remained registered for almost two more years, it looks like that information did not reach the Population Register. Based on this letter, the Immigration Department considered Pfeffer &#39;untraceable&#39; as of <strong>1 December 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 4046: Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer;&nbsp;SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Fritz Pfeffer. Op de Vreemdelingenkaart staat als begindatum 17 juni 1940.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Version B, 17 november 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, inv. nr. 4046, Felilx Mittwoch aan Vreemdelingendienst, 30 november 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart F. Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Pfeffer stond&nbsp;van <strong>19 juni 1940</strong> tot <strong>9 november 1944</strong> ingeschreven op de Bernard Zweerskade 20 III.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij bewoonde hier een zolderkamer, die hij huurde van Felix Mittwoch. Op <strong>30 november 1942</strong>, dat was ongeveer twee weken nadat Pfeffer onderdook,<sup data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> schreef Mittwoch een bericht aan de Vreemdelingendienst. Hij liet weten dat Pfeffer hem had gezegd&nbsp;naar het ziekenhuis te moeten vanwege een nierkwaal. Omdat Mittwoch daarna niets meer van Pfeffer zag of hoorde, meldde hij hem bij die dienst als bewoner af.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Aangezien Pfeffer nog bijna twee jaar ingeschreven bleef,&nbsp;ziet het ernaar uit dat die informatie niet bij het Bevolkingsregister terecht is gekomen. De Vreemdelingendienst beschouwde Pfeffer op grond van deze brief per <strong>1 december 1942</strong> &#39;spoorloos&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 4046: Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer;&nbsp;SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Fritz Pfeffer. Op de Vreemdelingenkaart staat als begindatum 17 juni 1940.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 17 november 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, inv. nr. 4046, Felilx Mittwoch aan Vreemdelingendienst, 30 november 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart F. Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Pfeffer was registered at Bernard Zweerskade 20 III from <strong>19 June 1940</strong> to <strong>9 November 1944</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he occupied an attic room, which he rented from Felix Mittwoch. On <strong>30 November 1942</strong>, i.e. about two weeks after Pfeffer went into hiding,<sup data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Mittwoch wrote a message to the Immigration&nbsp;Department. He informed them that Pfeffer had told him he was going&nbsp;to hospital because of a kidney ailment. As Mittwoch did not see or hear from Pfeffer after that, he notified the department that Pfeffer had moved out.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Since Pfeffer remained registered for almost two more years, it looks like that information did not reach the Population Register. Based on this letter, the Immigration Department considered Pfeffer &#39;untraceable&#39; as of <strong>1 December 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 4046: Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer;&nbsp;SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Fritz Pfeffer. Op de Vreemdelingenkaart staat als begindatum 17 juni 1940.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Version B, 17 november 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, inv. nr. 4046, Felilx Mittwoch aan Vreemdelingendienst, 30 november 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart F. Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1940-06-19",
                            "date_end": "1944-11-09",
                            "summary": "",
                            "summary_nl": "",
                            "summary_en": "",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
                        }
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                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/697cb023-79af-4e61-864a-49adce1e8f82/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Home of Felix Mittwoch",
                    "name_nl": "Woning van Felix Mittwoch",
                    "name_en": "Home of Felix Mittwoch",
                    "uuid": "697cb023-79af-4e61-864a-49adce1e8f82",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
                    "content_en": "",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.877395 52.345025)",
                    "summary": "Fritz Pfeffer lived in an attic room here for some time.",
                    "summary_nl": "Hier bewoonde Fritz Pfeffer enige tijd een zolderkamer.",
                    "summary_en": "Fritz Pfeffer lived in an attic room here for some time.",
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                    "street": "Bernard Zweerskade 20",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
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                    "location_events": [
                        111
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                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/3ffc5149-6e44-430e-8b1c-28ac6aa4ff6e/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "3ffc5149-6e44-430e-8b1c-28ac6aa4ff6e",
                "name": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Bernard Zweerskade",
                "name_nl": "Fritz Pfeffer ingeschreven op de Bernard Zweerskade",
                "name_en": "Fritz Pfeffer registered at Bernard Zweerskade",
                "content": "<p>Pfeffer was registered at Bernard Zweerskade 20 III from <strong>19 June 1940</strong> to <strong>9 November 1944</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he occupied an attic room, which he rented from Felix Mittwoch. On <strong>30 November 1942</strong>, i.e. about two weeks after Pfeffer went into hiding,<sup data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Mittwoch wrote a message to the Immigration&nbsp;Department. He informed them that Pfeffer had told him he was going&nbsp;to hospital because of a kidney ailment. As Mittwoch did not see or hear from Pfeffer after that, he notified the department that Pfeffer had moved out.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Since Pfeffer remained registered for almost two more years, it looks like that information did not reach the Population Register. Based on this letter, the Immigration Department considered Pfeffer &#39;untraceable&#39; as of <strong>1 December 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 4046: Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer;&nbsp;SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Fritz Pfeffer. Op de Vreemdelingenkaart staat als begindatum 17 juni 1940.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Version B, 17 november 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, inv. nr. 4046, Felilx Mittwoch aan Vreemdelingendienst, 30 november 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart F. Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Pfeffer stond&nbsp;van <strong>19 juni 1940</strong> tot <strong>9 november 1944</strong> ingeschreven op de Bernard Zweerskade 20 III.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij bewoonde hier een zolderkamer, die hij huurde van Felix Mittwoch. Op <strong>30 november 1942</strong>, dat was ongeveer twee weken nadat Pfeffer onderdook,<sup data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> schreef Mittwoch een bericht aan de Vreemdelingendienst. Hij liet weten dat Pfeffer hem had gezegd&nbsp;naar het ziekenhuis te moeten vanwege een nierkwaal. Omdat Mittwoch daarna niets meer van Pfeffer zag of hoorde, meldde hij hem bij die dienst als bewoner af.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Aangezien Pfeffer nog bijna twee jaar ingeschreven bleef,&nbsp;ziet het ernaar uit dat die informatie niet bij het Bevolkingsregister terecht is gekomen. De Vreemdelingendienst beschouwde Pfeffer op grond van deze brief per <strong>1 december 1942</strong> &#39;spoorloos&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 4046: Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer;&nbsp;SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Fritz Pfeffer. Op de Vreemdelingenkaart staat als begindatum 17 juni 1940.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 17 november 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, inv. nr. 4046, Felilx Mittwoch aan Vreemdelingendienst, 30 november 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart F. Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Pfeffer was registered at Bernard Zweerskade 20 III from <strong>19 June 1940</strong> to <strong>9 November 1944</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Here he occupied an attic room, which he rented from Felix Mittwoch. On <strong>30 November 1942</strong>, i.e. about two weeks after Pfeffer went into hiding,<sup data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Mittwoch wrote a message to the Immigration&nbsp;Department. He informed them that Pfeffer had told him he was going&nbsp;to hospital because of a kidney ailment. As Mittwoch did not see or hear from Pfeffer after that, he notified the department that Pfeffer had moved out.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Since Pfeffer remained registered for almost two more years, it looks like that information did not reach the Population Register. Based on this letter, the Immigration Department considered Pfeffer &#39;untraceable&#39; as of <strong>1 December 1942</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9bxnq\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 4046: Vreemdelingenkaart Fritz Pfeffer;&nbsp;SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Fritz Pfeffer. Op de Vreemdelingenkaart staat als begindatum 17 juni 1940.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p53ne\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Version B, 17 november 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; [transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5ncsg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, inv. nr. 4046, Felilx Mittwoch aan Vreemdelingendienst, 30 november 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tqtxz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam (toegang 5225), inv. nr. 4046, Vreemdelingenkaart F. Pfeffer.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1940-06-19",
                "date_end": "1944-11-09",
                "summary": "",
                "summary_nl": "",
                "summary_en": "",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124556,
                    396124679
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2144,
                    252
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 2.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 282,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 122,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": {
                        "id": 937,
                        "uuid": "bca4a51a-c36a-4d30-89f3-d522d94b7a23",
                        "name": "Keg001jpg",
                        "title": "Personeel van Keg voor het pand Prinsengracht 265, omstreeks 1947",
                        "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Afkomstig uit privécollectie",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Keg001jpg.jpg",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                        "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                    },
                    "latitude": "52.375255",
                    "longitude": "4.883994",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 282,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/0996f06e-79e0-4d5b-9cbf-4a2bbfbdd756/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/36f1f8d1-cb6d-4f52-86b6-5c356c441af5"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c261dd9b-fab2-44d2-a38b-b85144c4ed72",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/bd8c6e9b-3e7e-45d2-958e-cf6a3277b6be"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "0996f06e-79e0-4d5b-9cbf-4a2bbfbdd756",
                            "name": "The Keg firm is burgled",
                            "name_nl": "Inbraak bij de firma Keg",
                            "name_en": "The Keg firm is burgled",
                            "content": "<p>One of the Achterhuis&#39; neighbouring premises housed the Keg tea and coffee company. It had already been burgled in <strong>July 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On&nbsp;<strong>1 november 1940,</strong> warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche reported another burglary attempt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;and branch manager Jacob Boon also repeatedly reported burglaries and thefts, as well as various attempts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>In de een van de buurpanden naast het Achterhuis was thee- en koffiehandel Keg gevestigd. In&nbsp;<strong>juli 1940</strong>&nbsp;was daar al eens ingebroken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Op <strong>1 november 1940</strong> deed magazijnchef Hendrik Mussche aangifte van nog een inbraakpoging bij het bedrijf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ook filiaalchef Jacob Boon deed hij herhaaldelijk aangifte van inbraken en diefstallen, en van pogingen daartoe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>One of the Achterhuis&#39; neighbouring premises housed the Keg tea and coffee company. It had already been burgled in <strong>July 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On&nbsp;<strong>1 november 1940,</strong> warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche reported another burglary attempt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;and branch manager Jacob Boon also repeatedly reported burglaries and thefts, as well as various attempts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1940-10-31",
                            "date_end": "1940-11-01",
                            "summary": "The Keg company was repeatedly broken into during the war.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bij de firma Keg werd tijdens de oorlog herhaaldelijk ingebroken.",
                            "summary_en": "The Keg company was repeatedly broken into during the war.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 196,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "29abb87c-1833-4c97-9fc9-33c21427ac82",
                            "name": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                            "name_nl": "Bedreigingen: buitenstaanders, inbrekers, brand, verduistering en luchtgevaar",
                            "name_en": "Threats: outsiders, burglars, fire, embezzlement and threats from the air",
                            "description": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Het onopgemerkte verblijf in het Achterhuis werd&nbsp;op verschillende manieren bedreigd. Naast de kans dat onwetende bezoekers of omwonenden van het pand iets merkten, was er nog de kans op inbrekers, brand in of bij het gebouw, lichtuitstraling en luchtgevaar. Onderduikers en helpers waren&nbsp;zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico&rsquo;s te vermijden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Buitenstaanders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooral in de beginperiode kwam Annes angst voor buitenstaanders in het gebouw herhaaldelijk tot uitdrukking. In sommige gevallen waren dit vreemden, maar zeker niet altijd. De vertegenwoordigers, apotheker Arthus&nbsp;Lewinsohn, de accountant en sommige pakhuismannen waren min of meer bekenden. De loodgieter, de werkster, de timmerman en de andere pakhuismannen waren voor de onderduikers &ndash; voor zover we weten &ndash; onbekenden. Ook de bekenden vormden in Annes ogen een bedreiging. Er ontstond onrust toen&nbsp;Ans Broks te kennen gaf&nbsp;dat ze elke dag om twee uur op kantoor koffie wilde komen drinken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Annes dagboek geeft af en toe aanwijzingen waaruit blijkt dat de onderduikers eveneens rekening hielden met de mogelijkheid dat mensen die in de buurpanden woonden of werkten hun aanwezigheid zouden ontdekken.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen op een ochtend Peter van Pels was vergeten de grendel aan de binnenkant van de straatdeur te halen, konden Victor Kugler en de magazijnmannen niet naar binnen. Kugler moest via het&nbsp;pand van groothandel Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 en kon maar op het nippertje voorkomen dat een van de buren langs een ladder naar binnen klom.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Inbraak</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In Annes dagboeken en verhaaltjes komen verschillende inbraken en pogingen daartoe voor.&nbsp;Broer en zus&nbsp;Wijnberg, die tijdens de onderduikperiode op Prinsengracht 251 woonden, vertelden in een interview dat ze op <strong>24 maart 1943</strong> als kind in het pand geweest waren en dat ze daar muskaatnoten hadden weggenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft een dag later over haar eerste kennismaking met het fenomeen inbrekers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De inbraak&nbsp;van <strong>9 april 1944</strong>&nbsp;wordt ook door een politierapport bevestigd, en wel doordat de passerende nachtwaker Martinus Slegers de ingetrapte deur opmerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;De B-versie vermeldt in de nacht van <strong>15 op 16 juli 1943</strong> een inbraak. Volgens diezelfde notitie was er zes weken eerder ook al een mislukte poging geweest.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In de A-versie schrijft Anne over een dief die mogelijk met een valse sleutel binnenkwam, althans er was aan de buitendeur niets te zien.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De wijdere omgeving kreeg&nbsp;uiteraard eveneens met criminaliteit te maken. Bij Keg op de Prinsengracht 265 zijn uit de politierapporten geen inbraken tijdens de onderduikperiode bekend, maar volgens het proces-verbaal van de Rijksrecherche uit 1963 zijn die er wel geweest. Volgens de Rijksrecherche was het personeel noodgedwongen zelfs geregeld &rsquo;s nachts aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> De dochter van filiaalchef Jacob Boon wist dat haar vader in de oorlogsjaren meer dan eens in zijn kantoor overnachtte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In de nacht van <strong>7 op 8 april 1943</strong> drongen insluipers bij meubelfabriek Elhoek op nummer 261 binnen en stalen daar zeshonderd gulden en een schrijfmachine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>november 1941</strong>&nbsp;was daar ook al eens een muntmeter van het Gemeentelijk Energiebedrijf (GEB) leeggehaald.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Enkele jaren eerder was ook in het latere Opekta-pand de inhoud van een muntmeter door inbrekers gestolen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Gezien het beleid van het GEB in de &lsquo;klein-zakelijke&rsquo; markt was het zeer aannemelijk dat die meter na de komst van Opekta <strong>eind 1940</strong>&nbsp;was blijven hangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Diefstal uit muntmeters was een zeer veel voorkomend verschijnsel. De aanwezigheid van zulke meters leverde&nbsp;dus zeker een extra risico op.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman en Victor Kugler maakten tijdens de onderduikperiode, voor zover na te gaan, geen melding van inbraken en diefstallen in hun pand. Daarna, in <strong>januari 1945</strong>, gaf Johan&nbsp;Broks - Kugler zat dan nog gevangen - namens Gies &amp; Co. de diefstal van zeventig kilo suiker aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Brand</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Bouwplannen voor het pand van Elhoek op Prinsengracht 261, gemaakt in <strong>juni 1940</strong>, tonen dat men daar met brandgevaarlijke materialen en technieken werkte, daar er uitgebreide adviezen omtrent zelfsluitende deuren, vluchtwegen en een brandblusleiding in waren opgenomen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In het Opekta-pand werd&nbsp;ook rekening gehouden met brandgevaar. Een paar maanden voor de onderduik was er een klein brandje, toen verpakkingsmateriaal dat te dicht bij een kachel lag&nbsp;vlam vatte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>&nbsp;Er bevonden zich op verschillende plaatsen&nbsp;zogenaamde Minimax-toestellen. Een ervan hing&nbsp;op het overloopje voor de boekenkast. Die locatie was vanuit bedrijfsoogpunt &lsquo;perifeer&rsquo;, en zou met het oog op de onderduikers kunnen zijn gekozen: buiten de boekenkast, waardoor periodiek onderhoud &ndash; althans in theorie &ndash; probleemloos kon gebeuren. In de B-versie van het dagboek schrijft Anne, met de datum <strong>20 oktober 1942</strong>, dat ze deze toestellen in huis &lsquo;<em>krijgen</em>&rsquo;, wat ze later wijzigt in &lsquo;<em>hebben</em>&rsquo;. Mogelijk zijn deze dus in de <strong>herfst van 1942</strong> aangebracht, maar duidelijkheid is daar niet over.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Verduistering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanwege de oorlogsomstandigheden golden er strikte verduisteringsmaatregelen. Gebruikers van woonhuizen en andere gebouwen waren verplicht maatregelen te treffen die tussen zonsondergang en zonsopgang lichtuitstraling moesten voorkomen. In de winter moesten de gordijnen tot veertien uur per etmaal gesloten blijven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Optreden van politie en Luchtbescherming tegen overtreders was&nbsp;aan de orde van de dag. In de avond van <strong>4 maart 1941</strong> trapten agenten de toegangsdeur van het Opekta-pand in omdat in de hal een lamp brandde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;Toen de onderduik begon, ware onderduikers en helpers dat uiteraard nog niet vergeten. Het ver- en ontduisteren is in Annes geschriften herhaaldelijk aanwezig.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> Tijdens de restauratie van <strong>1958</strong> zijn veel raamkozijnen vervangen. Van de Van Pels-kamer zijn enkele originelen echter nog in de museale collectie aanwezig en de hulpconstructies voor de verduistering zitten er nog aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Luchtgevaar</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>De regelmatig terugkerende opmerkingen van Anne over schieten, sirenes en alarmeringen zijn waar mogelijk vergeleken met de luchtgevaarmeldingen die in het Amsterdamse politiearchief zijn bewaard. Een aantal in het oog lopende gevallen van &lsquo;luchtgevaar&rsquo; is hier weergegeven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In geval van luchtalarm is een ieder verplicht naar de dichtstbijzijnde schuilkelder te gaan of op andere wijze dekking te zoeken.&ldquo;Bij luchtalarm [...] van de straat!&rdquo;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 september 1940</strong>. In de ochtend van <strong>6 juli 1942</strong> is er geen luchtalarm, wat voor de Franks op weg naar de Prinsengracht een ernstige complicatie zou hebben betekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Met ingang van <strong>10 juli 1943</strong> introduceerde&nbsp;Rauter een &lsquo;vooralarm&rsquo;, dat aangaf&nbsp;dat geallieerde vliegtuigen het Nederlandse luchtruim binnenkwamen zonder dat direct bomaanvallen waren te verwachten. Het signaal droeg&nbsp;de benaming &ldquo;waarschuwing luchtgevaar&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> Een week of twee later noemt Anne in de B-versie het gebruik van dit vooralarm als ze schrijft over de luchtaanvallen op de Fokker-fabriek in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> De herhaaldelijke alarmeringen die ze die dag in haar in retrospectief geschreven B-notitie opsomt, stemmen overeen met de alarmeringen die de politie in haar register noteert.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> Dat maakt aannemelijk dat ze voor deze B-notitie haar originele - en verdwenen - notities uit <strong>juli &rsquo;43</strong> gebruikte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>maart 1944</strong> kwam&nbsp;een bommenwerper neer op een school in de Spaarndammerstraat, op nog geen anderhalve kilometer van het Achterhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> Tijdens het luchtgevecht waar Anne op <strong>3 mei 1944</strong> getuige van was, stortte een vliegtuig in de Van Bossestraat neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> Dit was ook op korte afstand van het Achterhuis. Ook in Tuindorp Oostzaan en de Grote IJpolder kwamen die dag vliegtuigen neer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Ten slotte stortte er eind april ook nog een vliegtuig neer op het Carlton Hotel.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Verwant aan de gevaren vanuit de lucht en van afweergeschut was de dreiging van oorlogshandelingen en evacuaties in het westen van Nederland. Anne schrijft <strong>begin &lsquo;44</strong> uitvoerig over de discussies tussen onderduikers en helpers als dit gevaar concrete vormen dreigt aan te nemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De onderduikers waeen erg bezig met hun veiligheid. Ze hadden allerlei afspraken en regelingen om te voorkomen dat ze de aandacht op zich zouden vestigen. Hoewel het handhaven af en toe verslapte,&nbsp;hielden ze zich daar redelijk aan. Op sommige gevaren hadden zij noch de helpers enige invloed: tegen vallende bommen of neerstortende vliegtuigen was uiteraard geen kruid gewassen. Er zijn geen redenen om te vermoeden dat laksheid of onderschatting van de veiligheidsmaatregelen aan de uiteindelijke arrestatie hebben bijgedragen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;A, 9 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 15 en 17 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 25 maart 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 9 april 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 16 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 1 maart 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 10 juli 1942, 4 en 10 augustus 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 26 juli 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 3 februari 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Staying unnoticed in the Secret Annex was threatened in several ways. Besides the chance that unwitting visitors or neighbours of the building might notice something, there was the possibility of burglars, fire in or near the building, light escaping and airborne threats. The people in hiding and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Outsiders</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Especially in the early days, Anne&nbsp;repeatedly expressed her&nbsp;fear of outsiders in the building. In some cases these were strangers, but certainly not always. The sales representatives, pharmacist Arthur&nbsp;Lewinsohn, the accountant and some warehouse men were more or less acquaintances. The plumber, the cleaner, the carpenter and the other warehouse men were strangers to the people in hiding - as far as we know. The acquaintances also posed a threat in Anne&#39;s eyes. There was unease when Ans Broks said&nbsp;that she wanted to come to the office for coffee every day at two o&#39;clock.<sup data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> From time to time, Anne&#39;s diary provides clues showing that the people in hiding also took into account the possibility that people living or working in neighbouring premises would discover their presence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>One morning, when Peter van Pels had forgotten to open the bolt on the inside of the street door, Victor Kugler and the warehousemen could not get in. Kugler had to go through the premises of wholesaler Keg on Prinsengracht 265 and only just managed to prevent one of the neighbours from climbing in via a ladder.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Burglary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Several break-ins and attempted break-ins are referred to in Anne&#39;s diaries and narratives. Brother and sister Wijnberg, who lived at Prinsengracht 251 during the period in hiding, said in an interview that they had been in the building as children on <strong>24 March 1943</strong> and had stolen&nbsp;muscatel nuts there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Anne writes a day later about her first encounter with the phenomenon of burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The break-in of <strong>9 April</strong> <strong>1944</strong> is also confirmed by a police report, when the passing night watchman Martonus Slegers noticed the kicked-in door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The B-version mentions a burglary on the night of <strong>15-16 July 1943</strong>. According to the same passage, there had also been an unsuccessful attempt six weeks earlier.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> In the A-version, Anne writes about a thief who may have entered with a false key, or at least nothing could be seen on the outside door.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The wider area, of course, also had to deal with crime. At Keg at Prinsengracht 265, police reports do not reveal any burglaries during the hiding period, but according to the 1963 official report of the National Criminal Investigation Department, there were burglaries. According to the State Investigation Department, by necessity, staff were even regularly present at night.<sup data-footnote-id=\"benwc\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> The daughter of branch manager Jacob Boon knew that her father spent the night in his office more than once during the war years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> In the night of <strong>7-8 April 1943,</strong> burglars broke into Elhoek furniture factory at number 261 and stole six hundred guilders and a typewriter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> In <strong>November 1941</strong>, a coin meter of the Municipal Energy Company (GEB) had also been emptied there.<sup data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> A few years earlier, the contents of a coin meter in the later Opekta premises had also been stolen by burglars.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> Given GEB&#39;s policy in the &#39;small business&#39; market, it was highly plausible that that meter had stayed behind after Opekta&#39;s arrival <strong>in the late 1940s</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Theft from coin meters was a very common phenomenon. So the presence of such meters certainly posed an additional risk.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Johannes Kleiman and Victor Kugler reported no burglaries or thefts on their premises during the period in hiding, as far as can be verified. Then, in <strong>January 1945</strong>, Johan Broks - Kugler was still in prison at the time - reported the theft of seventy kilos of sugar from Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Fire</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Building plans for Elhoek&#39;s premises at Prinsengracht 261, made in <strong>June 1940</strong>, show that people there were working with flammable materials and techniques, as they included extensive recommendations on self-closing doors, escape routes and a fire-extinguishing riser.<sup data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup> In the Opekta premises, fire hazards were also taken into account. A few months before going into hiding, there was a small fire when packaging material lying too close to a stove caught fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup> There were &#39;Minimax&#39;&nbsp;appliances in several places. One was mounted on the landing in front of the bookcase. That location was &#39;peripheral&#39; from a company point of view, and might have been chosen with the people in hiding in mind: outside the bookcase, allowing periodic maintenance&nbsp;to take place without problems - at least in theory. In the B-version of the diary, Anne writes, with the date <strong>20 October 1942</strong>, that they &#39;<em>got</em>&#39; these devices in the house, which she later changes to &#39;<em>have</em>&#39;. It is therefore possible that they were fitted in the <strong>autumn of 1942</strong>, but there is no clarity on this.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Blackout</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Due to war conditions, strict blackout measures applied. Users of residential and other buildings were obliged to take measures to prevent light escaping between sunset and sunrise. In winter, curtains had to remain closed for up to 14 hours a day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"igek3\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Police and Air Protection were quick to take action against violators. In the evening of <strong>4 March 1941,</strong> officers kicked in the entrance door of the Opekta premises because a light&nbsp;was on in the hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> Of course, when the period of hiding began, the people in hiding and helpers had not yet forgotten this. Anne&#39;s writings often refer to the closing and opening of the blackout curtains.<sup data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup> During the <strong>1958</strong> restoration, many window frames were replaced. However, some original frames&nbsp;from&nbsp;the Van Pels room are still in the museum collection, and the added constructions for&nbsp;blackout curtains are still attached.<sup data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Air hazard</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Anne&#39;s frequent comments on shots, sirens and alarms have been compared, where possible, with the air hazard reports preserved in the Amsterdam police archives. A few significant&nbsp;instances of &#39;air hazard&#39; are shown here.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In the event of an air siren, everyone was obliged to go to the nearest shelter or otherwise take cover. &quot;If the air siren sounds [...] get off the streets!&quot;, <em>Nieuws van den Dag</em>, <strong>13 September 1940</strong>. On the morning of <strong>6 July 1942</strong>, there was no air siren, which would have meant a serious complication for the Franks on their way to Prinsengracht.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Starting on&nbsp;<strong>10 July 1943,</strong> Rauter introduced an &#39;pre-alarm&#39;, which indicated that Allied aircraft were entering Dutch airspace without any immediate bomb attacks being expected. The alert&nbsp;was designated an &#39;air hazard warning&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> A week or two later, Anne mentions the use of this pre-alarm in the B-version when she writes about the air attacks on the Fokker factory in Amsterdam-Noord.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> The repeated alarms she lists in her retrospectively written B note that day correspond to the alarms noted by the police in their register.<sup data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup> This makes it plausible that she used her original - and vanished - notes from <strong>July 1943</strong> for this B note.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>March 1944</strong>, a bomber crashed into a school in Spaarndammerstraat, less than one and a half kilometres from the Secret Annex.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup> During the air battle Anne witnessed on<strong> 3 May 1944</strong>, a plane crashed in Van Bossestraat.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup> This was also a short distance from the Secret Annex. Planes also crashed in Tuindorp Oostzaan and Grote IJpolder that day.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup> Finally, a plane also crashed into the Carlton Hotel at the end of April.<sup data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Related to the dangers from the air and from anti-aircraft guns was the threat of acts of war and evacuations in the west of the Netherlands. Anne writes at length <strong>in early 1944</strong> about the discussions between the people in hiding and the helpers when this danger threatened to take concrete forms.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The people in hiding were very concerned with their safety. They had all kinds of agreements and arrangements to avoid drawing attention to themselves. Although compliance&nbsp;slackened from time to time, they kept them reasonably well. Neither they nor the people helping them had any control over some dangers: there was obviously nothing they could have done&nbsp;about falling bombs or crashing aircraft. There are no reasons to suspect that laxity or underestimation of security measures contributed to their eventual arrest.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zl06s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ge0em\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 15 and 17 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9tvui\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dineke Stam, &#39;Ik was de inbreker&#39;. Hans Wijnberg: &#39;Ik ontdekte dat daar onderduikers zaten&#39;, in: <em>Anne Frank Magazine </em>1999, p. 32-35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2wfou\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 25 March 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0o6f\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 9 April 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2036: Meldingsrapport Warmoesstraat, 9 april 1944, mut. 23.25.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cq0nb\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 16 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qdl1k\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 1 March 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"benwc\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892: Proces-verbaal 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vn2j9\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Boon: Telefoongesprek Gertjan Broek met Ank Boon, 2 oktober 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w4dus\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7013:&nbsp;Rapporten Warmoesstraat, 8 april 1943, mut. 17.18.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"nx2b7\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6380:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 22 november 1941, mut. 16.55.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qq6e5\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Inbraken&rdquo;, <em>Algemeen Handelsblad</em>, 15 februari 1938 (ochtendeditie).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"q94p5\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Mondelinge mededeling van Gerard Oudhaarlem, 3 september 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ny8xy\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 7014:&nbsp;Rapport Recherchedienst Amsterdam, 16 januari 1945, mut. 13.30.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"19pu2\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Pandenarchief (v.m. Bouw- &amp; woningtoezicht), doss. 79837: Restauratie Prinsengracht 261, blad 2, 6 juni 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vo9r7\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 17 maart 1942, mut. 11.20 a.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"igek3\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Verduister v. 16.28-8.50 u.&rdquo;, <em>De Telegraaf</em>, 23 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wxpi4\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 4 maart 1941, mut. 10.00 n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"75e0h\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 10 July 1942, 4 and 10 August 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"b3n1r\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. coee A_Achterhuis_II_078 en 079:&nbsp;Twee kozijnen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xfg9o\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&lsquo;Nieuw signaal bij luchtgevaar&rsquo;, <em>De Tijd</em>, 9 juli 1943.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kxbg3\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 26 July 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"llz9o\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5428:&nbsp;Register luchtalarmering.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6idhi\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>J.F.M. den Boer &amp; S. Duparc (samenst.), <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940 &ndash; 1945, </em>Amsterdam, De Bussy, 1948, p. 124.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"udiwt\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>den Boer &amp; Duparc, <em>Kroniek van Amsterdam over de jaren 1940-1945</em>, p. 98.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2g3wk\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6489: Rapporten 3-4 mei 1943 Mosplein (Adelaarsweg), mut. 21.00;&nbsp;SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5878: 3-4 mei 1943, Admiraal de Ruyterweg, mut. 20.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xhz3o\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 3 February 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                            "summary_nl": "De onderduikers in het Achterhuis en helpers waren zeer alert op riskante situaties en deden er veel aan om risico’s te vermijden.",
                            "summary_en": "The people in the Secret Annex and the helpers were very alert to risky situations and did a lot to avoid risks.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124388,
                            "files": []
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                            "id": 396124419,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                            "name": "Businesses",
                            "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                            "name_en": "Businesses",
                            "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                            "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "same_as": [
                                "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
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                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Keg Thee en Koffie, firma C. (C. Keg Tea and Coffee Co.)",
                    "name_nl": "Keg Thee en Koffie, firma C.",
                    "name_en": "Keg Thee en Koffie, firma C. (C. Keg Tea and Coffee Co.)",
                    "uuid": "f2e450aa-840f-4dd8-84cf-548ce515e6d0",
                    "content": "<p>This branch of a wholesale company of coffee, tea and packaged foodstuffs was located at Prinsengracht 265, Amsterdam, next to Otto Frank&#39;s business premises (as of <strong>1 December 1940</strong>).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>As well as Opekta and Gies &amp; Co. (and other companies), Keg regularly suffered from burglaries. The staff was therefore assigned night-time guard duty.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Before the period in hiding, there were several known burglaries in the building. One of these was committed via the then vacant neighboring building 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Reports were made by branch manager Jacob Boon and warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Keg also had to contend with crime after the liberation: &#39;<em>On behalf of N.V. Keg&#39;s Groothandel, P 265 in A-dam, a report is made of the theft of 7&frac12; KG raisins, from a shipment of 2900 KG, sent from R-dam to the addressee by expedition. Bijloo</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Because the building on Prinsengracht had a basement and no ground floor, Keg had a garage at Egelantiersstraat 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 February 1940</strong>, there was a collision on Columbusplein in which a Keg van, driven by H.J. Mooseker, was involved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892:&nbsp;Rijksrecherche, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3274:&nbsp;Meldingsrapp. wachtcomm. recherche 17-18 november 1945, mut. 14.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Afschrift rapport Westerstraat, 27 april 1942, 15.00 uur.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5933:&nbsp;Rapport Willem Schoutenstraat, 5-6 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>Deze&nbsp;vestiging van een Zaanse&nbsp;groothandel in koffie, thee en verpakte levensmiddelen was&nbsp;gevestigd op de Prinsengracht 265, Amsterdam, naast het bedrijfspand (vanaf <strong>1 december 1940</strong>) van Otto Frank.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Evenals Opekta en Gies &amp; Co. (en andere bedrijven) had Keg regelmatig last van inbraken. Het personeel kreeg&nbsp;daarom nachtelijke wachtdiensten opgelegd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;V&oacute;&oacute;r de onderduikperiode waren&nbsp;er enkele inbraken in het pand bekend. Een daarvan was gepleegd via het toen nog leegstaande buurpand 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Aangiftes werden gedaan door filiaalchef Jacob Boon en magazijnchef Hendrik Mussche.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ook na de bevrijding had Keg met criminaliteit te kampen: &#39;<em>Namens N.V. Keg&rsquo;s Groothandel, P 265 te A-dam, wordt aangifte gedaan van diefstal van 7&frac12; KG rozijnen, van een zending groot 2900 KG, verzonden van R-dam aan geadresseerde per expeditie Bijloo</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Omdat het pand aan de Prinsengracht een souterrain had, en geen gelijkvloerse benedenverdieping, had Keg een garage op het adres Egelantiersstraat 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>5 februari 1940</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;er een aanrijding op het Columbusplein waarbij een bestelauto van Keg, bestuurd door H.J. Mooseker, was betrokken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892:&nbsp;Rijksrecherche, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3274:&nbsp;Meldingsrapp. wachtcomm. recherche 17-18 november 1945, mut. 14.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Afschrift rapport Westerstraat, 27 april 1942, 15.00 uur.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5933:&nbsp;Rapport Willem Schoutenstraat, 5-6 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p>This branch of a wholesale company of coffee, tea and packaged foodstuffs was located at Prinsengracht 265, Amsterdam, next to Otto Frank&#39;s business premises (as of <strong>1 December 1940</strong>).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>As well as Opekta and Gies &amp; Co. (and other companies), Keg regularly suffered from burglaries. The staff was therefore assigned night-time guard duty.<sup data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Before the period in hiding, there were several known burglaries in the building. One of these was committed via the then vacant neighboring building 263.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Reports were made by branch manager Jacob Boon and warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Keg also had to contend with crime after the liberation: &#39;<em>On behalf of N.V. Keg&#39;s Groothandel, P 265 in A-dam, a report is made of the theft of 7&frac12; KG raisins, from a shipment of 2900 KG, sent from R-dam to the addressee by expedition. Bijloo</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Because the building on Prinsengracht had a basement and no ground floor, Keg had a garage at Egelantiersstraat 8.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>5 February 1940</strong>, there was a collision on Columbusplein in which a Keg van, driven by H.J. Mooseker, was involved.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"r71sk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag, Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging, inv. nr. 23892:&nbsp;Rijksrecherche, p.v.b. 86/1963 v.H.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cck8w\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ztaxm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 3274:&nbsp;Meldingsrapp. wachtcomm. recherche 17-18 november 1945, mut. 14.00.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e0tvs\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6382:&nbsp;Afschrift rapport Westerstraat, 27 april 1942, 15.00 uur.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tyk7z\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 5933:&nbsp;Rapport Willem Schoutenstraat, 5-6 februari 1940.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.883994 52.375255)",
                    "summary": "Branch of a Zaandam wholesale company in coffee, tea and packaged foods, located next door to Otto Frank's business premises.",
                    "summary_nl": "Filiaal van een Zaanse groothandel in koffie, thee en verpakte levensmiddelen, gevestigd naast het bedrijfspand van Otto Frank.",
                    "summary_en": "Branch of a Zaandam wholesale company in coffee, tea and packaged foods, located next door to Otto Frank's business premises.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Prinsengracht 265",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        282
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/0996f06e-79e0-4d5b-9cbf-4a2bbfbdd756/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "0996f06e-79e0-4d5b-9cbf-4a2bbfbdd756",
                "name": "The Keg firm is burgled",
                "name_nl": "Inbraak bij de firma Keg",
                "name_en": "The Keg firm is burgled",
                "content": "<p>One of the Achterhuis&#39; neighbouring premises housed the Keg tea and coffee company. It had already been burgled in <strong>July 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On&nbsp;<strong>1 november 1940,</strong> warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche reported another burglary attempt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;and branch manager Jacob Boon also repeatedly reported burglaries and thefts, as well as various attempts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>In de een van de buurpanden naast het Achterhuis was thee- en koffiehandel Keg gevestigd. In&nbsp;<strong>juli 1940</strong>&nbsp;was daar al eens ingebroken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Op <strong>1 november 1940</strong> deed magazijnchef Hendrik Mussche aangifte van nog een inbraakpoging bij het bedrijf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Ook filiaalchef Jacob Boon deed hij herhaaldelijk aangifte van inbraken en diefstallen, en van pogingen daartoe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>One of the Achterhuis&#39; neighbouring premises housed the Keg tea and coffee company. It had already been burgled in <strong>July 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cju71\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> On&nbsp;<strong>1 november 1940,</strong> warehouse manager Hendrik Mussche reported another burglary attempt,<sup data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;and branch manager Jacob Boon also repeatedly reported burglaries and thefts, as well as various attempts.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cju71\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6437:&nbsp;Rapport Marnixstraat, 29 juli 1940, mut. 10.00</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bm7qo\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 6438:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat, 1 november 1940, mut. 11.35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d36ge\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nrs. 6437 en 6439:&nbsp;Rapporten Marnixstraat van 29 juli en 2 september 1940, en 8 maart 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1940-10-31",
                "date_end": "1940-11-01",
                "summary": "The Keg company was repeatedly broken into during the war.",
                "summary_nl": "Bij de firma Keg werd tijdens de oorlog herhaaldelijk ingebroken.",
                "summary_en": "The Keg company was repeatedly broken into during the war.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    196,
                    91
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2143,
                    2238
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 2.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 84,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 72,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": {
                        "id": 928,
                        "uuid": "da5786c7-b020-44d9-8f5e-a02939844730",
                        "name": "NL-RtSA_4029_PBK-574-01",
                        "title": "Wijnhaven, Rotterdam. Het gebouw in het midden is het Amerikaanse consulaat; de Stars and Stripes-vlag hangt uit.",
                        "alt": "Fotograaf onbekend. Prentbriefkaartencollectie Stadsarchief Rotterdam",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/NL-RtSA_4029_PBK-574-01.jpg",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "Links van het hoekpand is het Amerikaanse consulaat. De 'Stars and Stripes' hangt uit. Datering: begin twintigste eeuw.",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                        "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                    },
                    "latitude": "51.91739",
                    "longitude": "4.48478",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 85,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/2ba9a0e8-31e5-4460-b122-2af4249908ed/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/59a72c2a-c340-45bc-8ef5-d0a634dfb416"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/0855fb95-33ad-4cc8-a549-21853833eff5",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/9276945d-3ec3-4d82-aad1-8708abc63e7f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/d25d3c8e-2ad8-492e-bbcf-d06da70e3e42",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/2a1d3b70-b070-44d7-bc82-843593503180"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/0eb7f3ea-0714-412a-a863-bcd821d5da23",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "2ba9a0e8-31e5-4460-b122-2af4249908ed",
                            "name": "Hermann van Pels placed on the waiting list for emigration visas",
                            "name_nl": "Hermann van Pels op de wachtlijst voor emigratievisa geplaatst",
                            "name_en": "Hermann van Pels placed on the waiting list for emigration visas",
                            "content": "<p>Several members of the Van Pels family came to the Netherlands with a desire ultimately to move elsewhere. Hermann&#39;s brother travelled from Amsterdam via Liverpool to New York in the <strong>summer of 1938</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"eev7i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;and his sister would leave for Chile in <strong>late 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"doe2e\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann&#39;s family also opted for the United States and applied for the necessary visas. On <strong>25 April 1939</strong>, consul R.S. Huestis confirmed that the application of Hermann and his family had been processed; despite having Dutch nationality, this application was registered on <strong>10 February 1939</strong><strong> </strong>on the waiting list of &#39;immigrants under the German quota&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eqzhu\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> For emigration to the United States, it was not so much nationality or passport that was decisive, but the country of birth.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>They had to start building their case, which required numerous official documents. But at that point, the waiting list was already so long that their chances were slim. Moreover, all the papers were subsequently lost in the bombing of <strong>14 May 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tup1a\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Whether they subsequently tried to collect new documents to continue the proceedings is not known.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eev7i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Passagierslijsten op <a href=\"https://www.ancestry.com\" target=\"_blank\">www.ancestry.com</a>: List or manifest of alien passengers for the United States Immigrant Inspector at port of arrival, S.S. &#39;Samaria&#39;, passengers sailing from Liverpool, 27 augustus 1938, aankomst in New York 5 september 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doe2e\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eqzhu\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: Brief consul R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tup1a\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Meerdere leden van de familie Van Pels komen naar Nederland met de wens verder te trekken. Hermanns broer reisde in de <strong>zomer van 1938</strong> vanuit Amsterdam via Liverpool af naar New York;<sup data-footnote-id=\"eev7i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> zijn zus zou&nbsp;<strong>eind 1939</strong> naar Chili vertrekken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"doe2e\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermanns gezin opteerde ook voor de Verenigde Staten en vroeg de benodigde visa aan. Op <strong>25 april 1939</strong> bevestigde consul R.S. Huestis dat de aanvraag van Hermann en zijn gezin in behandeling was genomen.&nbsp;Ondanks de Nederlandse nationaliteit is deze aanvraag op <strong>10 februari 1939</strong><strong> </strong>geregistreerd op de wachtlijst van <em>immigrants under the German quota</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eqzhu\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Voor emigratie naar de Verenigde Staten was niet zozeer de nationaliteit of het paspoort doorslaggevend, maar het land van geboorte.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Zij moesten aan de opbouw van hun dossier, waarvoor tal van officiele documenten nodig waren, gaan beginnen. Maar op dat moment was de wachtlijst al zo&nbsp;lang dat de kansen gering waren. Bovendien zouden alle papieren bij het bombardement van <strong>14 mei 1940</strong> verloren gaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o620k\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Of zij daarna nog geprobeerd hebben nieuwe documenten te verzamelen om de procedure voort te zetten is niet bekend.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eev7i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Passagierslijsten op <a href=\"https://www.ancestry.com\" target=\"_blank\">www.ancestry.com</a>: List or manifest of alien passengers for the United States Immigrant Inspector at port of arrival, S.S. &#39;Samaria&#39;, passengers sailing from Liverpool, 27 augustus 1938, aankomst in New York 5 september 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doe2e\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eqzhu\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: Brief consul R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o620k\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Several members of the Van Pels family came to the Netherlands with a desire ultimately to move elsewhere. Hermann&#39;s brother travelled from Amsterdam via Liverpool to New York in the <strong>summer of 1938</strong>,<sup data-footnote-id=\"eev7i\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;and his sister would leave for Chile in <strong>late 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"doe2e\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann&#39;s family also opted for the United States and applied for the necessary visas. On <strong>25 April 1939</strong>, consul R.S. Huestis confirmed that the application of Hermann and his family had been processed; despite having Dutch nationality, this application was registered on <strong>10 February 1939</strong><strong> </strong>on the waiting list of &#39;immigrants under the German quota&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"eqzhu\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> For emigration to the United States, it was not so much nationality or passport that was decisive, but the country of birth.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>They had to start building their case, which required numerous official documents. But at that point, the waiting list was already so long that their chances were slim. Moreover, all the papers were subsequently lost in the bombing of <strong>14 May 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tup1a\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Whether they subsequently tried to collect new documents to continue the proceedings is not known.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eev7i\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Passagierslijsten op <a href=\"https://www.ancestry.com\" target=\"_blank\">www.ancestry.com</a>: List or manifest of alien passengers for the United States Immigrant Inspector at port of arrival, S.S. &#39;Samaria&#39;, passengers sailing from Liverpool, 27 augustus 1938, aankomst in New York 5 september 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"doe2e\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart I.H. van Pels.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"eqzhu\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: Brief consul R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tup1a\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1939-04-25",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "Like his brother Max David and his wife, Hermann van Pels also wanted to leave for the United States with his wife and son. To this end, he applied for visas.",
                            "summary_nl": "Net als zijn broer Max David en zijn echtgenote, wil ook Hermann van Pels met zijn vrouw en zoon naar de Verenigde Staten vertrekken. Hij dient daartoe een aanvraag voor visa in.",
                            "summary_en": "Like his brother Max David and his wife, Hermann van Pels also wanted to leave for the United States with his wife and son. To this end, he applied for visas.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": [
                                1045
                            ]
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 84,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/71402c2f-c621-49bd-abce-86e138162883/",
                            "subjects": [],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/c096c411-9830-4e8e-bc9c-85ff188a1feb",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/0855fb95-33ad-4cc8-a549-21853833eff5",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5166e05f-5950-486d-bb13-160b2a586fd5",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/9276945d-3ec3-4d82-aad1-8708abc63e7f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/e4a1ba76-6838-4779-9853-b332dcee8815",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/d25d3c8e-2ad8-492e-bbcf-d06da70e3e42",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/2a1d3b70-b070-44d7-bc82-843593503180"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/0eb7f3ea-0714-412a-a863-bcd821d5da23",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "71402c2f-c621-49bd-abce-86e138162883",
                            "name": "Bombing destroys visa applications",
                            "name_nl": "Bombardement vernietigt de visumaanvragen voor de Verenigde Staten",
                            "name_en": "Bombing destroys visa applications",
                            "content": "<p>Otto Frank did not manage to put together his file again before all the US consulates in European occupied territory closed their doors in <strong>early July 1941</strong>. It is unclear whether this affected the Van Pels family, but it is clear that they were also unable to travel. The bombing thus permanently destroyed both families&#39; already slim chances of a timely departure.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4veth\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In 1938, Otto Frank applied for immigration visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann van Pels and his family did the same, but probably a little later; receipt was confirmed by the consulate on <strong>25 April 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pf676\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> By now, the number of German applicants was huge, resulting in a long waiting list. To build a file, Frank and Van Pels had to supply a large number of documents,&nbsp;including birth certificates of all family members, marriage certificates, proof of military service, vaccination certificates and passport photographs.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The consulate reconstructed the old waiting list as much as possible, but applicants had to assemble all their documentation again. Visa applicants could use the number on the receipt of their application to get on a reconstructed list. It appeared later that some staff members were bribed to put applicants higher on that list during this process.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4veth\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, <em>Three personal letters from Otto Frank as found in National Refugee Service Case File A-23007</em>: Otto Frank aan Nathan &#39;Charley&#39; Straus, 30 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pf676\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: brief R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Otto Frank lukte het niet zijn dossier opnieuw op te bouwen voordat alle Amerikaanse consulaten in Europees bezet gebied <strong>begin juli 1941</strong> de deuren sloten. Voor de familie Van Pels ontbreken bronnen, maar duidelijk is dat zij evenmin konden afreizen. Door het bombardement was de toch al geringe&nbsp;kans van beide gezinnen op tijdig vertrek dus definitief verkeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jxcgh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938</strong> diende Otto Frank een aanvraag voor immigratievisa in bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann van Pels en zijn gezin deden dat ook, maar waarschijnlijk iets later; de ontvangst werd door het consulaat bevestigd op <strong>25 april 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pf676\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het aantal Duitse aanvragers was inmiddels&nbsp;enorm groot, met een lange wachtlijst als gevolg. Voor de opbouw van een dossier hadden Frank en Van Pels een groot aantal documenten aan te leveren: onder meer geboorteakten van alle gezinsleden, trouwakte, bewijzen van militaire dienstvervulling, vaccinatiebewijzen en pasfoto&#39;s.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het consulaat reconstrueerde zoveel mogelijk de oude wachtlijst, maar de aanvragers moesten hun documentatie helemaal opnieuw opbouwen.&nbsp;Aanvragers van visa konden zich met het nummer op het ontvangsbewijs van hun aanvraag melden om op een gereconstrueerde lijst te komen. Tijdens dit proces bleken enkele personeelsleden zich te laten omkopen om aanvragers hoger op die lijst te plaatsen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jxcgh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, <em>Three personal letters from Otto Frank as found in National Refugee Service Case File A-23007</em>: Otto Frank aan Nathan &#39;Charley&#39; Straus, 30 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pf676\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: brief R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Otto Frank did not manage to put together his file again before all the US consulates in European occupied territory closed their doors in <strong>early July 1941</strong>. It is unclear whether this affected the Van Pels family, but it is clear that they were also unable to travel. The bombing thus permanently destroyed both families&#39; already slim chances of a timely departure.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4veth\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In 1938, Otto Frank applied for immigration visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann van Pels and his family did the same, but probably a little later; receipt was confirmed by the consulate on <strong>25 April 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pf676\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> By now, the number of German applicants was huge, resulting in a long waiting list. To build a file, Frank and Van Pels had to supply a large number of documents,&nbsp;including birth certificates of all family members, marriage certificates, proof of military service, vaccination certificates and passport photographs.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The consulate reconstructed the old waiting list as much as possible, but applicants had to assemble all their documentation again. Visa applicants could use the number on the receipt of their application to get on a reconstructed list. It appeared later that some staff members were bribed to put applicants higher on that list during this process.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4veth\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, <em>Three personal letters from Otto Frank as found in National Refugee Service Case File A-23007</em>: Otto Frank aan Nathan &#39;Charley&#39; Straus, 30 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pf676\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: brief R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1940-05-14",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "On the afternoon of 14 May 1940, the German Luftwaffe bombed downtown Rotterdam. The US consulate on Wijnhaven burned to the ground as a result, leading to the loss of the files of pending visa applications.",
                            "summary_nl": "In de middag van 14 mei 1940 bombardeert de Duitse Luftwaffe de binnenstad van Rotterdam. Hierbij brandt ook het Amerikaanse consulaat aan de Wijnhaven tot de grond toe af. Hierbij gingen de dossiers van de lopende visa-aanvragen verloren.",
                            "summary_en": "On the afternoon of 14 May 1940, the German Luftwaffe bombed downtown Rotterdam. The US consulate on Wijnhaven burned to the ground as a result, leading to the loss of the files of pending visa applications.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124407,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/59a72c2a-c340-45bc-8ef5-d0a634dfb416/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "59a72c2a-c340-45bc-8ef5-d0a634dfb416",
                            "name": "Emigration from Europe",
                            "name_nl": "Emigratie uit Europa",
                            "name_en": "Emigration from Europe",
                            "description": "<p>The ultimate destination of many refugees was the United States; there were also those who left for South Africa, Palestine and Latin America. But emigration could not be taken for granted. Those who wanted to leave entered a bureaucratic mill of countless forms for exit permits, transit permits, entry visas, court declarations and sureties. The queues waiting at aid organisations, consulates, embassies and travel agencies were endless. Rules were constantly changing and emigration countries were making high financial demands. As anti-Jewish measures and threats of war increased, panic to get away grew. In the end, only a relatively small group managed to flee the persecution of Jews in Europe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bsj3b\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Frank, Van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer families also made attempts to get away from Europe. Otto Frank tried to set up a business in England as early as <strong>1937</strong> and applied for a visa at the American consulate in Rotterdam in <strong>1938</strong>. Both attempts came to nothing. When World War II broke out in <strong>1939</strong>, it became even more difficult to flee. After the German invasion in <strong>1940</strong>, the Frank family tried to go to the United States again in <strong>1941</strong>. They were helped by American friends and Julius and Walter Holl&auml;nder, Edith&#39;s brothers, who had already managed to flee to the United States. This was all to be&nbsp;in vain.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xd9f8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Van Pels&nbsp;family was not lucky either. Despite their Dutch citizenship, they did not feel safe in the Netherlands. In <strong>1939</strong>, they applied for visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam. They ended up on a waiting list that was already so long that their chances were slim.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xd9f8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Their attempt to move on failed, although some relatives of Hermann van Pels and Auguste R&ouml;ttgen did manage to emigrate to North America, South America and other overseas destinations.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s immigration card states that he wanted to go to Australia, but he also tried to go to Aruba. He also applied for emigration to Chile. But he too failed to get away from the Netherlands.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 November 1941</strong>, all German Jews living abroad lost their nationality and thus became stateless. As a result, emigration became impossible.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bsj3b\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/impossibilities-escaping-1933-1942/\" target=\"_blank\"><em>The (im)possibilities of escaping. Jewish emigration 1933 &ndash; 1942</em></a>, Website Anne Frank House.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xd9f8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Het uiteindelijke reisdoel van veel vluchtelingen was de Verenigde Staten, er waren er ook die naar Zuid-Afrika, Palestina en Latijns-Amerika&nbsp; vertrokken.&nbsp;Maar emigratie was niet vanzelfsprekend. Wie weg wilde kwam in een bureaucratische molen terecht van ontelbare formulieren voor uitreisvergunningen, doorreisvergunningen, inreisvisa, gerechtelijke verklaringen en borgstellingen. De rijen wachtenden bij hulporganisaties, consulaten, ambassades en reisbureaus waren eindeloos. Regels veranderden voortdurend en emigratielanden stelden hoge financi&euml;le eisen. Naarmate anti-Joodse maatregelen en oorlogsdreiging toenamen, groeide&nbsp;de paniek om weg te komen.&nbsp;Uiteindelijk heeft maar een relatief kleine groep de Jodenvervolging in Europa weten te ontvluchten.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bgn18\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Ook de families Frank, Van Pels en Fritz Pfeffer hebben pogingen ondernomen uit Europa weg te komen. Otto Frank probeerde al&nbsp;vanaf <strong>1937</strong> geprobeerd een zaak op te zetten in Engeland en deed&nbsp;in <strong>1938</strong> een visumaanvraag gedaan bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam.&nbsp;Beide pogingen liepen op niets uit. Toen in&nbsp;<strong>1939</strong> de Tweede Wereldoorlog uitbrak, werd&nbsp;het nog moelijker om te vluchten. Na de Duitse inval in <strong>1940</strong> probeerde&nbsp;de familie Frank in <strong>1941</strong> opnieuw naar de Verenigde Staten te gaan. Ze worden daarbij geholpen door Amerikaanse vrienden en Julius en Walter Holl&auml;nder, de broers van Edith, die er al in zijn geslaagd naar de Verenigde Staten te vluchten. Tevergeefs.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlh47\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het gezin van Pels had ook geen geluk.&nbsp;Ondanks hun Nederlanderschap voelden&nbsp;zij zich niet veilig in Nederland. In <strong>1939</strong> deden zij een visumaanvraag bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam. Zij kwamen op een wachtlijst te staan die al zo&nbsp;lang was dat hun kansen gering waren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xlh47\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hun poging om verder te trekken mislukte, al zijn&nbsp;er enkele familieleden van Hermann van Pels en Auguste R&ouml;ttgen er wel in geslaagd naar Noord-, Zuid-Amerika of een andere bestemming overzee te emigreren.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op de vreemdelingenkaart van Fritz Pfeffer staat dat hij naar Australi&euml; wilde, maar hij probeerde&nbsp;ook naar Aruba te gaan. Verder deed&nbsp;hij een emigratieaanvraag voor Chili. Maar het lukte ook&nbsp;hem niet weg te komen uit Nederland.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>25 november 1941</strong> verloren alle in het buitenland wonende Duitse Joden hun nationaliteit en werden daarmee stateloos. Emigratie werd&nbsp;daarmee onmogelijk.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bgn18\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/nl/anne-frank/verdieping/de-on-mogelijkheden-om-te-vluchten-joodse-emigratie-1933-1942/\" target=\"_blank\"><em>De (on)mogelijkheden om te vluchten: Joodse emigratie 1933-1942</em></a>, Website Anne Frank Stichting.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xlh47\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The ultimate destination of many refugees was the United States; there were also those who left for South Africa, Palestine and Latin America. But emigration could not be taken for granted. Those who wanted to leave entered a bureaucratic mill of countless forms for exit permits, transit permits, entry visas, court declarations and sureties. The queues waiting at aid organisations, consulates, embassies and travel agencies were endless. Rules were constantly changing and emigration countries were making high financial demands. As anti-Jewish measures and threats of war increased, panic to get away grew. In the end, only a relatively small group managed to flee the persecution of Jews in Europe.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bsj3b\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Frank, Van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer families also made attempts to get away from Europe. Otto Frank tried to set up a business in England as early as <strong>1937</strong> and applied for a visa at the American consulate in Rotterdam in <strong>1938</strong>. Both attempts came to nothing. When World War II broke out in <strong>1939</strong>, it became even more difficult to flee. After the German invasion in <strong>1940</strong>, the Frank family tried to go to the United States again in <strong>1941</strong>. They were helped by American friends and Julius and Walter Holl&auml;nder, Edith&#39;s brothers, who had already managed to flee to the United States. This was all to be&nbsp;in vain.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xd9f8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The Van Pels&nbsp;family was not lucky either. Despite their Dutch citizenship, they did not feel safe in the Netherlands. In <strong>1939</strong>, they applied for visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam. They ended up on a waiting list that was already so long that their chances were slim.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xd9f8\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Their attempt to move on failed, although some relatives of Hermann van Pels and Auguste R&ouml;ttgen did manage to emigrate to North America, South America and other overseas destinations.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s immigration card states that he wanted to go to Australia, but he also tried to go to Aruba. He also applied for emigration to Chile. But he too failed to get away from the Netherlands.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 November 1941</strong>, all German Jews living abroad lost their nationality and thus became stateless. As a result, emigration became impossible.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bsj3b\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/impossibilities-escaping-1933-1942/\" target=\"_blank\"><em>The (im)possibilities of escaping. Jewish emigration 1933 &ndash; 1942</em></a>, Website Anne Frank House.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xd9f8\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Between 1933 and 1941, about 280,000 Jews fled Nazi Germany and 130,000 fled Hitler-annexed Austria. Many sought refuge in neighbouring countries. For many, however, this was just a stopover on the way to safer places.",
                            "summary_nl": "Tussen 1933 en 1941 vluchtten ongeveer 280.000 Joden uit nazi-Duitsland en 130.000 uit het door Hitler geannexeerde Oostenrijk. Velen zochten hun toevlucht in de omringende landen. Voor velen was dit echter slechts een tussenstop op weg naar veiliger oorden.",
                            "summary_en": "Between 1933 and 1941, about 280,000 Jews fled Nazi Germany and 130,000 fled Hitler-annexed Austria. Many sought refuge in neighbouring countries. For many, however, this was just a stopover on the way to safer places.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": null,
                            "files": [
                                835
                            ]
                        }
                    ],
                    "related_locations": [
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/27548fcb-0101-4287-bb54-8199ce1ed0cc",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2a5c7562-2b9e-41ab-98db-c56055144c03",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/bb8cc373-0362-40bf-814e-99196308412c",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/b6b6c4af-743d-4a49-8876-43b583dcfc25",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/c631f396-52e9-486d-b1a1-1d971d8def39"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/0eb7f3ea-0714-412a-a863-bcd821d5da23/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "American consulate in Rotterdam",
                    "name_nl": "Amerikaans consulaat in Rotterdam",
                    "name_en": "American consulate in Rotterdam",
                    "uuid": "0eb7f3ea-0714-412a-a863-bcd821d5da23",
                    "content": "<p>Both the Frank family and the Van Pels family attempted to emigrate to the United States. Otto Frank had been working on his plans to emigrate to the United States since 1938. The immigration visa application, with all the necessary documents, had to be submitted to the American consulate in Rotterdam. In the Netherlands, only the Rotterdam consulate issued immigration visas. But the application procedure was cumbersome and lengthy for German emigrants, because they had to collect all kinds of information in their native country. To make matters worse, the consulate was destroyed during the bombardment of Rotterdam on <strong>14 May 1940</strong>, whereby<strong>&nbsp;</strong>all papers were lost &nbsp;That led to a laborious reconstruction of the waiting list, and all applications had to be resubmitted, which meant that the already small chance of both families to emigrate inn time was definitively lost.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7aj8e\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the destruction of the Rotterdam&#39;s city center, the consulate moved to a building on the Westersingel. Rising tensions between the United States and Germany forced all US consulates in occupied territory to close <strong>in early July 1941</strong>. On <strong>10 July</strong>, the consul in Rotterdam reported to the State Department that he had destroyed the visa stamps as instructed.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7aj8e\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>Zowel de familile Frank als de familie Van Pels hebben geprobeerd om naar de Verenigde Staten te emigreren. Otto Frank was sinds <strong>1938</strong> met emigratieplannen naar de Verenigde Staten bezig. De aanvraag voor emigratie met alle benodigde documenten moest ingediend worden bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam, dat als enige in Nederland emigratievisa verstrekte. Maar de aanvraagprocedure was omslachtig en langdurig voor Duitse emigranten, omdat zij in hun geboorteland allerlei gegevens moesten verzamelen. Tot overmaat van ramp werd het consulaat op <strong>14 mei 1940</strong> verwoest tijdens de bombardementen op Rotterdam, waarbij alle papieren verloren gingen. Dat leidde tot een moeizame reconstructie van de wachtlijst en alle aanvragen, waardoor de toch al geringe&nbsp;kans van beide gezinnen op tijdige emigratie&nbsp;definitief was verkeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8qruz\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Na de verwoesting van de Rotterdamse binnenstad verhuisde het consulaat naar een gebouw op de Westersingel. Door het oplopen van spanningen tussen de Verenigde Staten en Duitsland moesten alle Amerikaanse consulaten in bezet gebied <strong>begin juli 1941</strong> hun deuren sluiten. Op <strong>10 juli</strong> rapporteerde de consul in Rotterdam aan het State Department dat de visumstempels volgens instructie waren vernietigd.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8qruz\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p>Both the Frank family and the Van Pels family attempted to emigrate to the United States. Otto Frank had been working on his plans to emigrate to the United States since 1938. The immigration visa application, with all the necessary documents, had to be submitted to the American consulate in Rotterdam. In the Netherlands, only the Rotterdam consulate issued immigration visas. But the application procedure was cumbersome and lengthy for German emigrants, because they had to collect all kinds of information in their native country. To make matters worse, the consulate was destroyed during the bombardment of Rotterdam on <strong>14 May 1940</strong>, whereby<strong>&nbsp;</strong>all papers were lost &nbsp;That led to a laborious reconstruction of the waiting list, and all applications had to be resubmitted, which meant that the already small chance of both families to emigrate inn time was definitively lost.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7aj8e\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>After the destruction of the Rotterdam&#39;s city center, the consulate moved to a building on the Westersingel. Rising tensions between the United States and Germany forced all US consulates in occupied territory to close <strong>in early July 1941</strong>. On <strong>10 July</strong>, the consul in Rotterdam reported to the State Department that he had destroyed the visa stamps as instructed.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7aj8e\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.48478 51.91739)",
                    "summary": "Anyone who wanted to emigrate from the Netherlands to the United States during the 1930s had to apply for a visa at the US consulate in Rotterdam. The consulate in Amsterdam only issued visas for temporary stays.",
                    "summary_nl": "Wie gedurende de jaren dertig vanuit Nederland naar de Verenigde Staten wilde emigreren moest visa aanvragen bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam. Het consulaat in Amsterdam verstrekte alleen visa voor tijdelijk verblijf.",
                    "summary_en": "Anyone who wanted to emigrate from the Netherlands to the United States during the 1930s had to apply for a visa at the US consulate in Rotterdam. The consulate in Amsterdam only issued visas for temporary stays.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Wijnhaven 147",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Rotterdam",
                    "state": "Zuid-Holland",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        85,
                        84
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/71402c2f-c621-49bd-abce-86e138162883/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "71402c2f-c621-49bd-abce-86e138162883",
                "name": "Bombing destroys visa applications",
                "name_nl": "Bombardement vernietigt de visumaanvragen voor de Verenigde Staten",
                "name_en": "Bombing destroys visa applications",
                "content": "<p>Otto Frank did not manage to put together his file again before all the US consulates in European occupied territory closed their doors in <strong>early July 1941</strong>. It is unclear whether this affected the Van Pels family, but it is clear that they were also unable to travel. The bombing thus permanently destroyed both families&#39; already slim chances of a timely departure.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4veth\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In 1938, Otto Frank applied for immigration visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann van Pels and his family did the same, but probably a little later; receipt was confirmed by the consulate on <strong>25 April 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pf676\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> By now, the number of German applicants was huge, resulting in a long waiting list. To build a file, Frank and Van Pels had to supply a large number of documents,&nbsp;including birth certificates of all family members, marriage certificates, proof of military service, vaccination certificates and passport photographs.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The consulate reconstructed the old waiting list as much as possible, but applicants had to assemble all their documentation again. Visa applicants could use the number on the receipt of their application to get on a reconstructed list. It appeared later that some staff members were bribed to put applicants higher on that list during this process.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4veth\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, <em>Three personal letters from Otto Frank as found in National Refugee Service Case File A-23007</em>: Otto Frank aan Nathan &#39;Charley&#39; Straus, 30 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pf676\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: brief R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Otto Frank lukte het niet zijn dossier opnieuw op te bouwen voordat alle Amerikaanse consulaten in Europees bezet gebied <strong>begin juli 1941</strong> de deuren sloten. Voor de familie Van Pels ontbreken bronnen, maar duidelijk is dat zij evenmin konden afreizen. Door het bombardement was de toch al geringe&nbsp;kans van beide gezinnen op tijdig vertrek dus definitief verkeken.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jxcgh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>1938</strong> diende Otto Frank een aanvraag voor immigratievisa in bij het Amerikaanse consulaat in Rotterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann van Pels en zijn gezin deden dat ook, maar waarschijnlijk iets later; de ontvangst werd door het consulaat bevestigd op <strong>25 april 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pf676\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het aantal Duitse aanvragers was inmiddels&nbsp;enorm groot, met een lange wachtlijst als gevolg. Voor de opbouw van een dossier hadden Frank en Van Pels een groot aantal documenten aan te leveren: onder meer geboorteakten van alle gezinsleden, trouwakte, bewijzen van militaire dienstvervulling, vaccinatiebewijzen en pasfoto&#39;s.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het consulaat reconstrueerde zoveel mogelijk de oude wachtlijst, maar de aanvragers moesten hun documentatie helemaal opnieuw opbouwen.&nbsp;Aanvragers van visa konden zich met het nummer op het ontvangsbewijs van hun aanvraag melden om op een gereconstrueerde lijst te komen. Tijdens dit proces bleken enkele personeelsleden zich te laten omkopen om aanvragers hoger op die lijst te plaatsen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jxcgh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, <em>Three personal letters from Otto Frank as found in National Refugee Service Case File A-23007</em>: Otto Frank aan Nathan &#39;Charley&#39; Straus, 30 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pf676\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: brief R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Otto Frank did not manage to put together his file again before all the US consulates in European occupied territory closed their doors in <strong>early July 1941</strong>. It is unclear whether this affected the Van Pels family, but it is clear that they were also unable to travel. The bombing thus permanently destroyed both families&#39; already slim chances of a timely departure.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4veth\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In 1938, Otto Frank applied for immigration visas at the US consulate in Rotterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Hermann van Pels and his family did the same, but probably a little later; receipt was confirmed by the consulate on <strong>25 April 1939</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pf676\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> By now, the number of German applicants was huge, resulting in a long waiting list. To build a file, Frank and Van Pels had to supply a large number of documents,&nbsp;including birth certificates of all family members, marriage certificates, proof of military service, vaccination certificates and passport photographs.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The consulate reconstructed the old waiting list as much as possible, but applicants had to assemble all their documentation again. Visa applicants could use the number on the receipt of their application to get on a reconstructed list. It appeared later that some staff members were bribed to put applicants higher on that list during this process.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4veth\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rebecca Erbelding &amp; Gertjan Broek,&nbsp;<a href=\"https://us-holocaust-museum.medium.com/german-bombs-and-us-bureaucrats-how-escape-lines-from-europe-were-cut-off-1b3e14137cc4\" target=\"_blank\"><em>German bombs and US bureaucrats: how escape lines from Europe were cut off</em></a>, Washington, DC: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2018.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ikcac\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, New York, <em>Three personal letters from Otto Frank as found in National Refugee Service Case File A-23007</em>: Otto Frank aan Nathan &#39;Charley&#39; Straus, 30 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pf676\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_vPels_I_001: brief R.S. Huestis aan H. van Pels, 25 april 1939.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": "1940-05-14",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "On the afternoon of 14 May 1940, the German Luftwaffe bombed downtown Rotterdam. The US consulate on Wijnhaven burned to the ground as a result, leading to the loss of the files of pending visa applications.",
                "summary_nl": "In de middag van 14 mei 1940 bombardeert de Duitse Luftwaffe de binnenstad van Rotterdam. Hierbij brandt ook het Amerikaanse consulaat aan de Wijnhaven tot de grond toe af. Hierbij gingen de dossiers van de lopende visa-aanvragen verloren.",
                "summary_en": "On the afternoon of 14 May 1940, the German Luftwaffe bombed downtown Rotterdam. The US consulate on Wijnhaven burned to the ground as a result, leading to the loss of the files of pending visa applications.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [],
                "persons": [
                    70,
                    248,
                    246,
                    250,
                    193,
                    52,
                    235,
                    2072
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 2.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 108,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 89,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": {
                        "id": 1093,
                        "uuid": "b32d62c1-9ce7-4841-aa30-ff542015370e",
                        "name": "010163001193",
                        "title": "Wolkenkrabber met links de Zuider Amstellaan, rond 1940",
                        "alt": "Collectie N.V. De Arbeiderspers. Stadsarchief Amsterdam",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/010163002293.jpg",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek",
                        "copyright": "Publiek domein"
                    },
                    "latitude": "52.34519",
                    "longitude": "4.90165",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 107,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/88392ef5-c635-448a-b2c7-9a4bca92d3e5/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/e668255b-67ef-4ad1-8f2e-fdc1084aff25"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/e622b6f4-93b1-486f-be71-f4bcc955b64a",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/0855fb95-33ad-4cc8-a549-21853833eff5",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/9276945d-3ec3-4d82-aad1-8708abc63e7f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/70d46c84-cc19-4925-b4ed-19da7cfd76ae",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/d25d3c8e-2ad8-492e-bbcf-d06da70e3e42",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/bfb8d2db-e3cb-4d5a-9e7e-2e10e2edf709"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/da7429b4-b23f-4947-b6d8-e5e6c0f143c3",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "88392ef5-c635-448a-b2c7-9a4bca92d3e5",
                            "name": "The Van Pels family moves to Biesboschstraat",
                            "name_nl": "De familie Van Pels verhuist naar de Biesboschstraat",
                            "name_en": "The Van Pels family moves to Biesboschstraat",
                            "content": "<p>The Van Pels family had several lodgers in the house on Biesboschstraat, and in a newspaper advert in <strong>March &#39;39</strong>, they offered a <em>&quot;Large <strong>Bedsitting room,</strong> ground floor, with fine lodgings for 2 pers.</em>&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qvwrx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The first to move in after the advert appeared were Auguste&#39;s parents, Leo R&ouml;ttgen and Rosa R&ouml;ttgen-Rosenau. The others who lived here, partly previously, were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Georg Rosenstock and Clothilde Rosenstock-Schmidt (21 July 1938 - 30 January 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Amalie Spanier-Marx (5 May 1939 - 10 July 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Hans Bachmann (30 June 1939 - 3 October 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Sigmund and Jakob Kaufmann (4 July 1939 - 6 May 1940).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgkf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qvwrx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Kamers, huizen, enz. (aangeb.)&quot;,&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf</em>. 17 maart 1939, avondeditie, p. 20.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9rgkf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 35, Woningkaart Biesboschstraat 59 huis.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Het gezin Van Pels had&nbsp;in de woning aan de Biesboschstraat verschillende inwonenden.&nbsp;In een krantenannonce&nbsp;boden zij&nbsp;in <strong>maart &#39;39</strong> een&nbsp;<em>&quot;Groote&nbsp;<strong>Zit-Sl.kamer,</strong>&nbsp;parterre, met prima pens. voor 2 pers.&quot;&nbsp;</em>aan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"qvwrx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;De eersten die na de plaatsing introkken waren Augustes ouders, Leo R&ouml;ttgen en Rosa R&ouml;ttgen - Rosenau. De anderen die hier deels al eerder inwoonden waren:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Georg Rosenstock en Clothilde Rosenstock-Schmidt (21 juli 1938 &ndash; 30 januari 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Amalie Spanier - Marx (5 mei 1939 &ndash; 10 juli 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Hans Bachmann (30 juni 1939 &ndash; 3 oktober 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Sigmund en Jakob Kaufmann (4 juli 1939 &ndash; 6 mei 1940).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgkf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qvwrx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Kamers, huizen, enz. (aangeb.)&quot;,&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf</em>. 17 maart 1939, avondeditie, p. 20.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9rgkf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 35, Woningkaart Biesboschstraat 59 huis.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>The Van Pels family had several lodgers in the house on Biesboschstraat, and in a newspaper advert in <strong>March &#39;39</strong>, they offered a <em>&quot;Large <strong>Bedsitting room,</strong> ground floor, with fine lodgings for 2 pers.</em>&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qvwrx\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> The first to move in after the advert appeared were Auguste&#39;s parents, Leo R&ouml;ttgen and Rosa R&ouml;ttgen-Rosenau. The others who lived here, partly previously, were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Georg Rosenstock and Clothilde Rosenstock-Schmidt (21 July 1938 - 30 January 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Amalie Spanier-Marx (5 May 1939 - 10 July 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Hans Bachmann (30 June 1939 - 3 October 1939)</li>\r\n\t<li>Sigmund and Jakob Kaufmann (4 July 1939 - 6 May 1940).<sup data-footnote-id=\"9rgkf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qvwrx\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Kamers, huizen, enz. (aangeb.)&quot;,&nbsp;<em>De Telegraaf</em>. 17 maart 1939, avondeditie, p. 20.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9rgkf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 35, Woningkaart Biesboschstraat 59 huis.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1938-05-18",
                            "date_end": "1940-05-06",
                            "summary": "Here Hermann van Pels was registered with his wife and son from 18 May 1938 to 6 May 1940.",
                            "summary_nl": "Hier stond Hermann van Pels met vrouw en zoon ingeschreven van 18 mei 1938 tot 6 mei 1940.",
                            "summary_en": "Here Hermann van Pels was registered with his wife and son from 18 May 1938 to 6 May 1940.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": [
                                786
                            ]
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 108,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/332fe191-c9d1-4e9c-af83-72cac41ac33a/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/e668255b-67ef-4ad1-8f2e-fdc1084aff25"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/e622b6f4-93b1-486f-be71-f4bcc955b64a",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/0855fb95-33ad-4cc8-a549-21853833eff5",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/9276945d-3ec3-4d82-aad1-8708abc63e7f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/f8dca223-5c52-458c-b83f-ae828e238065",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/d25d3c8e-2ad8-492e-bbcf-d06da70e3e42"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/da7429b4-b23f-4947-b6d8-e5e6c0f143c3",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "332fe191-c9d1-4e9c-af83-72cac41ac33a",
                            "name": "The Van Pels family at Zuider Amstellaan",
                            "name_nl": "De familie Van Pels op de Zuider Amstellaan",
                            "name_en": "The Van Pels family at Zuider Amstellaan",
                            "content": "<p>Hermann van Pels was registered with his family from <strong>6 May 1940</strong> at Zuider Amstellaan 34 II. When he moved from Biesboschstraat, lodgers Jakob and Sigmund Kaufmann moved with him.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Also registered at this address were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Mozes Maximiliaan van Kreveld (19 August 1940-2 April 1941)</li>\r\n\t<li>Bartha Elizabeth de Vries (27 March 1941-23 November 1945)</li>\r\n\t<li>Andries de Rosa (31 March 1941-21 May 1941).<sup data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>This was a four-room house, furnished with things brought from Germany.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rent in <strong>1942 </strong>was fifty-five guilders a month, plus twenty for heating.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The Van Pels family left the house on <strong>13 July 1942</strong>, but the Population Register did not deregister them&nbsp;until <strong>30 December 1942</strong>, with the entry &#39;V O W&#39; (&#39;Vertrokken Onbekend Waarheen&#39; - Departed, Destination Unknown).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Homeowner Hilwis had the property cleared on <strong>Friday 30 October 1942</strong>. The house got a new tenant on <strong>1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Miep Gies recounted the emptying of the house in the Secret Annex on the following Monday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> In the B-version of her diary, Anne dates this <strong>29 October</strong> and uses the term &#39;<em>ontmeubeld&#39; </em>(&quot;the furniture has been removed...&quot;)<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Hilwis received compensation of 218 guilders and 11 cents for the loss of rent suffered between <strong>1 August and 1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten H. van Pels, J.S. Kaufmann en S.H. Kaufmann.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 303, Woningkaarten Rooseveltlaan 34 - 34 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Elisabeth Sp&auml;th (i.v.m. schadevergoeding), 7 maart 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_006: Verzoek eigenaar Hilwis aan Het Eigendomsrecht om huurschade te innen bij Liro, ongedateerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 2 November 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 29 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_008, Het Eigendomsrecht aan Hilwis III, 4 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Hermann van Pels staat met zijn gezin vanaf <strong>6 mei 1940</strong> op de Zuider Amstellaan 34 II ingeschreven.&nbsp;Bij de verhuizing vanuit de Biesboschstraat&nbsp;verhuisden de kostgangers Jakob en Sigmund Kaufmann mee.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:166,&quot;y&quot;:43,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:387,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1328}\" data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op dit adres stonden verder ingeschreven:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:60,&quot;y&quot;:77,&quot;w&quot;:980,&quot;h&quot;:20,&quot;abs_x&quot;:281,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1362}\">Mozes Maximiliaan van Kreveld (19 augustus 1940-2 april 1941)</li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:60,&quot;y&quot;:98,&quot;w&quot;:980,&quot;h&quot;:20,&quot;abs_x&quot;:281,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1383}\">Bartha Elizabeth de Vries (27 maart 1941-23 november 1945)</li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:60,&quot;y&quot;:119,&quot;w&quot;:980,&quot;h&quot;:24,&quot;abs_x&quot;:281,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1404}\">Andries de Rosa (31 maart 1941-21 mei 1941).<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:331,&quot;y&quot;:121,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:552,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1406}\" data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Dit was een vierkamerwoning, ingericht met spullen&nbsp;die uit Duitsland zijn meegekomen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:521,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:742,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1443}\" data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Huurprijs bedroeg in <strong>1942</strong> vijfenvijftig gulden per maand, plus twintig voor verwarming.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:1033,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1254,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1443}\" data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De familie Van Pels verliet de&nbsp;woning op <strong>13 juli 1942</strong>, maar het Bevolkingsregister schreef ze pas&nbsp;uit op <strong>30 december 1942</strong>, met de vermelding &#39;V O W&#39;&nbsp;(Vertrokken Onbekend Waarheen).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Huiseigenaar Hilwis liet de woning op vrijdag&nbsp;<strong>30 oktober 1942</strong> ontruimen. De woning kreeg op <strong>1 november</strong> een nieuwe huurder.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:761,&quot;y&quot;:216,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:982,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1501}\" data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Miep Gies vertelde de maandag erop in het Achterhuis over het leeghalen van de woning.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:283,&quot;y&quot;:240,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:504,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1525}\" data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de B-versie van haar dagboek dateert Anne dit <strong>29 oktober</strong> en gebruikt ze de term &#39;<em>ontmeubeld&#39;</em>.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:863,&quot;y&quot;:240,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1084,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1525}\" data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Hilwis kreeg een vergoeding van 218 gulden en 11 cent voor de tussen <strong>1 augustus en 1 november</strong> geleden huurschade.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:529,&quot;y&quot;:264,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:750,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1549}\" data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:20,&quot;y&quot;:299,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:280,&quot;abs_x&quot;:241,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1584}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:35,&quot;y&quot;:316,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:256,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1601}\">\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten H. van Pels, J.S. Kaufmann en S.H. Kaufmann.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 303, Woningkaarten Rooseveltlaan 34 - 34 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Elisabeth Sp&auml;th (i.v.m. schadevergoeding), 7 maart 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_006: Verzoek eigenaar Hilwis aan Het Eigendomsrecht om huurschade te innen bij Liro, ongedateerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 2 november 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 29 oktober 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_008, Het Eigendomsrecht aan Hilwis III, 4 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Hermann van Pels was registered with his family from <strong>6 May 1940</strong> at Zuider Amstellaan 34 II. When he moved from Biesboschstraat, lodgers Jakob and Sigmund Kaufmann moved with him.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Also registered at this address were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Mozes Maximiliaan van Kreveld (19 August 1940-2 April 1941)</li>\r\n\t<li>Bartha Elizabeth de Vries (27 March 1941-23 November 1945)</li>\r\n\t<li>Andries de Rosa (31 March 1941-21 May 1941).<sup data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>This was a four-room house, furnished with things brought from Germany.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rent in <strong>1942 </strong>was fifty-five guilders a month, plus twenty for heating.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The Van Pels family left the house on <strong>13 July 1942</strong>, but the Population Register did not deregister them&nbsp;until <strong>30 December 1942</strong>, with the entry &#39;V O W&#39; (&#39;Vertrokken Onbekend Waarheen&#39; - Departed, Destination Unknown).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Homeowner Hilwis had the property cleared on <strong>Friday 30 October 1942</strong>. The house got a new tenant on <strong>1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Miep Gies recounted the emptying of the house in the Secret Annex on the following Monday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> In the B-version of her diary, Anne dates this <strong>29 October</strong> and uses the term &#39;<em>ontmeubeld&#39; </em>(&quot;the furniture has been removed...&quot;)<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Hilwis received compensation of 218 guilders and 11 cents for the loss of rent suffered between <strong>1 August and 1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten H. van Pels, J.S. Kaufmann en S.H. Kaufmann.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 303, Woningkaarten Rooseveltlaan 34 - 34 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Elisabeth Sp&auml;th (i.v.m. schadevergoeding), 7 maart 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_006: Verzoek eigenaar Hilwis aan Het Eigendomsrecht om huurschade te innen bij Liro, ongedateerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 2 November 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 29 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_008, Het Eigendomsrecht aan Hilwis III, 4 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1940-05-06",
                            "date_end": "1942-12-30",
                            "summary": "Hermann van Pels and his family were still registered here for several months after hiding in the Secret Annex on 13 July 1942.",
                            "summary_nl": "Hermann van Pels en zijn gezin stonden hier nog enkele maanden ingeschreven nadat ze op 13 juli 1942 onderdoken in het Achterhuis.",
                            "summary_en": "Hermann van Pels and his family were still registered here for several months after hiding in the Secret Annex on 13 July 1942.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124506,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "233f34c4-f312-4cac-b08e-71819db78627",
                            "name": "Rivierenbuurt",
                            "name_nl": "Rivierenbuurt",
                            "name_en": "Rivierenbuurt",
                            "description": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>De <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt, die wordt begrensd door de Amstelrivier in het oosten, de Boerenwetering in het westen, het Amstelkanaal in het noorden, en de Zuidelijke Wandelweg in het zuiden. Het maakt deel uit van <em>Plan Zuid</em>, een stedenbouwkundig plan voor Amsterdam-Zuid, dat in het begin van de <strong>20e eeuw</strong> werd ontworpen door de architect H.P Berlage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> bestond uit drie delen: de <em>Apollobuurt</em> en de <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, gericht op welgestelden, middenklasse en arbeidersklasse, en de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, gericht op de middenklasse. Ook een groot deel van de buurt <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> behoort tot het <em>Plan Zuid</em>. In het stedenbouwkundig plan was bedacht dat drie hoofdstraten (de Amstellanen) de buurt in een Y-vorm zouden doorsnijden, en samen zouden komen op het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, een vernoeming naar de Nederlandse schrijver Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Dit waren de Amstellaan (na de oorlog werd dit de Stalinlaan en in <strong>1956</strong>, na de Russische inval in Hongarije, gewijzigd in Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (nu Churchill-laan) en Zuider Amstellaan (nu Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De overige straatnamen in de buurt werden vernoemd naar Nederlandse rivieren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De woningen in de <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> oefenden vanaf het begin&nbsp;van de <strong>jaren dertig</strong> grote aantrekkingskracht uit op Joodse Amsterdammers uit de middenklasse. Qua grootte en voorzieningen staken zij bijzonder gunstig af tegen de kleine, slechte woningen in de overbevolkte Jodenbuurt rond het Waterlooplein. Toch was er in de <strong>jaren dertig</strong>&nbsp;veel&nbsp;leegstand, en daardoor streken ook veel Duitse Joden die vanuit nazi-Duitsland naar Nederland vluchtten, hier neer, waaronder ook de families Frank en Van Pels en een aantal van hun vrienden en kennissen. De immigranten voelden zich thuis in deze buurt met de vele geloofsgenoten. Uiteindelijk woonde in <strong>1940</strong> zo&#39;n 40% van de in Amsterdam wonende Joden in dit deel van de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam&#39;s Zuid district, bounded by the Amstel River to the east, the Boerenwetering to the west, the Amstel Canal to the north, and the Zuidelijke Wandelweg to the south. It is part of <em>Plan Zuid</em>, an urban development plan for Amsterdam South designed by architect H.P Berlage in the early <strong>20th</strong> century.<sup data-footnote-id=\"paafj\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><em>Plan Zuid</em> consisted of three parts: the <em>Apollobuurt</em> and <em>Stadionbuurt</em>, aimed at the well-to-do, middle and working classes, and the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em>, aimed at the middle classes. A large part of the <em>Nieuwe Pijp</em> neighbourhood was also part of&nbsp;<em>Plan Zuid</em>. The urban plan envisaged that three main streets (the <em>Amstellanen</em>) would cut through the neighbourhood in a Y-shape, converging on Dani&euml;l Willinkplein, named after the Dutch writer Dani&euml;l Willink (1676-1722).<sup data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> These were Amstellaan (after the war this became Stalinlaan and in <strong>1956</strong>, after the Russian invasion of Hungary, changed to Vrijheidslaan), Noorder Amstellaan (now Churchilllaan) and Zuider Amstellaan (now Rooseveltlaan).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> The other street names in the neighbourhood were named after Dutch rivers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The houses in the <em>Rivierenbuurt</em> exerted great attraction on middle-class Jewish Amsterdammers from the early <strong>1930s</strong>. In terms of size and amenities, they contrasted particularly favourably with the small, poor houses in the overcrowded Jewish quarter around Waterlooplein. Nevertheless, there was a lot of vacancy in the <strong>1930s</strong>, and as a result, many German Jews who fled to the Netherlands from Nazi Germany also settled here, including the Frank and Van Pels families and some of their friends and acquaintances. The immigrants felt at home in this neighbourhood with its many fellow Jews. Eventually, by&nbsp;<strong>1940</strong>, around 40 per cent of the Jews living in Amsterdam lived in this part of the city.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"paafj\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_Zuid</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snfsd\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Dani&euml;l Willinkplein werd kort na de oorlog, naar aanleiding van de overwinning van de Geallieerden, omgedoopt tot Victorieplein; zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorieplein_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hk7av\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie <a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amstellanen</a> (geraadpleegd 19 ovember 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xk4k5\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)\" target=\"_blank\">https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivierenbuurt_(Amsterdam)</a> (geraadpleegd 19 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                            "summary_nl": "De Rivierenbuurt is een in het oosten van het Amsterdamse stadsdeel Zuid gelegen buurt waar zich vanaf de jaren dertig veel Joodse inwoners hebben gevestigd.",
                            "summary_en": "The Rivierenbuurt is a neighbourhood located in the east of Amsterdam's Zuid district where many Jewish residents settled from the 1930s onwards.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124553,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
                        }
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                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/aa7d60c3-6d94-4f52-a729-96440eeb4d5f",
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/2ff53ce1-d866-4190-a138-16c32a9eca43"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/da7429b4-b23f-4947-b6d8-e5e6c0f143c3/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Van Pels-Röttgen family home | Zuider Amstellaan",
                    "name_nl": "Woning familie Van Pels-Röttgen | Zuider Amstellaan",
                    "name_en": "Van Pels-Röttgen family home | Zuider Amstellaan",
                    "uuid": "da7429b4-b23f-4947-b6d8-e5e6c0f143c3",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
                    "content_en": "",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.90165 52.34519)",
                    "summary": "The Van Pels family lived here from 6 May 1940 until they left for the Secret Annex on 13 July 1942.",
                    "summary_nl": "Hier woont de familie Van Pels van 6 mei 1940 tot hun vertrek naar het Achterhuis op 13 juli 1942.",
                    "summary_en": "The Van Pels family lived here from 6 May 1940 until they left for the Secret Annex on 13 July 1942.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Zuider Amstellaan 34 II",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        107,
                        108
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/332fe191-c9d1-4e9c-af83-72cac41ac33a/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "332fe191-c9d1-4e9c-af83-72cac41ac33a",
                "name": "The Van Pels family at Zuider Amstellaan",
                "name_nl": "De familie Van Pels op de Zuider Amstellaan",
                "name_en": "The Van Pels family at Zuider Amstellaan",
                "content": "<p>Hermann van Pels was registered with his family from <strong>6 May 1940</strong> at Zuider Amstellaan 34 II. When he moved from Biesboschstraat, lodgers Jakob and Sigmund Kaufmann moved with him.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Also registered at this address were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Mozes Maximiliaan van Kreveld (19 August 1940-2 April 1941)</li>\r\n\t<li>Bartha Elizabeth de Vries (27 March 1941-23 November 1945)</li>\r\n\t<li>Andries de Rosa (31 March 1941-21 May 1941).<sup data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>This was a four-room house, furnished with things brought from Germany.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rent in <strong>1942 </strong>was fifty-five guilders a month, plus twenty for heating.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The Van Pels family left the house on <strong>13 July 1942</strong>, but the Population Register did not deregister them&nbsp;until <strong>30 December 1942</strong>, with the entry &#39;V O W&#39; (&#39;Vertrokken Onbekend Waarheen&#39; - Departed, Destination Unknown).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Homeowner Hilwis had the property cleared on <strong>Friday 30 October 1942</strong>. The house got a new tenant on <strong>1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Miep Gies recounted the emptying of the house in the Secret Annex on the following Monday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> In the B-version of her diary, Anne dates this <strong>29 October</strong> and uses the term &#39;<em>ontmeubeld&#39; </em>(&quot;the furniture has been removed...&quot;)<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Hilwis received compensation of 218 guilders and 11 cents for the loss of rent suffered between <strong>1 August and 1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten H. van Pels, J.S. Kaufmann en S.H. Kaufmann.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 303, Woningkaarten Rooseveltlaan 34 - 34 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Elisabeth Sp&auml;th (i.v.m. schadevergoeding), 7 maart 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_006: Verzoek eigenaar Hilwis aan Het Eigendomsrecht om huurschade te innen bij Liro, ongedateerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 2 November 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 29 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_008, Het Eigendomsrecht aan Hilwis III, 4 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Hermann van Pels staat met zijn gezin vanaf <strong>6 mei 1940</strong> op de Zuider Amstellaan 34 II ingeschreven.&nbsp;Bij de verhuizing vanuit de Biesboschstraat&nbsp;verhuisden de kostgangers Jakob en Sigmund Kaufmann mee.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:166,&quot;y&quot;:43,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:387,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1328}\" data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Op dit adres stonden verder ingeschreven:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:60,&quot;y&quot;:77,&quot;w&quot;:980,&quot;h&quot;:20,&quot;abs_x&quot;:281,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1362}\">Mozes Maximiliaan van Kreveld (19 augustus 1940-2 april 1941)</li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:60,&quot;y&quot;:98,&quot;w&quot;:980,&quot;h&quot;:20,&quot;abs_x&quot;:281,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1383}\">Bartha Elizabeth de Vries (27 maart 1941-23 november 1945)</li>\r\n\t<li bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:60,&quot;y&quot;:119,&quot;w&quot;:980,&quot;h&quot;:24,&quot;abs_x&quot;:281,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1404}\">Andries de Rosa (31 maart 1941-21 mei 1941).<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:331,&quot;y&quot;:121,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:552,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1406}\" data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Dit was een vierkamerwoning, ingericht met spullen&nbsp;die uit Duitsland zijn meegekomen.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:521,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:742,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1443}\" data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Huurprijs bedroeg in <strong>1942</strong> vijfenvijftig gulden per maand, plus twintig voor verwarming.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:1033,&quot;y&quot;:158,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1254,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1443}\" data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;De familie Van Pels verliet de&nbsp;woning op <strong>13 juli 1942</strong>, maar het Bevolkingsregister schreef ze pas&nbsp;uit op <strong>30 december 1942</strong>, met de vermelding &#39;V O W&#39;&nbsp;(Vertrokken Onbekend Waarheen).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Huiseigenaar Hilwis liet de woning op vrijdag&nbsp;<strong>30 oktober 1942</strong> ontruimen. De woning kreeg op <strong>1 november</strong> een nieuwe huurder.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:761,&quot;y&quot;:216,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:982,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1501}\" data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Miep Gies vertelde de maandag erop in het Achterhuis over het leeghalen van de woning.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:283,&quot;y&quot;:240,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:504,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1525}\" data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de B-versie van haar dagboek dateert Anne dit <strong>29 oktober</strong> en gebruikt ze de term &#39;<em>ontmeubeld&#39;</em>.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:863,&quot;y&quot;:240,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:1084,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1525}\" data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Hilwis kreeg een vergoeding van 218 gulden en 11 cent voor de tussen <strong>1 augustus en 1 november</strong> geleden huurschade.<sup bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:529,&quot;y&quot;:264,&quot;w&quot;:12,&quot;h&quot;:12,&quot;abs_x&quot;:750,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1549}\" data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:20,&quot;y&quot;:299,&quot;w&quot;:1060,&quot;h&quot;:280,&quot;abs_x&quot;:241,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1584}\" class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header bis_size=\"{&quot;x&quot;:35,&quot;y&quot;:316,&quot;w&quot;:1030,&quot;h&quot;:23,&quot;abs_x&quot;:256,&quot;abs_y&quot;:1601}\">\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten H. van Pels, J.S. Kaufmann en S.H. Kaufmann.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 303, Woningkaarten Rooseveltlaan 34 - 34 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Elisabeth Sp&auml;th (i.v.m. schadevergoeding), 7 maart 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_006: Verzoek eigenaar Hilwis aan Het Eigendomsrecht om huurschade te innen bij Liro, ongedateerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 2 november 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 29 oktober 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_008, Het Eigendomsrecht aan Hilwis III, 4 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Hermann van Pels was registered with his family from <strong>6 May 1940</strong> at Zuider Amstellaan 34 II. When he moved from Biesboschstraat, lodgers Jakob and Sigmund Kaufmann moved with him.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Also registered at this address were:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Mozes Maximiliaan van Kreveld (19 August 1940-2 April 1941)</li>\r\n\t<li>Bartha Elizabeth de Vries (27 March 1941-23 November 1945)</li>\r\n\t<li>Andries de Rosa (31 March 1941-21 May 1941).<sup data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>This was a four-room house, furnished with things brought from Germany.<sup data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rent in <strong>1942 </strong>was fifty-five guilders a month, plus twenty for heating.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> The Van Pels family left the house on <strong>13 July 1942</strong>, but the Population Register did not deregister them&nbsp;until <strong>30 December 1942</strong>, with the entry &#39;V O W&#39; (&#39;Vertrokken Onbekend Waarheen&#39; - Departed, Destination Unknown).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Homeowner Hilwis had the property cleared on <strong>Friday 30 October 1942</strong>. The house got a new tenant on <strong>1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Miep Gies recounted the emptying of the house in the Secret Annex on the following Monday.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> In the B-version of her diary, Anne dates this <strong>29 October</strong> and uses the term &#39;<em>ontmeubeld&#39; </em>(&quot;the furniture has been removed...&quot;)<em>.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Hilwis received compensation of 218 guilders and 11 cents for the loss of rent suffered between <strong>1 August and 1 November</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g6yan\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaarten H. van Pels, J.S. Kaufmann en S.H. Kaufmann.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bcn6a\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Woningkaarten (toegangsnummer 5445), inv. nr. 303, Woningkaarten Rooseveltlaan 34 - 34 II.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wejmi\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC) Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Elisabeth Sp&auml;th (i.v.m. schadevergoeding), 7 maart 1961.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yyl36\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_006: Verzoek eigenaar Hilwis aan Het Eigendomsrecht om huurschade te innen bij Liro, ongedateerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3j7gq\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 2 November 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>The Collected Works,&nbsp;</em>transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3vnuq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 29 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"pl1iz\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Merwedeplein_I_008, Het Eigendomsrecht aan Hilwis III, 4 december 1942.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": null,
                "date_start": "1940-05-06",
                "date_end": "1942-12-30",
                "summary": "Hermann van Pels and his family were still registered here for several months after hiding in the Secret Annex on 13 July 1942.",
                "summary_nl": "Hermann van Pels en zijn gezin stonden hier nog enkele maanden ingeschreven nadat ze op 13 juli 1942 onderdoken in het Achterhuis.",
                "summary_en": "Hermann van Pels and his family were still registered here for several months after hiding in the Secret Annex on 13 July 1942.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124506,
                    396124556,
                    396124679
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2089,
                    248,
                    250,
                    2341,
                    235
                ],
                "files": []
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            "score": 2.0
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                "main_image": {
                    "id": 1048,
                    "uuid": "189f6539-88c2-40cb-99fc-aae70e1c59eb",
                    "name": "'Roeien', 12 september 1940",
                    "title": "Publiek bij de roeiwedstrijden in Zaandam",
                    "alt": "Foto: Polygoon. 'Roeien', 12 september 1940",
                    "url": "",
                    "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Roeien_12_september_1940.PNG",
                    "filetype": "image",
                    "description": "",
                    "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                    "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                },
                "location": {
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                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": {
                        "id": 1050,
                        "uuid": "08daa988-3f78-4ef8-8f89-0c4cc5082b9f",
                        "name": "Jachthaven Zaansche Zeil Vereeniging",
                        "title": "De jachthaven tijdens de wedstrijden",
                        "alt": "Foto Polygoon. 'Roeien', 12 september 1940",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Jachthaven_Zaandam.PNG",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                        "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                    },
                    "latitude": "52.43721",
                    "longitude": "4.82749",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 307,
                            "main_image": {
                                "id": 1048,
                                "uuid": "189f6539-88c2-40cb-99fc-aae70e1c59eb",
                                "name": "'Roeien', 12 september 1940",
                                "title": "Publiek bij de roeiwedstrijden in Zaandam",
                                "alt": "Foto: Polygoon. 'Roeien', 12 september 1940",
                                "url": "",
                                "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/Roeien_12_september_1940.PNG",
                                "filetype": "image",
                                "description": "",
                                "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                                "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                            },
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/c479f8c9-5e2e-43e0-9695-34da5d9ea116/",
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                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/a59471bd-25c4-4200-b2f7-2ec1cea699d0",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "c479f8c9-5e2e-43e0-9695-34da5d9ea116",
                            "name": "Margot wins a medal with her rowing team",
                            "name_nl": "Margot wint met haar roeiteam een medaille",
                            "name_en": "Margot wins a medal with her rowing team",
                            "content": "<p>On the Voorzaan near the marina on Havenstraat in Zaandam, numerous rowing teams competed among great public interest to win the prizes. The team of Margot Frank&nbsp;and some classmates, who practiced at the Association for the Promotion of Water Sports among Young People, also participated on this day. They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event for girls aged 14-16 years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Style rowing was not about speed and the jury used different criteria to award points. Nor was &#39;attention paid to the handsome faces of the ladies or the beautiful color combinations of the outfits.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;De Zaanlandsche roeit&#39;,&nbsp;<em>De Zaanlander</em>, 9 september 1940, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>W. Jongejan, &#39;De wedstrijden der dames&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Roeien</em>, 23 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Op de Voorzaan nabij de jachthaven aan de Havenstraat in Zaandam streden tal van roeiteams onder grote publieke belangstelling om de te winnen prijzen. Ook het team van Margot Frank en enkele klasgenoten, dat oefende&nbsp;bij de Vereniging ter Bevordering van Watersport onder Jongeren, deed deze dag mee. Zij wonnen een medaille op het onderdeel &#39;stijlroeien&#39; voor meisjes in de leeftijd 14- 16 jaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Bij stijlroeien ging het niet om snelheid en hanteerde de jury verschillende criteria om punten toe te kennen. Daarbij werd ook niet &#39;gelet op de knappe gezichtjes der dames&nbsp;of op de mooie kleuren-combinaties der toiletjes.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;De Zaanlandsche roeit&#39;,&nbsp;<em>De Zaanlander</em>, 9 september 1940, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>W. Jongejan, &#39;De wedstrijden der dames&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Roeien</em>, 23 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>On the Voorzaan near the marina on Havenstraat in Zaandam, numerous rowing teams competed among great public interest to win the prizes. The team of Margot Frank&nbsp;and some classmates, who practiced at the Association for the Promotion of Water Sports among Young People, also participated on this day. They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event for girls aged 14-16 years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Style rowing was not about speed and the jury used different criteria to award points. Nor was &#39;attention paid to the handsome faces of the ladies or the beautiful color combinations of the outfits.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;De Zaanlandsche roeit&#39;,&nbsp;<em>De Zaanlander</em>, 9 september 1940, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>W. Jongejan, &#39;De wedstrijden der dames&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Roeien</em>, 23 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1940-09-08",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "Lustrum rowing competitions took place at 'De Zaanlandsche' in early September 1940.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bij 'De Zaanlandsche' vonden begin september 1940 lustrum-roeiwedstrijden plaats.",
                            "summary_en": "Lustrum rowing competitions took place at 'De Zaanlandsche' in early September 1940.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": [
                                1049
                            ]
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124571,
                            "image": {
                                "id": 733,
                                "uuid": "78c6e933-6067-49a6-80e1-d31f66864ace",
                                "name": "A_AFrank_III_055.077.jpg",
                                "title": "Margot Frank en haar vriendin Hetty Ludel, winter 1937-1938.",
                                "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Fotocollectie Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                                "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/250x250/83f5a83d-7446-d375-331c-422278e596d7.jpg",
                                "path": null,
                                "filetype": "image",
                                "description": "Foto van Margot Frank en haar vriendin Hetty Ludel op schaatsen op de ijsbaan, winter 1937-1938.",
                                "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                                "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                            },
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/7e611418-a939-409e-9e0c-7f667267f009/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "7e611418-a939-409e-9e0c-7f667267f009",
                            "name": "Leisure activities, Margot Frank",
                            "name_nl": "Vrijetijdsbesteding Margot Frank",
                            "name_en": "Leisure activities, Margot Frank",
                            "description": "<h1><strong>Swimming</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 August 1935</strong>, Margot passed a swimming test consisting of 60 metres breaststroke and 40 metres backstroke.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> It is not clear where this took place, but probably in the Amstelparkbad (now De Mirandabad).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to Greet Bezema, a friend of hers at the Girls&#39; High School:<em> &#39;We went swimming in Diemen once and I remember Margot had a very nice swimming costume, a sunbathing suit</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Edith Frank wrote in a letter dated <strong>18 January 1937</strong> to former neighbour Gertrud Naumann that Margot went ice skating&nbsp;once a week that winter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There is a photograph of Margot, dated <strong>winter of 1937-&#39;38</strong>, showing her with Hetty Ludel at the ice rink. In it, she can be seen wearing figure skates.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The ice rink where Margot went ice skating&nbsp;was an initiative of the &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39;. It was an open-air swimming pool that was used as an ice skating rink in winter. The ice rink was in use from <strong>1934</strong> to <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rink was opened on the weekend of <strong>24-25 November 1934</strong>. On <strong>26 November</strong>, Sonja Henie performed for an audience of schoolchildren. As a result of this performance, Henie became hugely popular among Amsterdam schoolgirls. In <strong>spring 1940</strong>, the rink was shut down and the installation moved to the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Later (while in hiding), Anne Frank pasted a picture of Sonja Henie on the wall of her little room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot initially skated on ice skates that had to be bolted on with a spanner.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Rowing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot Frank rowed with the <em>Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Watersport onder Jongeren </em>(VBWJ).<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Margot was in second position in a &#39;four&#39; with Bella Kohlwey on stroke, Jaaike van Bork on bow and Anna Harting on three. They were trained by Roos (Rozette) van Gelder. They won a silver medal in school races.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> All four rowers were at the Girls&#39; High School.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> They used the facilities of the VBWJ under the Berlagebrug in Amsterdam. This rowing activity was initiated from the Meisjeslyceum, but its exact status is unclear. On <strong>8 September 1940</strong>, they participated in races of the <em>Zaanlandsche Zeil Vereeniging </em>(ZZV) in Zaandam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8627i\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event in the girls 14-16 category.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y627e\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> It is not known whether this competition participation took place in the context of school rowing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Just before the 1941 races<strong>,</strong> Margot, being Jewish, was no longer allowed to row at the club. Her friends subsequently refused to participate in the races any more.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Roos van Gelder, as a Jew, was also no longer allowed to coach. Her replacement was not accepted by the remaining rowers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1941</strong>, the inspector for physical education asked alderman Smit whether Jewish children were allowed to use (among other things) the rowing facility under the Berlage Bridge. Smit replied in the negative.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In anticipation of the new season, the VBWJ secretary asked the Government Commissioner of Amsterdam Municipality on <strong>1 March 1942</strong> whether it would not be possible for Jewish students to row separately and with Jewish instructors at certain times, at which time the boathouse would remain&nbsp;closed to &quot;the others&quot;. An unknown person, someone at the Education Department or perhaps Mayor V&ocirc;ute, wrote in the margin<em> &#39;Seems possible to me. V</em> &#39;. A reply to the letter is not known.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3za\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the <strong>spring of 1941</strong>, Margot was a member of a<em> &#39;tennis club with lessons</em>&#39;, namely Tennisvereniging Temminck on Zuidelijke Wandelweg in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> A number of classmates from the Girls&#39; High School, including Henny Corts, were also members of this club.<sup data-footnote-id=\"riooz\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> Jan Temmink was also the owner of a sports shop at Weteringschans 76 and founder of Amsterdam&#39;s first golf course in the &#39;railway bend&#39; near Duivendrecht; Hetty Last said that she (Hetty) was the initiator of playing tennis; a court was rented for a whole group of girls and whoever wanted could join in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>There is a photo showing, in addition to Margot: Lidy Schuit, Hennie Coster, Bea van Overbeek, Ineke Beugelink, Annemarie van Ees, Fita Weddepohl, An van der Burg, Tineke Cohen, Jetteke Frijda&nbsp;and Tine ten Kley. They are all wearing sports/tennis clothes and posing&nbsp;near a net on a tennis court.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the summer <strong>of 1945</strong>, Otto Frank wrote to his family in Basel:<em> &#39;Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Anne writes in her diary about Margot:<em> &#39;Reads everything, preferably on religion and medicine</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zunku\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> And in an earlier diary entry, Anne writes:<em> &#39;I laid with Margot on the divan together and read &quot;The Stormers&quot;</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Of the following books, we know that Margot has owned and/or read them:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Margot read a book by Moli&egrave;re, <em>Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme</em>. This was a school book.</li>\r\n\t<li>She had the English textbook <em>English Passages for Translation</em>.</li>\r\n\t<li>She also had a book by A. de Chateaubriand, <em>Monsieur de Lourdines</em>, annotated by H. Noordhof. This was probably also a school book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot&#39;s books also included Gottfried Keller, <em>Die drei gerechten Kammacher. Spiegel das K&auml;tzchen</em> (Leipzig 1922). Edith wrote in the front:<em> &quot;Margot Frank Amsterdam 16. Februar</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71kej\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>We know from a diary entry by Anne that Margot owned a copy of <em>Camera Obscura</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> Anne received the <em>Camera Obscura</em> for her 13th birthday, but since Margot already had it, she swapped it for a volume of <em>Dutch Sagas and Legends.</em></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot and Peter, according to Anne, were allowed to read almost all the books Kleiman brought with him during the hiding period, except: a war book from the previous war, rather freely written or as Anne calls it in her diary: <em>a special book on a female subject.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot was allowed to read the book <em>Gentlemen, Servants and Women</em> while in hiding, but Anne was not.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s recommendation, Margot and Anne read <em>Henri from the Other Side</em>. Despite Pfeffer&#39;s commendations, according to Anne, neither thought it was a good book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A diary entry by Anne shows that she and Margot kept track of which books they both read. They did this in an old cartography box, with blank cards on one side.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ry624\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>From Anne&rsquo;s diary, we know that Margot also kept a diary. &quot;<em>Margot and I got in the same bed last evening, it was a frightful squash, but that was just the fun of it, she asked if she could read my diary sometime, I said yes at least bits of it, and then I asked if I could read hers</em>.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"assv1\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot&rsquo;s diary has not survived.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_MFrank_I_025: Getuigschrift, 22 August 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Bezema: Interview of Greet Bezema by Dineke Stam, 10 May 1996.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Getuigen_I_099: Edith Frank to Gertrud Naumann, 18 January 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Foto&#39;s bij gashouder in &quot;Blanco Electro Monster Huishoudboek 1937&quot;, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Berends, <a href=\"https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html\" target=\"_blank\">&quot;De eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland, schaatsen op een zwembad&quot;</a> (consulted 19 August 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, <a href=\"https://onsamsterdam.nl/bevroren-borstplaat\" target=\"_blank\">&#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;</a>, in: Ons Amsterdam, 179 (2008) 1 (January), p. 26-29&nbsp;(consulted 19 August 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Bella Kohlwey to Otto Frank, 22 July 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Gedenkboek ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan van het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes te Amsterdam en het afscheid van Dr Magrita J. Freie als rectrix van deze school</em>, Amsterdam 1950, p. 99; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Archief Curatoren van het Lyceum voor Meisjes: Rapportenregisters van de HBS, 421 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_040-042).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8627i\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Also see: <a href=\"https://meitotmei.nl/margot-frank-en-jo-kleiman-de-zaanse-links/\" target=\"_blank\">Margot Frank en Jo Kleiman: de Zaanse links</a>: Mei tot mei: verhalen over de Tweede Wereldoorlog (consulted 13 March 2024).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y627e\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>De Zaanlander</em>, 8 September 1940; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_II_001: <a href=\"https://hdl.handle.net/21.12139/d2e5ab69-c462-4ecd-9a5d-97941c2fb607\" target=\"_blank\">Medaille met o.a. twee roeiriemen en op achterzijde &quot;Z.Z.V. 8-9-&#39;40&quot;</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3za\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Afdeling onderwijs en rechtsvoorganger (toegang 5191), inv. nr.7552, volgnr. 1254: A.J.H. Dokkum (secretaris VBWJ) aan Den Heer Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam, 1 March 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voluit N.V. Temminks Robak Tennispark, Zuidelijke Wandelweg 43. See photo from May 1954 in the Image Vault of the Amsterdam City Archives, no.&nbsp; <a href=\"https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank?q=010122042197https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank?q=010122042197\" target=\"_blank\">10122042197</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"riooz\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Corts: Statement by H.M. Swart-Corts, 11 February 2005.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Last, Hetty.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFAC, reg. code A_MFrank_III_035: Group photo of Margot Frank and her friends on the tennis court, ca. 1941/42. The photo is from Tine ten Kley. She probably confused Hennie Corts with Hennie Coster.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank to &quot;ihr Lieben&#39;, 19 August 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zunku\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 4 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71kej\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_001. Judging by the date, it probably was a birthday gift.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 and 15 Juni 1942, in:<em> The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942 and Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>. It was the trilogy&nbsp;<em>Gij Vrouwen..!, Vrouwen in nood en Vrouwenroeping</em>&nbsp;by Helen Zenna Smith, published in 1938 by the Arbeiderspers. The original English titles are: <em>Not so quiet: stepdaughters of war</em> (1930), <em>Women of the aftermath</em> (1932, and <em>Shadow women</em> (1932).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 Sseptember 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 Sseptember 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ry624\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 February 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"assv1\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 28 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<h1>Zwemmen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>22 augustus 1935</strong> legde&nbsp;Margot met goed gevolg een zwemproef af, bestaande uit 60 meter borstslag en 40 meter rugslag.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Niet duidelijk is waar dit plaats heeft gevonden, maar waarschijnlijk in het Amstelparkbad (nu het De Mirandabad).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vriendin op het Meisjeslyceum Greet Bezema: &#39;<em>We gingen een keer zwemmen in Diemen en ik weet nog dat Margot een heel mooi zwempak had, een zonnepakje</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Schaatsen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Edith Frank schreef&nbsp;in een brief van <strong>18 januari 1937</strong> aan voormalig buurmeisje&nbsp;Gertrud&nbsp;Naumann dat&nbsp;Margot die winter een keer per week schaatste.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Er is een foto van Margot, gedateerd&nbsp;<strong>winter van&nbsp;1937-&#39;38</strong>,&nbsp;waarop zij met Hetty Ludel op de kunstijsbaan is. Daarop is te zien dat draagt kunstschaatsen draagt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De ijsbaan waar Margot schaatst, was een initiatief van de &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39;. Het was een openluchtzwembad dat &#39;s winters in gebruik was als schaatsbaan. De ijsbaan deed&nbsp;dienst van <strong>1934</strong> tot <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In het weekend van <strong>24-25 november 1934</strong> werd&nbsp;de baan geopend. Op <strong>26 november</strong> trad&nbsp;Sonja Henie op voor de schooljeugd. Als gevolg van dit optreden werd&nbsp;Henie ongekend populair onder Amsterdamse schoolmeisjes. In het <strong>voorjaar van 1940</strong> werd&nbsp;de baan opgeheven en ging&nbsp;de installatie&nbsp;naar de Apollohal.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Later (tijdens de onderduik) plakte Anne Frank een plaatje van Sonja Henie op de muur van haar kamertje.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot schaatste aanvankelijk op schaatsen die met een sleuteltje aangeschroefd moesten worden.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Roeien</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot Frank roeide&nbsp;bij de Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Watersport onder Jongeren (VBWJ).<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot zat op de tweede positie in een &#39;vier&#39; met Bella Kohlwey op slag, Jaaike van Bork op boeg en Anna Harting op drie. Ze werden getraind door Roos (Rozette) van Gelder. Ze wonnen een zilveren medaille bij schoolwedstrijden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;De roeisters zaten alle vier op het Meisjeslyceum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> Ze maakten gebruik van de faciliteiten van de VBWJ onder de Berlagebrug te Amsterdam. Deze roeiactiviteit ging&nbsp;van het Meisjeslyceum uit, maar de precieze status is onduidelijk. Op <strong>8 september 1940</strong> namen ze deel aan wedstrijden van de Zaanlandsche Zeil Vereeniging (ZZV) in Zaandam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"aqfvc\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> Ze wonnen een medaille op het onderdeel &#39;stijlroeien&#39; in de categorie meisjes 14-16 jaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y627e\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het is niet bekend of deze wedstrijddeelname in het kader van het schoolroeien plaatsvond.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vlak voor de wedstrijden van <strong>1941</strong> mocht&nbsp;Margot als Joodse niet meer bij de club roeien. Haar vriendinnen weigerden vervolgens om nog deel te nemen aan de wedstrijden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;Roos van Gelder mocht als Joodse ook niet meer coachen. Haar vervangster werd&nbsp;door de overblijvende roeisters niet geaccepteerd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>september 1941</strong> vroeg&nbsp;de inspecteur voor de lichamelijke opvoeding aan wethouder Smit of Joodse kinderen gebruik mochten maken van (o.a.) de roeigelegenheid onder de Berlagebrug. Smit antwoordde&nbsp;negatief.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vooruitlopend op het nieuwe seizoen vroeg&nbsp;de secretaris van VBWJ op&nbsp;<strong>1 maart 1942</strong> aan de Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam of het niet mogelijk was om Joodse leerlingen afzonderlijk en met Joodse instructeurs op bepaalde tijden te laten roeien. Waarbij het botenhuis voor&nbsp;&quot;de overigen&quot; gesloten bleef. Een onbekende, iemand aan de Afdeling Onderwijs of wellicht burgemeester V&ocirc;ute,&nbsp;schreef&nbsp;in de marge &#39;<em>Lijkt mij wel mogelijk. V</em>&#39;.&nbsp;Een antwoord op de brief is niet bekend.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3za\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup> &nbsp;&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Tennis</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In het <strong>voorjaar van 1941</strong> was&nbsp;Margot lid van een &#39;<em>tennisclub met les</em>&#39;, t.w. Tennisvereniging Temminck aan de Zuidelijke Wandelweg te Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Ook een aantal klasgenoten van het Meisjeslyceum, onder wie Henny Corts, was lid van deze vereniging.<sup data-footnote-id=\"riooz\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup>&nbsp;Jan Temmink was tevens eigenaar van een sportzaak aan de Weteringschans 76 en stichter van de eerste Amsterdamse golfbaan in de &#39;spoorboog&#39; bij Duivendrecht; Hetty Last vertelde&nbsp; dat zij (Hetty) de initiatiefneemster van het tennissen was; voor een hele groep meisjes werd er een baan gehuurd en wie wilde deed mee.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Er is een foto met daarop naast Margot: Lidy Schuit, Hennie Coster, Bea van Overbeek, Ineke Beugelink, Annemarie van Ees, Fita Weddepohl, An van der Burg, Tineke Cohen, Jetteke Frijda&nbsp;en Tine ten Kley. Ze dragen allemaal sport/tenniskleding en poseren bij een net op een tennisbaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Lezen</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Otto Frank schreef&nbsp;in de <strong>zomer van 1945</strong>, aan zijn familie in Bazel: &#39;<em>Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne schrijft in haar dagboek over Margot: &#39;<em>Leest alles, liefst over godsdienst en medicijnen</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zunku\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup>&nbsp;En in een vroegere dagboeknotitie schrijft Anne: &#39;<em>Ik heb met Margot samen op de divan gelegen en in &laquo;De Stormers&raquo; gelezen</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Van onderstaande boeken weten we dat Margot ze in haar bezit heeft gehad en/of gelezen heeft:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Margot las&nbsp;een boek van Moli&egrave;re,&nbsp;<em>Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme</em>. Dit was een schoolboek.</li>\r\n\t<li>Ze hadt het Engelse leerboek&nbsp;<em>English Passages for Translation</em>.</li>\r\n\t<li>Ze had&nbsp;ook een boek van A. de Chateaubriand,&nbsp;<em>Monsieur de Lourdines</em>, geannoteerd door H. Noordhof. Dit was waarschijnlijk ook een schoolboek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Tot de boeken van Margot behoorde&nbsp;ook Gottfried Keller,&nbsp;<em>Die drei gerechten Kammacher. Spiegel das K&auml;tzchen</em>&nbsp;(Leipzig 1922). Edith schreef&nbsp;voorin:&nbsp;&quot;<em>Margot Frank Amsterdam 16. Februar</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71kej\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Uit een dagboeknotie van Anne weten we dat Margot&nbsp;een exemplaar bezat van de <em>Camera Obscura</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup>&nbsp;Anne kreeg&nbsp;voor haar 13e verjaardag de <em>Camera Obscura</em>, maar omdat Margot het al had, ruilde&nbsp;ze het voor een deel van <em>Nederlandse Sagen en Legenden.</em></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot en Peter mochten, volgens Anne,&nbsp;tijdens de onderduik bijna alle boeken die Kleiman meenam, lezen, behalve: een oorlogsboek uit de vorige oorlog, nogal vrij geschreven of zoals Anne het in haar dagboek noemt:&nbsp;<em>een bijzonder boek over een vrouwenonderwerp.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot mocht tijdens de onderduik het boek <em>Heren, Knechten en vrouwen lezen</em>, maar Anne niet.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Op aanraden van Fritz Pfeffer lazen Margot en Anne&nbsp;<em>Henri van de overkant</em>. Ondanks Pfeffers aanprijzingen vonden zij&nbsp;het, volgens Anne, allebei geen goed boek.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Uit een dagboeknotitie van Anne blijkt dat ze&nbsp;samen met Margot bijhield&nbsp;welke boeken ze allebei lazen. Ze deden dit in een&nbsp;oude cartotheekdoos, met aan &eacute;&eacute;n kant onbeschreven kaartjes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ry624\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<h1>Dagboek</h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Uit Annes dagboek blijkt trouwens dat Margot ook een dagboek bijhield. &lsquo;<em>Gisteren avond lagen Margot en ik samen in mijn bed, het was onnoemelijk klein maar juist grappig, ze vroeg of ze soms mijn dagboek mocht lezen, ik zeg sommige stukken wel, en toen vroeg ik naar de hare dat mocht ik dan ook lezen</em>.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"fjbcw\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup> Dat dagboek is niet bewaard gebleven.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_MFrank_I_025: Getuigschrift, 22 augustus 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Bezema: Gesprek Greet Bezema met Dineke Stam, 10 mei 1996.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Getuigen_I_099: Edith Frank aan Gertrud Naumann, 18 januari 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Foto&#39;s bij gashouder in &quot;Blanco Electro Monster Huishoudboek 1937&quot;, p.33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Berends, <a href=\"https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html\" target=\"_blank\">&quot;De eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland, schaatsen op een zwembad&quot;</a>,&nbsp;(geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot,<a href=\"https://onsamsterdam.nl/bevroren-borstplaat\" target=\"_blank\"> &#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;</a>, in: Ons Amsterdam, 179 (2008) 1 (januari), p. 26-29,&nbsp; (geraadpleegd 19 augustus 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Bella Kohlwey aan Otto Frank, 22 juli 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Gedenkboek ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan van het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes te Amsterdam en het afscheid van Dr Magrita J. Freie als rectrix van deze school</em>, Amsterdam 1950, p. 99; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Archief Curatoren van het Lyceum voor Meisjes: Rapportenregisters van de HBS, 421 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_040-042).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"aqfvc\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie ook: <a href=\"https://meitotmei.nl/margot-frank-en-jo-kleiman-de-zaanse-links/\" target=\"_blank\">Margot Frank en Jo Kleiman: de Zaanse links</a>: Mei tot mei: verhalen over de Tweede Wereldoorlog (geraadpleegd 13 maart 2024).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y627e\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>De Zaanlander</em>, 8 september 1940; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_II_001: <a href=\"https://hdl.handle.net/21.12139/d2e5ab69-c462-4ecd-9a5d-97941c2fb607\" target=\"_blank\">Medaille met o.a. twee roeiriemen en op achterzijde &quot;Z.Z.V. 8-9-&#39;40&quot;</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3za\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Afdeling onderwijs en rechtsvoorganger (toegang 5191), inv. nr.7552, volgnr. 1254: A.J.H. Dokkum (secretaris VBWJ) aan Den Heer Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam, 1 maart 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voluit N.V. Temminks Robak Tennispark, Zuidelijke Wandelweg 43. Zie een foto uit mei &#39;54 in de Beeldbank van het Stadsarchief Amsterdam, <a href=\"https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank?q=010122042197https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank?q=010122042197\" target=\"_blank\">fotonummer 010122042197</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"riooz\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Corts: Mededeling H.M. Swart-Corts, 11 februari 2005.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Last, Hetty.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFAC, reg. code A_MFrank_III_035: Groepsfoto van Margot Frank en haar vriendinnen op de tennisbaan omstreeks 1941/42. De foto is afkomstig van Tine ten Kley. Waarschijnlijk vergist zij zich en moet Hennie Coster zijn Hennie Corts.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan &quot;ihr Lieben&#39;, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zunku\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 16 mei 1944, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 4 oktober 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71kej\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_001. Gezien de datum was het waarschijnlijk een verjaardagscadeau.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 14 en 15 juni 1942, in:<em> Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942 en Dagboek B, 2 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>. Het ging om de trilogie <em>Gij Vrouwen..!, Vrouwen in nood en Vrouwenroeping</em> door Helen Zenna Smith, dat in 1938 bij de Arbeiderspers was verschenen.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 21 september 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 27 september 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ry624\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 27 februari 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fjbcw\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek A, 28 september 1942, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<h1><strong>Swimming</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>22 August 1935</strong>, Margot passed a swimming test consisting of 60 metres breaststroke and 40 metres backstroke.<sup data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> It is not clear where this took place, but probably in the Amstelparkbad (now De Mirandabad).</p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to Greet Bezema, a friend of hers at the Girls&#39; High School:<em> &#39;We went swimming in Diemen once and I remember Margot had a very nice swimming costume, a sunbathing suit</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Ice skating</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Edith Frank wrote in a letter dated <strong>18 January 1937</strong> to former neighbour Gertrud Naumann that Margot went ice skating&nbsp;once a week that winter.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> There is a photograph of Margot, dated <strong>winter of 1937-&#39;38</strong>, showing her with Hetty Ludel at the ice rink. In it, she can be seen wearing figure skates.<sup data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The ice rink where Margot went ice skating&nbsp;was an initiative of the &#39;N.V. Sportfondsen Kunstijsbaan&#39;. It was an open-air swimming pool that was used as an ice skating rink in winter. The ice rink was in use from <strong>1934</strong> to <strong>1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;The rink was opened on the weekend of <strong>24-25 November 1934</strong>. On <strong>26 November</strong>, Sonja Henie performed for an audience of schoolchildren. As a result of this performance, Henie became hugely popular among Amsterdam schoolgirls. In <strong>spring 1940</strong>, the rink was shut down and the installation moved to the Apollo Hall.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Later (while in hiding), Anne Frank pasted a picture of Sonja Henie on the wall of her little room.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot initially skated on ice skates that had to be bolted on with a spanner.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Rowing</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>Margot Frank rowed with the <em>Vereeniging ter Bevordering van de Watersport onder Jongeren </em>(VBWJ).<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Margot was in second position in a &#39;four&#39; with Bella Kohlwey on stroke, Jaaike van Bork on bow and Anna Harting on three. They were trained by Roos (Rozette) van Gelder. They won a silver medal in school races.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> All four rowers were at the Girls&#39; High School.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup> They used the facilities of the VBWJ under the Berlagebrug in Amsterdam. This rowing activity was initiated from the Meisjeslyceum, but its exact status is unclear. On <strong>8 September 1940</strong>, they participated in races of the <em>Zaanlandsche Zeil Vereeniging </em>(ZZV) in Zaandam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8627i\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup> They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event in the girls 14-16 category.<sup data-footnote-id=\"y627e\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> It is not known whether this competition participation took place in the context of school rowing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Just before the 1941 races<strong>,</strong> Margot, being Jewish, was no longer allowed to row at the club. Her friends subsequently refused to participate in the races any more.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Roos van Gelder, as a Jew, was also no longer allowed to coach. Her replacement was not accepted by the remaining rowers.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>September 1941</strong>, the inspector for physical education asked alderman Smit whether Jewish children were allowed to use (among other things) the rowing facility under the Berlage Bridge. Smit replied in the negative.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In anticipation of the new season, the VBWJ secretary asked the Government Commissioner of Amsterdam Municipality on <strong>1 March 1942</strong> whether it would not be possible for Jewish students to row separately and with Jewish instructors at certain times, at which time the boathouse would remain&nbsp;closed to &quot;the others&quot;. An unknown person, someone at the Education Department or perhaps Mayor V&ocirc;ute, wrote in the margin<em> &#39;Seems possible to me. V</em> &#39;. A reply to the letter is not known.<sup data-footnote-id=\"od3za\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Tennis</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the <strong>spring of 1941</strong>, Margot was a member of a<em> &#39;tennis club with lessons</em>&#39;, namely Tennisvereniging Temminck on Zuidelijke Wandelweg in Amsterdam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> A number of classmates from the Girls&#39; High School, including Henny Corts, were also members of this club.<sup data-footnote-id=\"riooz\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup> Jan Temmink was also the owner of a sports shop at Weteringschans 76 and founder of Amsterdam&#39;s first golf course in the &#39;railway bend&#39; near Duivendrecht; Hetty Last said that she (Hetty) was the initiator of playing tennis; a court was rented for a whole group of girls and whoever wanted could join in.<sup data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>There is a photo showing, in addition to Margot: Lidy Schuit, Hennie Coster, Bea van Overbeek, Ineke Beugelink, Annemarie van Ees, Fita Weddepohl, An van der Burg, Tineke Cohen, Jetteke Frijda&nbsp;and Tine ten Kley. They are all wearing sports/tennis clothes and posing&nbsp;near a net on a tennis court.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Reading</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In the summer <strong>of 1945</strong>, Otto Frank wrote to his family in Basel:<em> &#39;Edith u Margot waren beide starke Leser</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup> Anne writes in her diary about Margot:<em> &#39;Reads everything, preferably on religion and medicine</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zunku\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup> And in an earlier diary entry, Anne writes:<em> &#39;I laid with Margot on the divan together and read &quot;The Stormers&quot;</em>.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Of the following books, we know that Margot has owned and/or read them:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Margot read a book by Moli&egrave;re, <em>Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme</em>. This was a school book.</li>\r\n\t<li>She had the English textbook <em>English Passages for Translation</em>.</li>\r\n\t<li>She also had a book by A. de Chateaubriand, <em>Monsieur de Lourdines</em>, annotated by H. Noordhof. This was probably also a school book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot&#39;s books also included Gottfried Keller, <em>Die drei gerechten Kammacher. Spiegel das K&auml;tzchen</em> (Leipzig 1922). Edith wrote in the front:<em> &quot;Margot Frank Amsterdam 16. Februar</em>&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"71kej\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>We know from a diary entry by Anne that Margot owned a copy of <em>Camera Obscura</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> Anne received the <em>Camera Obscura</em> for her 13th birthday, but since Margot already had it, she swapped it for a volume of <em>Dutch Sagas and Legends.</em></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot and Peter, according to Anne, were allowed to read almost all the books Kleiman brought with him during the hiding period, except: a war book from the previous war, rather freely written or as Anne calls it in her diary: <em>a special book on a female subject.</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Margot was allowed to read the book <em>Gentlemen, Servants and Women</em> while in hiding, but Anne was not.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\"><a href=\"#footnote-24\" id=\"footnote-marker-24-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[24]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On Fritz Pfeffer&#39;s recommendation, Margot and Anne read <em>Henri from the Other Side</em>. Despite Pfeffer&#39;s commendations, according to Anne, neither thought it was a good book.<sup data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\"><a href=\"#footnote-25\" id=\"footnote-marker-25-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[25]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A diary entry by Anne shows that she and Margot kept track of which books they both read. They did this in an old cartography box, with blank cards on one side.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ry624\"><a href=\"#footnote-26\" id=\"footnote-marker-26-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[26]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Diary</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>From Anne&rsquo;s diary, we know that Margot also kept a diary. &quot;<em>Margot and I got in the same bed last evening, it was a frightful squash, but that was just the fun of it, she asked if she could read my diary sometime, I said yes at least bits of it, and then I asked if I could read hers</em>.&quot;<sup data-footnote-id=\"assv1\"><a href=\"#footnote-27\" id=\"footnote-marker-27-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[27]</a></sup>&nbsp;Margot&rsquo;s diary has not survived.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"1eydh\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_MFrank_I_025: Getuigschrift, 22 August 1935.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ixk9b\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Bezema: Interview of Greet Bezema by Dineke Stam, 10 May 1996.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fo0rm\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Getuigen_I_099: Edith Frank to Gertrud Naumann, 18 January 1937.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"e9yhc\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_AFrank_III_055: Foto&#39;s bij gashouder in &quot;Blanco Electro Monster Huishoudboek 1937&quot;, p. 33.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a0xwi\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Ernst Berends, <a href=\"https://docplayer.nl/17016089-De-eerste-kunstijsbaan-van-nederland-schaatsen-op-een-zwembad.html\" target=\"_blank\">&quot;De eerste kunstijsbaan van Nederland, schaatsen op een zwembad&quot;</a> (consulted 19 August 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3ggx3\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Hansje Galesloot, <a href=\"https://onsamsterdam.nl/bevroren-borstplaat\" target=\"_blank\">&#39;Bevroren borstplaat&#39;</a>, in: Ons Amsterdam, 179 (2008) 1 (January), p. 26-29&nbsp;(consulted 19 August 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8ejyg\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-4\">d</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), reg. code OFA_085: Bella Kohlwey to Otto Frank, 22 July 1967.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s5au5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Gedenkboek ter gelegenheid van het 25-jarig bestaan van het Gemeentelijk Lyceum voor Meisjes te Amsterdam en het afscheid van Dr Magrita J. Freie als rectrix van deze school</em>, Amsterdam 1950, p. 99; Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Archief Curatoren van het Lyceum voor Meisjes: Rapportenregisters van de HBS, 421 (AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_I_040-042).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8627i\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Also see: <a href=\"https://meitotmei.nl/margot-frank-en-jo-kleiman-de-zaanse-links/\" target=\"_blank\">Margot Frank en Jo Kleiman: de Zaanse links</a>: Mei tot mei: verhalen over de Tweede Wereldoorlog (consulted 13 March 2024).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"y627e\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>De Zaanlander</em>, 8 September 1940; AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_II_001: <a href=\"https://hdl.handle.net/21.12139/d2e5ab69-c462-4ecd-9a5d-97941c2fb607\" target=\"_blank\">Medaille met o.a. twee roeiriemen en op achterzijde &quot;Z.Z.V. 8-9-&#39;40&quot;</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7lwzu\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Dienke Hondius, <em>Absent. Herinneringen aan het Joods Lyceum Amsterdam, 1941-1943</em>, Amsterdam: Vassallucci, 2001, p. 35.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"od3za\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Afdeling onderwijs en rechtsvoorganger (toegang 5191), inv. nr.7552, volgnr. 1254: A.J.H. Dokkum (secretaris VBWJ) aan Den Heer Regeeringscommissaris der Gemeente Amsterdam, 1 March 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3wfzz\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Voluit N.V. Temminks Robak Tennispark, Zuidelijke Wandelweg 43. See photo from May 1954 in the Image Vault of the Amsterdam City Archives, no.&nbsp; <a href=\"https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank?q=010122042197https://archief.amsterdam/beeldbank?q=010122042197\" target=\"_blank\">10122042197</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"riooz\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Corts: Statement by H.M. Swart-Corts, 11 February 2005.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"mchc5\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Last, Hetty.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ga0ss\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFAC, reg. code A_MFrank_III_035: Group photo of Margot Frank and her friends on the tennis court, ca. 1941/42. The photo is from Tine ten Kley. She probably confused Hennie Corts with Hennie Coster.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"02qvt\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_071: Otto Frank to &quot;ihr Lieben&#39;, 19 August 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zunku\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 16 May 1944, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m0heb\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 4 October 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0kvxy\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"71kej\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&nbsp;AFS, AFC, reg. code A_MFrank_VII_001. Judging by the date, it probably was a birthday gift.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l9lsj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 14 and 15 Juni 1942, in:<em> The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8e83f\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 September 1942 and Diary Version B, 2 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>. It was the trilogy&nbsp;<em>Gij Vrouwen..!, Vrouwen in nood en Vrouwenroeping</em>&nbsp;by Helen Zenna Smith, published in 1938 by the Arbeiderspers. The original English titles are: <em>Not so quiet: stepdaughters of war</em> (1930), <em>Women of the aftermath</em> (1932, and <em>Shadow women</em> (1932).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p4aay\" id=\"footnote-24\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-24-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 21 Sseptember 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"o4z3r\" id=\"footnote-25\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-25-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 Sseptember 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ry624\" id=\"footnote-26\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-26-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 27 February 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"assv1\" id=\"footnote-27\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-27-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version A, 28 September 1942, in: <em>The Collected Works.</em></cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Margot Frank was sporty: she played tennis, rowed, swam and ice skated.",
                            "summary_nl": "Margot Frank was sportief: ze speelde tennis, deed aan roeien, zwemmen en schaatsen.",
                            "summary_en": "Margot Frank was sporty: she played tennis, rowed, swam and ice skated.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "related_locations": [
                        "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/8f2c40de-072e-461e-82cc-3b92fd05be0c"
                    ],
                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/a59471bd-25c4-4200-b2f7-2ec1cea699d0/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Voorzaan | Marina",
                    "name_nl": "Voorzaan | Jachthaven",
                    "name_en": "Voorzaan | Marina",
                    "uuid": "a59471bd-25c4-4200-b2f7-2ec1cea699d0",
                    "content": "",
                    "content_nl": "",
                    "content_en": "",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.82749 52.43721)",
                    "summary": "From 1937 onwards, rowing competitions were held annually on the Voorzaan in Zaandam.",
                    "summary_nl": "Vanaf 1937 werden er jaarlijks roeiwedstrijden op de Voorzaan te Zaandam gehouden.",
                    "summary_en": "From 1937 onwards, rowing competitions were held annually on the Voorzaan in Zaandam.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Zaandam",
                    "state": "Noord-Holland",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        307
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/c479f8c9-5e2e-43e0-9695-34da5d9ea116/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "c479f8c9-5e2e-43e0-9695-34da5d9ea116",
                "name": "Margot wins a medal with her rowing team",
                "name_nl": "Margot wint met haar roeiteam een medaille",
                "name_en": "Margot wins a medal with her rowing team",
                "content": "<p>On the Voorzaan near the marina on Havenstraat in Zaandam, numerous rowing teams competed among great public interest to win the prizes. The team of Margot Frank&nbsp;and some classmates, who practiced at the Association for the Promotion of Water Sports among Young People, also participated on this day. They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event for girls aged 14-16 years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Style rowing was not about speed and the jury used different criteria to award points. Nor was &#39;attention paid to the handsome faces of the ladies or the beautiful color combinations of the outfits.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;De Zaanlandsche roeit&#39;,&nbsp;<em>De Zaanlander</em>, 9 september 1940, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>W. Jongejan, &#39;De wedstrijden der dames&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Roeien</em>, 23 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Op de Voorzaan nabij de jachthaven aan de Havenstraat in Zaandam streden tal van roeiteams onder grote publieke belangstelling om de te winnen prijzen. Ook het team van Margot Frank en enkele klasgenoten, dat oefende&nbsp;bij de Vereniging ter Bevordering van Watersport onder Jongeren, deed deze dag mee. Zij wonnen een medaille op het onderdeel &#39;stijlroeien&#39; voor meisjes in de leeftijd 14- 16 jaar.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Bij stijlroeien ging het niet om snelheid en hanteerde de jury verschillende criteria om punten toe te kennen. Daarbij werd ook niet &#39;gelet op de knappe gezichtjes der dames&nbsp;of op de mooie kleuren-combinaties der toiletjes.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;De Zaanlandsche roeit&#39;,&nbsp;<em>De Zaanlander</em>, 9 september 1940, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>W. Jongejan, &#39;De wedstrijden der dames&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Roeien</em>, 23 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>On the Voorzaan near the marina on Havenstraat in Zaandam, numerous rowing teams competed among great public interest to win the prizes. The team of Margot Frank&nbsp;and some classmates, who practiced at the Association for the Promotion of Water Sports among Young People, also participated on this day. They won a medal in the &#39;style rowing&#39; event for girls aged 14-16 years.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Style rowing was not about speed and the jury used different criteria to award points. Nor was &#39;attention paid to the handsome faces of the ladies or the beautiful color combinations of the outfits.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ckpv8\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&#39;De Zaanlandsche roeit&#39;,&nbsp;<em>De Zaanlander</em>, 9 september 1940, p. 8.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"zagtm\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>W. Jongejan, &#39;De wedstrijden der dames&#39;,&nbsp;<em>Roeien</em>, 23 oktober 1941.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": "1940-09-08",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "Lustrum rowing competitions took place at 'De Zaanlandsche' in early September 1940.",
                "summary_nl": "Bij 'De Zaanlandsche' vonden begin september 1940 lustrum-roeiwedstrijden plaats.",
                "summary_en": "Lustrum rowing competitions took place at 'De Zaanlandsche' in early September 1940.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124684,
                    396124571
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2310,
                    2213,
                    193,
                    2180,
                    2342
                ],
                "files": [
                    1049
                ]
            },
            "score": 2.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 272,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 166,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": {
                        "id": 1119,
                        "uuid": "3a44b065-c967-4b20-93c8-8901ce0f2be6",
                        "name": "NHA 162-22461",
                        "title": "Eemnesserweg, gezien richting Laren.",
                        "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Beeldbank Streekarchief Gooi en Vechtstraak, Hilversum.",
                        "url": "",
                        "path": "https://research.annefrank.org/media/NHA_162-22461_KbACZgc.jpg",
                        "filetype": "image",
                        "description": "",
                        "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                        "copyright": "Publiek domein."
                    },
                    "latitude": "52.228378",
                    "longitude": "5.18635",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 272,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a9c59bc0-c84e-4f18-8930-bc8ca5e36bf7/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/b2254eb9-cc97-4f61-8c16-566f80f4eecf",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/654218a6-8b1b-4fb4-b4c3-a7e310768d81",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/c3233be2-3492-455a-94e0-74b662bf1976"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/f2004ab1-f62f-43c5-9864-18eea838d81e",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/94d0786c-04e7-4095-ba04-876b8544e1b2"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "a9c59bc0-c84e-4f18-8930-bc8ca5e36bf7",
                            "name": "Formation La Synthèse",
                            "name_nl": "Oprichting La Synthèse",
                            "name_en": "Formation La Synthèse",
                            "content": "<p>One of the goals of the German occupation policy was to deprive Dutch Jews of their property. An initial impetus was given on <strong>22 October 1940</strong> with the promulgation of regulation VO 189/1940. This regulation required Jewish companies to register with the <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle,</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> which decided on the confiscation or liquidation of these companies.&nbsp;In an effort to remove&nbsp;Pectacon, one of Otto Frank&#39;s trading companies, from German control, Victor Kugler and Jan Gies founded the firm La Synth&egrave;se as early as <strong>23 October 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The objective and activities of this company were similar to those of Pectacon, &quot;the trading in and manufacture of chemicals and foodstuffs.&quot; Registration in the Trade Register followed on <strong>4 November 1940</strong>. The firm&#39;s address was: Eemnesserweg 56, Hilversum, <sup data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> which was Kugler&#39;s home address. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, the firm&#39;s name was changed to N.V. Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co<sup data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;by order of the secretary-general of the ministery of Justice, who objected to <em>La Synth&egrave;se</em>. The new name was registered with the Trade Register on <strong>19 August 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven</a> (geraadpleegd 29 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Staatscourant</em>, 13 augustus 1941; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859: Akteletter d.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter a.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Een van de doelen van de Duitse bezettingspolitiek was om de Nederlandse Joden hun bezit te ontnemen. Een eerste aanzet daartoe werd gegeven op 22 oktober 1940 met de afkondiging van verordening VO 189/1940. Deze verordening verplichtte Joodse ondernemingen tot aanmelding bij de <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Deze instelling besliste over de verdere inbeslagname of liquidatie van deze ondernemingen.&nbsp;In een poging Pectacon, een van de handelsondernemingen van Frank, aan Duits toezicht te onttrekken, werd al op<strong> 23 oktober 1940</strong> de firma La Synth&egrave;se opgericht door Victor Kugler en Jan Gies.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De doelstelling en de werkzaamheden van deze onderneming waren gelijk aan die van Pectacon, de &#39;handel en fabricatie van chemicali&euml;n en levensmiddelen&#39;.&nbsp;De inschrijving in het Handelsregister volgde op <strong>4 november 1940</strong>. Het adres was: Eemnesserweg 56, Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Dit was Kuglers priv&eacute;adres. De bedrijfsnaam werd op <strong>8 mei 1941</strong> veranderd in N.V. Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Dit op last van de secretaris-generaal van Justitie, die bezwaar maakte tegen de naam van de firma. Op <strong>19 augustus 1941 </strong>registreerde het Handelsregister de nieuwe bedrijfsnaam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven</a> (geraadpleegd 29 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Staatscourant</em>, 13 augustus 1941; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859: Akteletter d.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter a.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>One of the goals of the German occupation policy was to deprive Dutch Jews of their property. An initial impetus was given on <strong>22 October 1940</strong> with the promulgation of regulation VO 189/1940. This regulation required Jewish companies to register with the <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle,</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> which decided on the confiscation or liquidation of these companies.&nbsp;In an effort to remove&nbsp;Pectacon, one of Otto Frank&#39;s trading companies, from German control, Victor Kugler and Jan Gies founded the firm La Synth&egrave;se as early as <strong>23 October 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The objective and activities of this company were similar to those of Pectacon, &quot;the trading in and manufacture of chemicals and foodstuffs.&quot; Registration in the Trade Register followed on <strong>4 November 1940</strong>. The firm&#39;s address was: Eemnesserweg 56, Hilversum, <sup data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> which was Kugler&#39;s home address. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, the firm&#39;s name was changed to N.V. Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co<sup data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;by order of the secretary-general of the ministery of Justice, who objected to <em>La Synth&egrave;se</em>. The new name was registered with the Trade Register on <strong>19 August 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven</a> (geraadpleegd 29 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Staatscourant</em>, 13 augustus 1941; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859: Akteletter d.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter a.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1940-10-23",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "La Synthèse was founded when Pectacon, one of Otto Frank's companies, was in danger of being liquidated due to aryanisation measures.",
                            "summary_nl": "La Synthèse werd opgericht toen Pectacon, een van de bedrijven van Otto Frank, wegens ariseringsmaatregelen gevaar liep te worden geliquideerd.",
                            "summary_en": "La Synthèse was founded when Pectacon, one of Otto Frank's companies, was in danger of being liquidated due to aryanisation measures.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 173,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/8d0b0679-3dba-4c8d-b38c-7bcfefcec4b1/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/e6090c55-5e26-4b2b-9dc9-8c5d1fe3b98b",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/1ac7a3a0-86b6-4a04-aa6b-e25fe336aa24"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/94d0786c-04e7-4095-ba04-876b8544e1b2"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "8d0b0679-3dba-4c8d-b38c-7bcfefcec4b1",
                            "name": "Victor Kugler in hiding at home",
                            "name_nl": "Victor Kugler thuis ondergedoken",
                            "name_en": "Victor Kugler in hiding at home",
                            "content": "<p>According to Victor Kugler, he&nbsp;arrived back home in Hilversum after his escape near Zevenaar on Good Friday, <strong>30 March 1945</strong>. He kept himself hidden there until the liberation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f95eu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> He recounted:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The next day I started to prepare a hiding place in my house for myself and my wife. Should the Germans come to take me back, I was determined that they would not find me. However, my preparations proved unnecessary because four weeks later, the German troops (&hellip;) surrendered.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"fnyzt\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<div>&nbsp;\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f95eu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Nederlandse Rode Kruis, Den Haag, dossier 97791: Aanvraagformulier A, Centraal Afwikkelbureau Duitse Schadeuitkeringen, ingevuld door Kugler en gestempeld 3 september 1963.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fnyzt\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Quote from: Eda Shapiro and Rick Kardonne (eds.), <em>Victor Kugler: the man who hid Anne Frank</em>, Jerusalem: Gefen, 2008, p.78.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n</div>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Op Goede Vrijdag, <strong>30 maart 1945</strong>, zou Victor Kugler weer thuis in Hilversum zijn aangekomen na zijn ontsnapping bij Zevenaar. Daar hield hij zich verborgen tot de bevrijding.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f95eu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij vertelde:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&lsquo;De volgende dag begon ik een schuilplaats in te richten voor ons. Als de Duitsers langs zouden komen om mij te arresteren, dan wilde ik koste wat het kost voorkomen dat ze mij zouden vinden. Maar mijn voorbereidingen waren niet nodig, want vier weken later capituleerde de Duitse legerleiding.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"fnyzt\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<div>&nbsp;\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f95eu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Nederlandse Rode Kruis, Den Haag, dossier 97791: Aanvraagformulier A, Centraal Afwikkelbureau Duitse Schadeuitkeringen, ingevuld door Kugler en gestempeld 3 september 1963.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fnyzt\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Orginieel: &lsquo;The next day I started to prepare a hiding place in my house for myself and my wife. Should the Germans come to take me back, I was determined that they would not find me. However, my preparations proved unnecessary because four weeks later, the German troops (&hellip;) surrendered.&rsquo; Citaat uit: Eda Shapiro &amp; Rick Kardonne (eds.), <em>Victor Kugler: the man who hid Anne Frank</em>, Jerusalem: Gefen: 2008, p. 78.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n</div>",
                            "content_en": "<p>According to Victor Kugler, he&nbsp;arrived back home in Hilversum after his escape near Zevenaar on Good Friday, <strong>30 March 1945</strong>. He kept himself hidden there until the liberation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"f95eu\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> He recounted:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;The next day I started to prepare a hiding place in my house for myself and my wife. Should the Germans come to take me back, I was determined that they would not find me. However, my preparations proved unnecessary because four weeks later, the German troops (&hellip;) surrendered.&rsquo;<sup data-footnote-id=\"fnyzt\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<div>&nbsp;\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"f95eu\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Nederlandse Rode Kruis, Den Haag, dossier 97791: Aanvraagformulier A, Centraal Afwikkelbureau Duitse Schadeuitkeringen, ingevuld door Kugler en gestempeld 3 september 1963.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fnyzt\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Quote from: Eda Shapiro and Rick Kardonne (eds.), <em>Victor Kugler: the man who hid Anne Frank</em>, Jerusalem: Gefen, 2008, p.78.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>\r\n</div>",
                            "date": null,
                            "date_start": "1945-03-28",
                            "date_end": "1945-05-07",
                            "summary": "After his escape, Victor Kugler was able to hide at home until Hilversum was liberated.",
                            "summary_nl": "Na zijn ontsnapping kon Victor Kugler zich thuis verborgen houden tot Hilversum werd bevrijd.",
                            "summary_en": "After his escape, Victor Kugler was able to hide at home until Hilversum was liberated.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124556,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "d7ba8d2c-3824-4286-96da-1af0f02ba645",
                            "name": "Accommodation",
                            "name_nl": "Verblijf",
                            "name_en": "Accommodation",
                            "description": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Onder verblijf wordt verstaan een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Accommodation refers to a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.</p>",
                            "summary": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "summary_nl": "Verblijf is een plek om te wonen en/of te werken, tijdelijk of permanent.",
                            "summary_en": "Accommodation is a place in which to live and/or work, either temporarily or permanently.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124413,
                            "files": []
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                    "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/locaties/db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4/",
                    "published": true,
                    "name": "Home of Victor Kugler in Hilversum",
                    "name_nl": "Woning Victor Kugler in Hilversum",
                    "name_en": "Home of Victor Kugler in Hilversum",
                    "uuid": "db594671-5a23-4c77-94e5-719f47bf03e4",
                    "content": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "content_en": "<p>&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<div>\r\n<div>&nbsp;</div>\r\n</div>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (5.18635 52.228378)",
                    "summary": "From 1940, Victor Kugler and his wife lived on this street, at number 56. He went into hiding in the same house after he had escaped German imprisonment.",
                    "summary_nl": "In deze straat, op nummer 56, woonden Victor Kugler en zijn vrouw vanaf 1940. Daar dook hij ook na zijn ontsnapping uit Duitse gevangenschap onder.",
                    "summary_en": "From 1940, Victor Kugler and his wife lived on this street, at number 56. He went into hiding in the same house after he had escaped German imprisonment.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Eemnesserweg 56",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Hilversum",
                    "state": "",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        272,
                        173
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                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/a9c59bc0-c84e-4f18-8930-bc8ca5e36bf7/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "a9c59bc0-c84e-4f18-8930-bc8ca5e36bf7",
                "name": "Formation La Synthèse",
                "name_nl": "Oprichting La Synthèse",
                "name_en": "Formation La Synthèse",
                "content": "<p>One of the goals of the German occupation policy was to deprive Dutch Jews of their property. An initial impetus was given on <strong>22 October 1940</strong> with the promulgation of regulation VO 189/1940. This regulation required Jewish companies to register with the <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle,</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> which decided on the confiscation or liquidation of these companies.&nbsp;In an effort to remove&nbsp;Pectacon, one of Otto Frank&#39;s trading companies, from German control, Victor Kugler and Jan Gies founded the firm La Synth&egrave;se as early as <strong>23 October 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The objective and activities of this company were similar to those of Pectacon, &quot;the trading in and manufacture of chemicals and foodstuffs.&quot; Registration in the Trade Register followed on <strong>4 November 1940</strong>. The firm&#39;s address was: Eemnesserweg 56, Hilversum, <sup data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> which was Kugler&#39;s home address. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, the firm&#39;s name was changed to N.V. Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co<sup data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;by order of the secretary-general of the ministery of Justice, who objected to <em>La Synth&egrave;se</em>. The new name was registered with the Trade Register on <strong>19 August 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven</a> (geraadpleegd 29 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Staatscourant</em>, 13 augustus 1941; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859: Akteletter d.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter a.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Een van de doelen van de Duitse bezettingspolitiek was om de Nederlandse Joden hun bezit te ontnemen. Een eerste aanzet daartoe werd gegeven op 22 oktober 1940 met de afkondiging van verordening VO 189/1940. Deze verordening verplichtte Joodse ondernemingen tot aanmelding bij de <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Deze instelling besliste over de verdere inbeslagname of liquidatie van deze ondernemingen.&nbsp;In een poging Pectacon, een van de handelsondernemingen van Frank, aan Duits toezicht te onttrekken, werd al op<strong> 23 oktober 1940</strong> de firma La Synth&egrave;se opgericht door Victor Kugler en Jan Gies.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>De doelstelling en de werkzaamheden van deze onderneming waren gelijk aan die van Pectacon, de &#39;handel en fabricatie van chemicali&euml;n en levensmiddelen&#39;.&nbsp;De inschrijving in het Handelsregister volgde op <strong>4 november 1940</strong>. Het adres was: Eemnesserweg 56, Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Dit was Kuglers priv&eacute;adres. De bedrijfsnaam werd op <strong>8 mei 1941</strong> veranderd in N.V. Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Dit op last van de secretaris-generaal van Justitie, die bezwaar maakte tegen de naam van de firma. Op <strong>19 augustus 1941 </strong>registreerde het Handelsregister de nieuwe bedrijfsnaam.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven</a> (geraadpleegd 29 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Staatscourant</em>, 13 augustus 1941; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859: Akteletter d.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter a.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>One of the goals of the German occupation policy was to deprive Dutch Jews of their property. An initial impetus was given on <strong>22 October 1940</strong> with the promulgation of regulation VO 189/1940. This regulation required Jewish companies to register with the <em>Wirtschaftsprufstelle,</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> which decided on the confiscation or liquidation of these companies.&nbsp;In an effort to remove&nbsp;Pectacon, one of Otto Frank&#39;s trading companies, from German control, Victor Kugler and Jan Gies founded the firm La Synth&egrave;se as early as <strong>23 October 1940</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>The objective and activities of this company were similar to those of Pectacon, &quot;the trading in and manufacture of chemicals and foodstuffs.&quot; Registration in the Trade Register followed on <strong>4 November 1940</strong>. The firm&#39;s address was: Eemnesserweg 56, Hilversum, <sup data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> which was Kugler&#39;s home address. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, the firm&#39;s name was changed to N.V. Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co<sup data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;by order of the secretary-general of the ministery of Justice, who objected to <em>La Synth&egrave;se</em>. The new name was registered with the Trade Register on <strong>19 August 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"m1q5v\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Zie&nbsp;<a href=\"https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven\" target=\"_blank\">https://www.oorlogsgetroffenen.nl/thema/rechtsherstel/03_01_Bedrijven</a> (geraadpleegd 29 november 2022).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"cfutg\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a> </sup><cite><em>Staatscourant</em>, 13 augustus 1941; Noord-Hollands Archief (NHA), Haarlem, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859: Akteletter d.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yx38q\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter a.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4jyt6\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NHA, Handelsregister Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859, akteletter b.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": "1940-10-23",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "La Synthèse was founded when Pectacon, one of Otto Frank's companies, was in danger of being liquidated due to aryanisation measures.",
                "summary_nl": "La Synthèse werd opgericht toen Pectacon, een van de bedrijven van Otto Frank, wegens ariseringsmaatregelen gevaar liep te worden geliquideerd.",
                "summary_en": "La Synthèse was founded when Pectacon, one of Otto Frank's companies, was in danger of being liquidated due to aryanisation measures.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124465,
                    396124681,
                    396124628
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2,
                    52,
                    262
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 2.0
        },
        {
            "type": "event",
            "instance": {
                "id": 114,
                "main_image": null,
                "location": {
                    "id": 103,
                    "files": [],
                    "main_image": null,
                    "latitude": "52.36892",
                    "longitude": "4.88745",
                    "events": [
                        {
                            "id": 248,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/b3ea76ee-3018-44a6-9c71-bc5a1800aef5/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/a871bcad-3786-4974-baaa-c342c48eabbd",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/c3233be2-3492-455a-94e0-74b662bf1976",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/f1cf764c-cd3d-468e-9faa-07f9f3f2a6b1"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/40ffef95-1370-436a-ac4b-fc13d3135ba1",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/9276945d-3ec3-4d82-aad1-8708abc63e7f",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/7b1f2828-0f9d-49a0-bf55-869b818e76ab",
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/5ca6071b-3f13-4d9e-91e7-182bcd994e2f"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/5c893854-c6f4-4ec1-8bc7-3f53d91174cc",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "b3ea76ee-3018-44a6-9c71-bc5a1800aef5",
                            "name": "Otto Frank takes over Pectacon",
                            "name_nl": "Otto Frank neemt Pectacon over",
                            "name_en": "Otto Frank takes over Pectacon",
                            "content": "<p>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., a company for trading and manufacturing chemical products and foodstuffs, was founded on <strong>1 June 1938</strong> by Johannes Kleiman and Antonius Dunselman.<sup data-footnote-id=\"197gk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Not long after this, on&nbsp;<strong>21 October 1938</strong>, Otto Frank took over the shares from the founders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vv4g9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Opekta&#39;s pectin business was seasonal as the fruit required was only available in summer and early autumn. To smooth out the resulting sales fluctuations, Otto Frank looked for other products. He found these in Pectacon, which traded in spices and preservatives.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"197gk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vv4g9\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., een bedrijf voor handel en fabricatie van chemische producten en levensmiddelen, werd&nbsp;op <strong>1 juni 1938</strong> opgericht door Johannes Kleiman en Antonius Dunselman.<sup data-footnote-id=\"197gk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Al op <strong>21 oktober 1938</strong> nam&nbsp;Otto Frank de aandelen over van de oprichters.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vv4g9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> De pectinehandel van Opekta was seizoensgebonden omdat het benodigde fruit alleen in de zomer en nazomer te krijgen was. Om de omzetfluctuaties&nbsp;die hier het gevolg van waren af te vlakken, zocht&nbsp;Otto Frank andere producten. Die&nbsp;vond&nbsp;hij&nbsp;in Pectacon, dat handelde in specerijen en conserveermiddelen.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"197gk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vv4g9\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., a company for trading and manufacturing chemical products and foodstuffs, was founded on <strong>1 June 1938</strong> by Johannes Kleiman and Antonius Dunselman.<sup data-footnote-id=\"197gk\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Not long after this, on&nbsp;<strong>21 October 1938</strong>, Otto Frank took over the shares from the founders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"vv4g9\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Opekta&#39;s pectin business was seasonal as the fruit required was only available in summer and early autumn. To smooth out the resulting sales fluctuations, Otto Frank looked for other products. He found these in Pectacon, which traded in spices and preservatives.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"197gk\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"vv4g9\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1938-10-21",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "In October 1938, Otto Frank took over Pectacon from its founders Johannes Kleiman and Ton Dunselman. This company traded in spices and preservatives. It provided income in winter and spring, when Opekta's sales were low. In 1939, Hermann van Pels joined the company.",
                            "summary_nl": "In oktober 1938 neemt Otto Frank Pectacon over van de oprichters Johannes Kleiman en Ton Dunselman. Dit bedrijf handelt in specerijen en conserveermiddelen. Het zorgt voor inkomsten in winter en voorjaar, wanneer Opekta weinig verkocht wordt. In 1939 komt Hermann van Pels erbij werken.",
                            "summary_en": "In October 1938, Otto Frank took over Pectacon from its founders Johannes Kleiman and Ton Dunselman. This company traded in spices and preservatives. It provided income in winter and spring, when Opekta's sales were low. In 1939, Hermann van Pels joined the company.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 114,
                            "main_image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/8d855521-e228-4a1a-83f7-2ba215294b44/",
                            "subjects": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/subjects/60372a46-0754-4cde-8460-8c2a436b879d"
                            ],
                            "persons": [
                                "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/persons/e4337998-21c4-46dc-aa67-08dcc0c82f20"
                            ],
                            "location": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/api/locations/5c893854-c6f4-4ec1-8bc7-3f53d91174cc",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "8d855521-e228-4a1a-83f7-2ba215294b44",
                            "name": "Fire at Singel 400",
                            "name_nl": "Brand op Singel 400",
                            "name_en": "Fire at Singel 400",
                            "content": "<p>Opekta used the ground floors of the building at Singel 400. Upstairs lived the artist&nbsp;Gerrit Jongert and his family. In April 1940, Jongert&#39;s little boy was playing with matches in an unguarded moment and started a fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l113a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The fire brigade rushed out with three fire engines and a ladder truck. Thirteen firemen used 4,500 litres of water from the Vecht river to put out the fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;In Jongert&#39;s home and studio, the panelling and some paintings were lost, but the ground floor only sustained water damage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"botib\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l113a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Brandweer en rechtsvoorgangers, toegang 635, inv. nr. 1239, dagboek van plaats gehad hebbende branden, 24 april 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"botib\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Brand in het atelier van een kunstschilder&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Utrechts Volksblad</em>, 25 april 1940, p. 10.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_nl": "<p>Opekta gebruikte de benedenverdiepingen&nbsp;van het gebouw aan Singel 400. Boven woonde de kunstschilder Gerrit Jongert&nbsp;met zijn gezin. In <strong>april 1940</strong> ontstond brand doordat het zoontje van Jongert in een onbewaakt moment met lucifers speelde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l113a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;De brandweer rukte met drie motorspuiten en een ladderwagen uit. Dertien brandwachten gebruikten 4.500 liter Vechtwater voor het blussen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de woning en het atelier van Jongert gingen de lambrizering en enkele doeken verloren, maar op de benedenverdieping was alleen waterschade.<sup data-footnote-id=\"botib\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l113a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Brandweer en rechtsvoorgangers, toegang 635, inv. nr. 1239, dagboek van plaats gehad hebbende branden, 24 april 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"botib\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Brand in het atelier van een kunstschilder&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Utrechts Volksblad</em>, 25 april 1940, p. 10.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "content_en": "<p>Opekta used the ground floors of the building at Singel 400. Upstairs lived the artist&nbsp;Gerrit Jongert and his family. In April 1940, Jongert&#39;s little boy was playing with matches in an unguarded moment and started a fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l113a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The fire brigade rushed out with three fire engines and a ladder truck. Thirteen firemen used 4,500 litres of water from the Vecht river to put out the fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;In Jongert&#39;s home and studio, the panelling and some paintings were lost, but the ground floor only sustained water damage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"botib\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l113a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Brandweer en rechtsvoorgangers, toegang 635, inv. nr. 1239, dagboek van plaats gehad hebbende branden, 24 april 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"botib\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Brand in het atelier van een kunstschilder&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Utrechts Volksblad</em>, 25 april 1940, p. 10.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "date": "1940-04-24",
                            "date_start": null,
                            "date_end": null,
                            "summary": "A playing child inadvertently caused a fire.",
                            "summary_nl": "Een spelende kleuter veroorzaakte onbedoeld brand.",
                            "summary_en": "A playing child inadvertently caused a fire.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "files": []
                        }
                    ],
                    "subjects": [
                        {
                            "id": 396124419,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "f10c5572-ef2e-4ba0-995d-57828a30f7bd",
                            "name": "Businesses",
                            "name_nl": "Bedrijven",
                            "name_en": "Businesses",
                            "description": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.</p>",
                            "description_en": "<p>The objective of businesses&nbsp;is to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.</p>",
                            "summary": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bedrijven hebben tot doel producten en/of diensten te verkopen aan klanten, waardoor omzet kan worden gedraaid.",
                            "summary_en": "Businesses aim to sell products and/or services to customers, thereby generating revenue.",
                            "same_as": [
                                "https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/2210"
                            ],
                            "parent": null,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124625,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/02517bd9-98e4-4132-a50b-b6eeb381b67b/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "02517bd9-98e4-4132-a50b-b6eeb381b67b",
                            "name": "Bep Voskuijl worked at various companies",
                            "name_nl": "Bep Voskuijl werkzaam bij verschillende bedrijven",
                            "name_en": "Bep Voskuijl worked at various companies",
                            "description": "<p>After primary school, Bep Voskuijl had various jobs:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>According to her younger sister, Willy van der Vennen-Voskijl, Bep Voskuijl worked in a sewing workshop and as a maid in a restaurant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gqo85\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Her son Ton van Wijk said that his mother also worked as a shopgirl at Ruperink&#39;s&nbsp;p&acirc;tisserie in Jan Evertsenstraat and as a helper at Ruttens cafeteria in Kalverstraat (a branch of hospitality chain Heck&#39;s).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hlgfc\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Her son Joop van Wijk said&nbsp;that his mother started working as a chambermaid in hotels and boarding houses and then she went to school in order&nbsp;to advance her career.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xo0eg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On the family card of her father Johannes Voskuijl, Bep is registered as a cloak seamstress.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u3r3l\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> It is not known where and when this was.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>In mid-1937</strong>, Bep was hired at Opekta, at that time located at Singel 400. She replaced Isa Cauvern, who was a stenographer. Victor Kugler was her supervisor. She got her instructions from him and from Johannes Kleiman and occasionally from Otto Frank. Like Miep Gies, Bep carried out work for Opekta and for Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yqelo\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Her identity card issued on <strong>19 August 1941</strong> reads: &#39;Office clerk (Pektine prod.)&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rjo6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> After the arrest, she continued working in the office with Miep Gies until Kleiman&#39;s return.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oo02e\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>January 1947</strong>, Bep left Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xh3i5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Bep did the bookkeeping for her husband, Cor van Wijk, who had an upholstery shop at home.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytr5r\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gqo85\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Voskuijl, Wilhelmina: Samenvatting van interview van Dineke Stam met Willy van der Vennen-Voskuijl, 8 april 1994.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hlgfc\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Interview Jeroen de Bruin met Ton van Wijk, 7 april 2011, geciteerd in Jeroen de Bruyn &amp; Joop van Wijk, <em>Bep Voskijl, het zwijgen voorbij. Een biografie van de jongste helper van het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus 2015.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xo0eg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Interview Teresien de Silva met Joop van Wijk, 12 augustus 2009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u3r3l\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten (toegangsnummer 5421):&nbsp;Gezinskaart J.H.Voskuijl.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yqelo\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verslag van een gesprek op 25 februari 1981 met Mevrouw E. van Wijl-Voskuijl door David Barnouw en Gerrold van der Stroom. NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs,- Holocaust- en Genocidetudies, Frank, Anne (toegang 212c), inv nr. 7c.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rjo6k\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Voskuijl_I_045: Persoonsbewijs (PB535901) van Elly (Elisabeth) Voskuijl.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oo02e\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis,&nbsp;</em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 199-203. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xh3i5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bep verliet Opekta ongeveer acht maanden na haar huwelijk met Cor van Wijk en ongeveer vier maanden voor de geboorte van hun oudste zoon Ton van Wijk.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytr5r\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Wijk, Cor van: Aantekeningen gesprek Dineke Stam met Cor van Wijk.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Na de lagere school had Bep Voskuijl verschillende banen:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Volgens haar, bijna drie jaar jongere zus, Willy van der Vennen-Voskijl, werkte Bep Voskuijl in een naaiatelier en als dienstbode in een restaurant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gqo85\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Zoon Ton van Wijk vertelde dat zijn moeder ook werkte als winkelmeisje bij banketbakker Ruperink in de Jan Evertsenstraat en als hulp&nbsp;bij Ruttens cafetaria in de Kalverstraat (filiaal van horecaketen Heck&rsquo;s).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hlgfc\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Zoon Joop van Wijk vertelde dat zijn moeder begon met werken als kamermeisje in hotels en pensionnetjes en dat zij zich vervolgens ging scholen om verder te komen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xo0eg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Op de gezinskaart van haar vader Johannes Voskuijl, staat Bep geregistreerd als mantelnaaister.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u3r3l\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Het is niet bekend waar en wanneer dit was.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>Medio 1937</strong> werd Bep aangenomen bij Opekta, in die periode gevestigd op Singel 400. Ze was de opvolgster van Isa Cauvern, die stenotypiste was. Victor Kugler was haar chef. Ze kreeg haar opdrachten van hem en van Johannes Kleiman en een enkele keer van de Otto Frank. Net als Miep Gies verrichtte Bep werkzaamheden voor Opekta en voor Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yqelo\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Op haar persoonsbewijs, uitgegeven op <strong>19 augustus 1941</strong> staat: &lsquo;Kantoorbediende (Pektine prod.)&rdquo;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rjo6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;Na de arrestatie bleef ze samen met Miep Gies op kantoor werken tot Kleimans terugkeer.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oo02e\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup>&nbsp;In <strong>januari 1947</strong> verliet Bep Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xh3i5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Bep voerde de boekhouding voor haar man, Cor van Wijk, die een stoffeerderij&nbsp;aan huis had.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytr5r\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gqo85\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Voskuijl, Wilhelmina: Samenvatting van interview van Dineke Stam met Willy van der Vennen-Voskuijl, 8 april 1994.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hlgfc\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Interview Jeroen de Bruin met Ton van Wijk, 7 april 2011, geciteerd in Jeroen de Bruyn &amp; Joop van Wijk, <em>Bep Voskijl, het zwijgen voorbij. Een biografie van de jongste helper van het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus 2015.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xo0eg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Interview Teresien de Silva met Joop van Wijk, 12 augustus 2009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u3r3l\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten (toegangsnummer 5421):&nbsp;Gezinskaart J.H.Voskuijl.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yqelo\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verslag van een gesprek op 25 februari 1981 met Mevrouw E. van Wijl-Voskuijl door David Barnouw en Gerrold van der Stroom. NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs,- Holocaust- en Genocidetudies, Frank, Anne (toegang 212c), inv nr. 7c.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rjo6k\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Voskuijl_I_045: Persoonsbewijs (PB535901) van Elly (Elisabeth) Voskuijl.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oo02e\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis,&nbsp;</em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 199-203. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xh3i5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bep verliet Opekta ongeveer acht maanden na haar huwelijk met Cor van Wijk en ongeveer vier maanden voor de geboorte van hun oudste zoon Ton van Wijk.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytr5r\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Wijk, Cor van: Aantekeningen gesprek Dineke Stam met Cor van Wijk.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>After primary school, Bep Voskuijl had various jobs:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>According to her younger sister, Willy van der Vennen-Voskijl, Bep Voskuijl worked in a sewing workshop and as a maid in a restaurant.<sup data-footnote-id=\"gqo85\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Her son Ton van Wijk said that his mother also worked as a shopgirl at Ruperink&#39;s&nbsp;p&acirc;tisserie in Jan Evertsenstraat and as a helper at Ruttens cafeteria in Kalverstraat (a branch of hospitality chain Heck&#39;s).<sup data-footnote-id=\"hlgfc\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Her son Joop van Wijk said&nbsp;that his mother started working as a chambermaid in hotels and boarding houses and then she went to school in order&nbsp;to advance her career.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xo0eg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>On the family card of her father Johannes Voskuijl, Bep is registered as a cloak seamstress.<sup data-footnote-id=\"u3r3l\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> It is not known where and when this was.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>In mid-1937</strong>, Bep was hired at Opekta, at that time located at Singel 400. She replaced Isa Cauvern, who was a stenographer. Victor Kugler was her supervisor. She got her instructions from him and from Johannes Kleiman and occasionally from Otto Frank. Like Miep Gies, Bep carried out work for Opekta and for Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"yqelo\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Her identity card issued on <strong>19 August 1941</strong> reads: &#39;Office clerk (Pektine prod.)&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rjo6k\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> After the arrest, she continued working in the office with Miep Gies until Kleiman&#39;s return.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oo02e\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In <strong>January 1947</strong>, Bep left Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"xh3i5\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Bep did the bookkeeping for her husband, Cor van Wijk, who had an upholstery shop at home.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ytr5r\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"gqo85\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Getuigenarchief, Voskuijl, Wilhelmina: Samenvatting van interview van Dineke Stam met Willy van der Vennen-Voskuijl, 8 april 1994.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hlgfc\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Interview Jeroen de Bruin met Ton van Wijk, 7 april 2011, geciteerd in Jeroen de Bruyn &amp; Joop van Wijk, <em>Bep Voskijl, het zwijgen voorbij. Een biografie van de jongste helper van het Achterhuis</em>, Amsterdam, Prometheus 2015.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xo0eg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Interview Teresien de Silva met Joop van Wijk, 12 augustus 2009.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"u3r3l\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Gezinskaarten (toegangsnummer 5421):&nbsp;Gezinskaart J.H.Voskuijl.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"yqelo\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Verslag van een gesprek op 25 februari 1981 met Mevrouw E. van Wijl-Voskuijl door David Barnouw en Gerrold van der Stroom. NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs,- Holocaust- en Genocidetudies, Frank, Anne (toegang 212c), inv nr. 7c.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rjo6k\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Voskuijl_I_045: Persoonsbewijs (PB535901) van Elly (Elisabeth) Voskuijl.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oo02e\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis,&nbsp;</em>Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 199-203. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"xh3i5\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bep verliet Opekta ongeveer acht maanden na haar huwelijk met Cor van Wijk en ongeveer vier maanden voor de geboorte van hun oudste zoon Ton van Wijk.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ytr5r\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Wijk, Cor van: Aantekeningen gesprek Dineke Stam met Cor van Wijk.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Bep Voskuijl had many different jobs.",
                            "summary_nl": "Bep Voskuijl had veel verschillende banen.",
                            "summary_en": "Bep Voskuijl had many different jobs.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124420,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124597,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/12c654f5-46bf-46d9-b083-a7d05d7f6064/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "12c654f5-46bf-46d9-b083-a7d05d7f6064",
                            "name": "Hermann van Pels - work at Pectacon",
                            "name_nl": "Hermann van Pels werkzaam bij Pectacon",
                            "name_en": "Hermann van Pels - work at Pectacon",
                            "description": "<p>According to his personal card, Hermann van Pels was a: &#39;merchant/butcher&#39;s waste (casings, etc)&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"snphv\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> He joined Pectacon, Otto Frank&#39;s company, in <strong>1939</strong>. According to Otto, Van Pels owned nothing at the time, but earned enough to rent a nice house and live a good life. He just couldn&#39;t save anything from it.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9dl6c\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hemann van Pels was considered an expert on spices.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9g8nj\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> He was listed in the telephone directory at the end of <strong>1940</strong> as &#39;Wholesaler&nbsp;in herbs, manufacturer of brine salt and mixed spices&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9v8zf\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Pectacon&#39;s product range showed similarities with that of the <em>Hermann van Pels &amp; Wolff</em> firm.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Van Pels&#39; involvement with Pectacon&#39;s successor Gies &amp; Co. does not appear from the source material, yet it is plausible that he was employed there.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snphv\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Hermann van Pels. Aangezien deze registratiekaarten in 1939 werden ingevoerd, was dit kennelijk zijn werk toen hij bij Pectacon in dienst trad, of kort daarvoor. In het kaartsysteem van de Kamer van Koophandel staat bij Van Pels geen bedrijf van deze aard genoteerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9dl6c\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Trude Heymann-Leeser inzake &#39;Entsch&auml;digung&#39;, 29 november 1963. De term &#39;medecompagnon&lsquo; die Anne in haar dagboek gebruikt is dan ook niet geheel accuraat. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 8 juli 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9g8nj\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>,&nbsp; Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 44.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9v8zf\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, datum van afsluiting 5 november 1940, z.p. (Den Haag): Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 182.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Hermann van Pels was&nbsp;blijkens zijn persoonskaart:&nbsp;<em>koopman i/slagersafval (darmen enz)</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"snphv\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij&nbsp;kwam in <strong>1939 </strong>bij Pectacon in dienst, het bedrijf van Otto Frank.&nbsp;Volgens Otto bezat Van Pels toen niets meer, maar verdiende&nbsp;hij genoeg om een mooie woning te huren en een goed leven te leiden. Hij kon er alleen niet van sparen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9dl6c\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hemann van Pels&nbsp;gold&nbsp;als deskundige op het gebied van kruiden.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9g8nj\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup>&nbsp;Hij stond eind <strong>1940</strong> in de telefoongids als <em>Grooth. in kruiden, fabr. v. pekelzout en gemengde spec</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9v8zf\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het assortiment van <em>Pectacon</em> vertoonde&nbsp;overeenkomsten met dat van de firma <em>Hermann van Pels &amp; Wolff</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Betrokkenheid van Van Pels bij <em>Pectacons</em> opvolger Gies &amp; Co. blijkt niet uit het bronnenmateriaal, toch is het wel aannemelijk dat hij er werkzaam was.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snphv\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Hermann van Pels. Aangezien deze registratiekaarten in 1939 werden ingevoerd, was dit kennelijk zijn werk toen hij bij Pectacon in dienst trad, of kort daarvoor. In het kaartsysteem van de Kamer van Koophandel staat bij Van Pels geen bedrijf van deze aard genoteerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9dl6c\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Trude Heymann-Leeser inzake &#39;Entsch&auml;digung&#39;, 29 november 1963. De term &#39;medecompagnon&lsquo; die Anne in haar dagboek gebruikt is dan ook niet geheel accuraat. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 8 juli 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9g8nj\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>,&nbsp; Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 44.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9v8zf\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, datum van afsluiting 5 november 1940, z.p. (Den Haag): Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 182.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>According to his personal card, Hermann van Pels was a: &#39;merchant/butcher&#39;s waste (casings, etc)&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"snphv\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> He joined Pectacon, Otto Frank&#39;s company, in <strong>1939</strong>. According to Otto, Van Pels owned nothing at the time, but earned enough to rent a nice house and live a good life. He just couldn&#39;t save anything from it.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9dl6c\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Hemann van Pels was considered an expert on spices.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9g8nj\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> He was listed in the telephone directory at the end of <strong>1940</strong> as &#39;Wholesaler&nbsp;in herbs, manufacturer of brine salt and mixed spices&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"9v8zf\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Pectacon&#39;s product range showed similarities with that of the <em>Hermann van Pels &amp; Wolff</em> firm.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Van Pels&#39; involvement with Pectacon&#39;s successor Gies &amp; Co. does not appear from the source material, yet it is plausible that he was employed there.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"snphv\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam, Dienst Bevolkingsregister, Archiefkaarten (toegangsnummer 30238): Archiefkaart Hermann van Pels. Aangezien deze registratiekaarten in 1939 werden ingevoerd, was dit kennelijk zijn werk toen hij bij Pectacon in dienst trad, of kort daarvoor. In het kaartsysteem van de Kamer van Koophandel staat bij Van Pels geen bedrijf van deze aard genoteerd.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9dl6c\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, Otto Frank Archief, reg. code OFA_076: Otto Frank aan Trude Heymann-Leeser inzake &#39;Entsch&auml;digung&#39;, 29 november 1963. De term &#39;medecompagnon&lsquo; die Anne in haar dagboek gebruikt is dan ook niet geheel accuraat. Anne Frank, Dagboek B, 8 juli 1942, in:&nbsp;<em>Verzameld werk,</em> Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013..</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9g8nj\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Miep Gies &amp; Alison Leslie Gold, <em>Herinneringen aan Anne Frank. Het verhaal van Miep Gies, de steun en toeverlaat van de familie Frank in het Achterhuis</em>,&nbsp; Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1987, p. 44.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"9v8zf\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite><em>Naamlijst interlocalen telefoondienst</em>, datum van afsluiting 5 november 1940, z.p. (Den Haag): Hoofdbestuur der P.T.T., januari 1941, p. 182.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Hermann van Pels was employed by Otto Frank's company Pectacon.",
                            "summary_nl": "Hermann van Pels was in dienst bij Otto Franks bedrijf Pectacon.",
                            "summary_en": "Hermann van Pels was employed by Otto Frank's company Pectacon.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124420,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124605,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/4c3330e3-201e-49a8-a9ad-2ab2af54f1c4/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "4c3330e3-201e-49a8-a9ad-2ab2af54f1c4",
                            "name": "Johannes Kleiman - work at Pectacon",
                            "name_nl": "Johannes Kleiman werkzaam bij Pectacon",
                            "name_en": "Johannes Kleiman - work at Pectacon",
                            "description": "<p>Johannes Kleiman&#39;s involvement in the establishment and operation of Pectacon is evident from the documents made available by Frans Hofhuis. Hofhuis&#39; parents had been friends with the Frank family since the <strong>early 1930</strong> s. In the <strong>1960s</strong>, Frans Hofhuis took over Pectacon, hence his possession of these documents.</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Brief timeline of the company:</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Kleiman receives the draft articles of association of Pectacon from Otto Frank. On <strong>28 May 1938</strong>, Kleiman sends&nbsp;lawyer Dunselman a number of proposed amendments.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p8os5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>1 June 1938</strong> Pectacon is incorporated by Kleiman and Dunselman at notary E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6lsej\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>10 June 1938</strong> Kleiman receives the General Terms and Conditions for account holders at the Amsterdamsche Bank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"18uoj\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The same day, Kleiman sends the bank a cheque for NLG 2,000, asking them to credit the account to be opened with NLG&nbsp;500 from Dunselman and NLG&nbsp;1,500 from himself.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p49ce\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 June 1938</strong> Kleiman writes to Luykx and Dunselman that the deposits referred to above had&nbsp;been made.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kussv\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The same day Kleiman, as director of Pectacon, signs the interim certificates for 15 shares.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ftraq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>16 June 1938</strong> Kleiman instructs the bank to transfer NLG 245.40 to Dunselman as a fee for work pertaining to the establishment.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3a13q\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>21 October 1938</strong> Kleiman instructs the bank to close his account, as a temporary account of Pectacon, and transfer the balance to a new account to be opened in the name of Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon NV.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rnqcj\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>4 April 1941</strong> Kleiman receives an interim receipt for fifty shares in the context of his deposit of NLG 5,000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t8ftd\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>9 April 1941</strong> Kleiman is listed with Otto Frank as director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ulr74\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>24 April 1941</strong> Kleiman as supervisory director and Otto as director issue thirty shares at NLG 100.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d53o5\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>24 September 1942</strong> &#39;Verwalter&#39; K.O.M. Wolters writes to Kleiman about the liquidation of Pectacon. He asks Kleiman to come to his office on <strong>28 September 1942</strong> in connection with the liquidation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s37py\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>After the liberation, measures to restore justice resulted in Pectacon being re-registered in the Commercial Register.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 November 1945</strong> Kleiman is listed as a director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sth91\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> The same day Kleiman signs interim certificates as director for twenty shares at NLG&nbsp;100.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ehdsm\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>February 1951</strong> Kleiman is sole director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6106o\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>1 December 1954 </strong>Kleiman goes with Dikker to Polak in Weener Germany&nbsp;(close to the border with Groningen). Followed by a brief report on trials including by TNO.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bziyw\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>\r\n\t<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n\t<header>\r\n\t<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n\t</header>\r\n\r\n\t<ol>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p8os5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan A.R.W.M. Dunselman, 28 mei 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6lsej\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"18uoj\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Amsterdamsche Bank aan Johannes Kleiman, 10 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p49ce\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 10 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kussv\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan E.J.M Luykx en A.R.W.M. Dunselman, 15 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ftraq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijzen aandelen 1 tot en met 15.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3a13q\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 16 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rnqcj\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frank Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 21 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t8ftd\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Otto Frank (?) aan Johannes Kleiman, 4 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ulr74\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel uit Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, dossier 52055, 9 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d53o5\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijs voor aandelen 21 t/m 50, 24 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s37py\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: K.O.M. Wolters aan Johannes Kleiman, 24 september 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sth91\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frank Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, dossier 52055, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ehdsm\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijs, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6106o\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, dossier 52055, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bziyw\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Kleiman_I_208: Johannes Kleiman aan Otto Frank, 1 december 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t</ol>\r\n\t</section>\r\n\t</li>\r\n</ul>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>De betrokkenheid van Johannes Kleiman bij de oprichting en bedrijfsvoering van Pectacon blijkt uit de documenten die door Frans Hofhuis beschikbaar zijn gesteld. De ouders van Hofhuis waren sinds de <strong>vroege jaren dertig</strong> bevriend met de familie Frank. In de <strong>jaren zestig</strong> nam&nbsp;Frans Hofhuis Pectacon over, vandaar dat hij deze documenten in bezit heeft.</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Korte tijdlijn van het bedrijf:</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Kleiman ontvangt van Otto Frank de conceptstatuten van Pectacon. Op <strong>28 mei 1938</strong> stuurde Kleiman aan advocaat Dunselman een aantal wijzigingsvoorstellen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p8os5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>1 juni 1938</strong> Pectacon wordt door Kleiman en Dunselman bij notaris E.J.M. Luykx opgericht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6lsej\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>10 juni 1938</strong> Kleiman ontvangt de Algemeene Voorwaarden voor rekeninghouders bij de Amsterdamsche Bank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"18uoj\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Dezelfde dag stuurt&nbsp;Kleiman de bank een cheque van fl 2000,-&nbsp;met het verzoek de te openen rekening te crediteren met fl 500,- van Dunselman en fl 1500,- van zichzelf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p49ce\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 juni 1938</strong> Kleiman schrijft&nbsp;aan Luykx en Dunselman dat de hierboven bedoelde stortingen zijn gedaan.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kussv\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;Dezelfde dag tekent&nbsp;Kleiman als directeur van Pectacon de interim-bewijzen voor vijftien aandelen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ftraq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>16 juni 1938</strong> Kleiman geeft de bank opdracht fl 245,40 over te maken naar Dunselman als honorarium voor werkzaamheden rond de oprichting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3a13q\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>21 oktober 1938</strong> Kleiman geeft&nbsp;de bank opdracht zijn rekening,&nbsp;als tijdelijke rekening van Pectacon,&nbsp;af te sluiten en het saldo over te boeken naar een nieuw te openen rekening t.n.v. Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon NV.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rnqcj\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>4 april 1941</strong> Kleiman krijgt vanwege zijn storting van fl 5000,- een interim-bewijs voor vijftig aandelen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t8ftd\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>9 april 1941</strong> Kleiman staat&nbsp;met Otto Frank&nbsp;als directeur vermeld.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ulr74\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>24 april 1941</strong> Kleiman als commissaris en Otto als directeur geven dertig aandelen &agrave; fl 100,- uit.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d53o5\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>24 september 1942</strong> &#39;Verwalter&#39; K.O.M. Wolters schrijft aan Kleiman over de liquidatie van Pectacon. Hij verzoekt&nbsp;Kleiman op <strong>28 september 1942</strong> op zijn kantoor te komen in verband met de afwikkeling.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s37py\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Na de bevrijding wordt Pectacon door maatregelen tot rechtsherstel opnieuw in het Handelsregister ingeschreven.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 november 1945</strong> Kleiman staat&nbsp;als directeur vermeld.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sth91\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> Dezelfde dag tekent&nbsp;Kleiman als directeur interim-bewijzen voor twintig aandelen &agrave; fl 100,-.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ehdsm\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>Februari 1951</strong> Kleiman is&nbsp;enig directeur.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6106o\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>1 december 1954 </strong>Kleiman is&nbsp;met Dikker naar Polak in Weener Duitsland, tegen grens met Groningen)&nbsp;geweest. Verder kort verslag&nbsp;over proefen o.a. door TNO.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bziyw\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>\r\n\t<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n\t<header>\r\n\t<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n\t</header>\r\n\r\n\t<ol>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p8os5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan A.R.W.M. Dunselman, 28 mei 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6lsej\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"18uoj\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Amsterdamsche Bank aan Johannes Kleiman, 10 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p49ce\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 10 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kussv\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan E.J.M Luykx en A.R.W.M. Dunselman, 15 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ftraq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijzen aandelen 1 tot en met 15.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3a13q\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 16 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rnqcj\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frank Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 21 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t8ftd\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Otto Frank (?) aan Johannes Kleiman, 4 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ulr74\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel uit Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, dossier 52055, 9 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d53o5\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijs voor aandelen 21 t/m 50, 24 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s37py\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: K.O.M. Wolters aan Johannes Kleiman, 24 september 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sth91\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frank Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, dossier 52055, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ehdsm\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijs, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6106o\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, dossier 52055, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bziyw\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Kleiman_I_208: Johannes Kleiman aan Otto Frank, 1 december 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t</ol>\r\n\t</section>\r\n\t</li>\r\n</ul>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Johannes Kleiman&#39;s involvement in the establishment and operation of Pectacon is evident from the documents made available by Frans Hofhuis. Hofhuis&#39; parents had been friends with the Frank family since the <strong>early 1930</strong> s. In the <strong>1960s</strong>, Frans Hofhuis took over Pectacon, hence his possession of these documents.</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>Brief timeline of the company:</strong></p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Kleiman receives the draft articles of association of Pectacon from Otto Frank. On <strong>28 May 1938</strong>, Kleiman sends&nbsp;lawyer Dunselman a number of proposed amendments.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p8os5\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>1 June 1938</strong> Pectacon is incorporated by Kleiman and Dunselman at notary E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6lsej\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>10 June 1938</strong> Kleiman receives the General Terms and Conditions for account holders at the Amsterdamsche Bank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"18uoj\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>The same day, Kleiman sends the bank a cheque for NLG 2,000, asking them to credit the account to be opened with NLG&nbsp;500 from Dunselman and NLG&nbsp;1,500 from himself.<sup data-footnote-id=\"p49ce\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 June 1938</strong> Kleiman writes to Luykx and Dunselman that the deposits referred to above had&nbsp;been made.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kussv\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> The same day Kleiman, as director of Pectacon, signs the interim certificates for 15 shares.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ftraq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>16 June 1938</strong> Kleiman instructs the bank to transfer NLG 245.40 to Dunselman as a fee for work pertaining to the establishment.<sup data-footnote-id=\"3a13q\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>21 October 1938</strong> Kleiman instructs the bank to close his account, as a temporary account of Pectacon, and transfer the balance to a new account to be opened in the name of Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon NV.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rnqcj\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>4 April 1941</strong> Kleiman receives an interim receipt for fifty shares in the context of his deposit of NLG 5,000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"t8ftd\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>9 April 1941</strong> Kleiman is listed with Otto Frank as director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ulr74\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>24 April 1941</strong> Kleiman as supervisory director and Otto as director issue thirty shares at NLG 100.<sup data-footnote-id=\"d53o5\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>24 September 1942</strong> &#39;Verwalter&#39; K.O.M. Wolters writes to Kleiman about the liquidation of Pectacon. He asks Kleiman to come to his office on <strong>28 September 1942</strong> in connection with the liquidation.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s37py\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>After the liberation, measures to restore justice resulted in Pectacon being re-registered in the Commercial Register.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>15 November 1945</strong> Kleiman is listed as a director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"sth91\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup> The same day Kleiman signs interim certificates as director for twenty shares at NLG&nbsp;100.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ehdsm\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>February 1951</strong> Kleiman is sole director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"6106o\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>1 December 1954 </strong>Kleiman goes with Dikker to Polak in Weener Germany&nbsp;(close to the border with Groningen). Followed by a brief report on trials including by TNO.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bziyw\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup>\r\n\t<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n\t<header>\r\n\t<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n\t</header>\r\n\r\n\t<ol>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p8os5\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan A.R.W.M. Dunselman, 28 mei 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6lsej\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"18uoj\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Amsterdamsche Bank aan Johannes Kleiman, 10 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"p49ce\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 10 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kussv\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan E.J.M Luykx en A.R.W.M. Dunselman, 15 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ftraq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijzen aandelen 1 tot en met 15.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"3a13q\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 16 juni 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rnqcj\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frank Hofhuis: Johannes Kleiman aan de Amsterdamsche Bank, 21 oktober 1938.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"t8ftd\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Otto Frank (?) aan Johannes Kleiman, 4 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ulr74\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel uit Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, dossier 52055, 9 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"d53o5\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijs voor aandelen 21 t/m 50, 24 april 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s37py\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: K.O.M. Wolters aan Johannes Kleiman, 24 september 1942.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"sth91\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frank Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, dossier 52055, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ehdsm\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Interim-bewijs, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"6106o\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, dossier 52055, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bziyw\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Kleiman_I_208: Johannes Kleiman aan Otto Frank, 1 december 1954.</cite></li>\r\n\t</ol>\r\n\t</section>\r\n\t</li>\r\n</ul>",
                            "summary": "Johannes Kleiman was involved in the establishment and operation of Pectacon.",
                            "summary_nl": "Johannes Kleiman was betrokken bij de oprichting en bedrijfsvoering van Pectacon.",
                            "summary_en": "Johannes Kleiman was involved in the establishment and operation of Pectacon.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124420,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124628,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/c3233be2-3492-455a-94e0-74b662bf1976/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "c3233be2-3492-455a-94e0-74b662bf1976",
                            "name": "Pectacon N.V., Handelsmaatschappij",
                            "name_nl": "Pectacon N.V., Handelsmaatschappij",
                            "name_en": "Pectacon N.V., Handelsmaatschappij",
                            "description": "<p>Opekta&#39;s pectin business was seasonal, as fruit was only available in the summer and late summer. To smooth out the sales fluctuations that resulted from this, Otto Frank looked for other products. He found these in <strong>1938</strong> at Pectacon, a trading company in spices and preservatives, which he took over from Johannes Kleiman and Antonius Dunselman shortly after its foundation.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Founding</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong><strong>1 June 1938</strong>: </strong>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., a company for trading and manufacturing chemical products and foodstuffs, was founded by Jo Kleiman and Ton Dunselman before notary E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> As early as <strong>21 October 1938</strong>, Otto Frank took over the shares from the founders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Pectacon imported raw materials from Hungary and Belgium; sales were also made to Belgium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn its <strong>1939 </strong>annual report, Opekta noted its cooperation with Pectacon. Pectacon&#39;s trade, unlike Opekta&#39;s, was mainly concentrated in the winter months. Opekta hoped to benefit from the cooperation the following year.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Volume and nature of trade</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>May &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon registered a logo with the explanation:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Type of goods: herbs and spices and substitutes for herbs and spices; chemicals and flavourings (aromas) for flavouring and/or preserving food and beverages; pharmaceuticals, medicines, chemicals for medical and hygienic purposes; drying agents; cereal and flour products; starches and starch products; sweeteners; odouriferous substances and flavourings; tea, coffee, cocoa, honey and substitutes for these products; juices, broths and extracts of meat, fish, molluscs and crustaceans, plants, seeds and fruits in liquid, solid or paste form food or beverage colours; soups and soup preparations; yeast and yeast substitutes, raising agents, baking creams, baking powders; custard powders, sauce or gravy preparations, preserved vegetables (for example, ginger, angelica, sucade) malt, malt extract and other malt products, food preparations and beverages consisting essentially of malt, malt extract or malt products; dietetic foodstuffs, vitamin preparations; pectin, binders; polishing, scouring and cleaning preparations.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qes54\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Pectacon&nbsp;did business with spice broker Van Jinnelt, among other parties. In <strong>September </strong>and <strong>October &#39;39</strong>, the following goods arrived through this business partner:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of white Batavia Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>4 bales of Ambon nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>27/2 (?) crates of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>5 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of Menado nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>3 crates of Banda mace.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Cassia Lignea (cinnamon).</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of black Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>37 bales of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>About 1 tonne of white Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Jamaica allspice.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Some of these goods the company sold on immediately. Others were processed first. During this period, Pectacon supplied grocery chain SPAR:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>110 x 1 kg white pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>225 &quot; black pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>149 &quot; ground cinnamon.</li>\r\n\t<li>25 &quot; ground nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>12 &quot; ground allspice.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Another 1,000 kg of Moroccan coriander arrived in <strong>January &#39;41</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>October &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon sold to sausage seasoning business EFWEKA:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>20 kg clove flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2&nbsp;p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg pepper flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>50 kg nutmeg flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg nutmeg emulsion, NLG&nbsp;8.50 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>200 kg citric acid, NLG&nbsp;1.30 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>450 kg boric acid scales, NLG&nbsp;0.36 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>245 kg of soup flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2.05 p/kg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Here we see&nbsp;the first surrogate products already emerging.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Initially, the company benefitted from the reform of the Dutch food supply. The reduction in livestock boosted the meat processing industry, for which Pectacon produced spice mixes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Unlike Opekta, production activities for this company took place on the premises. To this end, Pectacon purchased two spice mills from Peppink in <strong>early 1941</strong>, which it resold to Gies &amp; Co when it was &#39;aryanised&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 March 1942</strong>, the ascription of the licence passed to Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>By <strong>September 1941</strong>, the company already had more than 22,000 guilders in undistributed profits on its balance sheet. That was eleven times as much as the paid-in share capital at the <strong>end of 1938</strong>. In short, until its liquidation, Pectacon was an extremely profitable company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Aryanisation</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>22 October 1940</strong>: promulgation of&nbsp;<em>Verordnung &uuml;ber die Anmeldung von Unternehmen</em> (VO 189/40), published <strong>26 October 1940</strong>. This regulation required Jewish owners to register their businesses. It was the first step in the so-called <em>Wirtschaftsentjudung</em> (business &#39;aryanisation&#39;).</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>23 October 1940</strong>: because Otto Frank was managing director of Pectacon and to have an alternative in the wings in case of forced aryanisation, La Synth&egrave;se was founded with Kugler as managing director and Jan Gies as supervisory director. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, this firm adopted the name N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies &amp; Co. Its objective and operations were similar to those of Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"09dde\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to its own statement, it was decided at the shareholders&#39; meeting on <strong>13 February 1941</strong> to place the shares still in the portfolio worth NLG 8,000. On<strong> 4 April 1941</strong>, the founders Kleiman and Dunselman paid NLG 5,000 and NLG 3,000 respectively in this context.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-5\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> As a result, Otto&#39;s share in the share capital dropped to 20 per cent. This meant that his share thus fell below the crucial limit of 25 per cent, which was the criterion for a &#39;Jewish&#39; company and thus for registration with the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>New interim certificates for the newly issued shares were issued on <strong>4 April 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>12 September 1941</strong>: K.O.M. Wolters was appointed administrator of Pectacon under section 7 of the <em>Ordinance for the Removal of Jews from Business</em>, with instructions to liquidate the company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Kleiman and Otto went to Wolters&#39; office to discuss the matter. Wolters agreed to Kleiman&#39;s proposal to initiate liquidation&nbsp;himself within eight to 10 days. This allowed Kleiman and Otto to channel machinery and stock to Gies &amp; Co, then still in Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> They sold almost everything at a loss to Gies &amp; Co. Only the office inventory made a profit; they sold it to Wolters himself.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-6\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The loss made during the liquidation was 14,000 guilders.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The balance after liquidation was 18,000 guilders. Kleiman received 5,000 guilders and Dunselman 3,000 guilders. The remaining 10,000 guilders, after deducting 2,300 guilders for the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>, was deposited at the bank Lippmann-Rosenthal-Sarphatistraat. Gies &amp; Co. moved to Prinsengracht 263; Pectacon was located at Rokin 6, Wolters&#39; office (the Peek &amp; Cloppenburg building on Dam Square in Amsterdam) during the liquidation phase.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Moreover, the distribution of the liquidation value went against Wolters&#39; proposal. The latter had in fact proposed to divide the remaining balance in proportion to share ownership, i.e. 50 per cent to Kleiman, 30 per cent to Dunselman and the remaining 20 per cent to Lippmann, Rosenthal &amp; co Sarphatistraat, in favour of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-7\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In practice, Kleiman and Dunselman only received their <strong>April 1941 </strong>deposit back, with no profit sharing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz, Pectacon was revived.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Restorative justice</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>After <strong>May 1945</strong>, Pectacon was among the companies that could be ex officio re-registered in the Commercial Register pursuant to the London government&#39;s decisions.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>August 1945</strong>, Pectacon was still an &#39;empty shell&#39;, a company without capital. However, Otto wanted the company to produce, among other things, an anti-diarrhoeal agent, an anti-fungal agent and a cleaning agent, all three based on pectin. This was still based on the idea of overcoming seasonal fluctuations in Opekta sales.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>November 1945</strong>, Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman were listed as directors. Sole proxy was Victor Kugler, with general power of attorney: &#39;<em>As also granted to the director according to the articles of association&#39; .&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Otto wrote in <strong>June 1947</strong> that he was struggling in business. He wanted to do something in textiles and artificial silk, but the established businesses did not tolerate newcomers. He then restricted himself to chemicals and foodstuffs, Pectacon&#39;s core products.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>February 1951</strong>: Kugler and Otto Frank were no longer listed for Pectacon in the Trade Register. Kleiman was sole director and Jeanne Kwakernaak secretary with general power of attorney.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1952</strong>, Ton Dunselman was still a supervisory director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"egeux\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1954</strong>, Otto Frank owned NLG&nbsp;2,000 worth of shares in Pectacon (and NLG&nbsp;20,000 worth of Opekta shares and NLG&nbsp;9,000 worth of shares in Gies &amp; Co).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>March 1955</strong>, Pectacon paid J. Dikker commission for February, on which turnover tax was paid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1959</strong>: After Kleiman&#39;s death, J. Dikker became director of Pectacon. He established contacts with manufacturers of ice cream (including Davino, De Hoop, Mari&euml;ndaal) and chocolate (including Verkade, Rademakers). He also established contacts with companies in pudding production and bakery ingredients.</li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>April 1959</strong>: When negotiations were held in <strong>1959 </strong>leading to Opekta&#39;s takeover by Opekta-Keulen, Pectacon was left out of this share transaction. According to Ms Kwakernaak, besides Opekta, &#39;Cologne&#39; was also keen to take over Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A son of Joop Hofhuis wanted to buy Opekta in <strong>1959</strong>, but missed out. Years later, he met Kleiman&#39;s successor, J. Dikker, at Pectacon and subsequently took over the company after all. <sup data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> This was around <strong>1977</strong>. In an interview with Dineke Stam, dated <strong>10 December 1997</strong>, Hofhuis said he bought Pectacon &quot;20 years ago&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> Pectacon continued to exist as Hofhuis F.I.A. Pectacon BV, with the Chamber of Commerce number 31019094.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nWhen and how Otto disposed of his Pectacon shares is unclear at the moment, in the absence of sources.<br />\r\n<br />\r\n<em>Addresses</em>: Singel 400, Amsterdam; Prinsengracht 263, Amsterdam; Rokin 6 (Wolters office), Amsterdam.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2><strong>Footnotes</strong></h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938. De kosten van de oprichting bedroegen fl. 245,40. Passeren van de akte: fl. 125,--. Registratierechten: fl. 50,--. Publicatie Staatscourant fl. 40,40. Honorarium Dunselman fl. 30,-- (rekening Dunselman, 10 juni 1938).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20nod\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-4\">d</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-5\">e</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-6\">f</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-7\">g</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Facsimile afdruk Pectacons registratie bij Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle 27 november 1940 in: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 13.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: Opekta jaarverslag 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qes54\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis, Hilversum:&nbsp;Bewijs van Registratie (bij Van der Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Merkenbureau), 26 mei 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_001: &#39;Biblioraftus&#39; met doorslagen van rekeningen firma M.P. van Jinnelt. Alle bovenstaande transacties staan hierin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>G.M.T. Trienekens, <em>Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940-1945</em>, Utrecht: Matrijs, 1985.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"09dde\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij (Archief Opekta), toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 3.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag (NL-HaNA), Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging (CABR), inv. nr. 76428: Schrijven Secretaris-generaal Handel, Nijverheid en Scheepvaart aan Kamer van Koophandel, 29 september 1941.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"stmej\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, CABR, inv. nr. 76428: Getuigenverklaringen Otto Frank en Kleiman inzake Wolters&rsquo; naoorlogse strafzaak.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, Archief Opekta: toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), ref. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_085: Otto Frank aan Joseph Spronz, 17 juni 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Afschrift Handelsregsiter, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"egeux\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis:&nbsp;Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 januari 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 005_A_Kleiman_I_05.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_021, 17 maart 1955. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_075A: W. Kwakernaak aan Otto Frank, 8 april 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis: Verslag interview met F. Hofhuis jr., afgenomen door Yt Stoker op 13 maart 2002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telefonische informatie Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, 18 oktober 2008.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>De pectinehandel van Opekta was seizoensgebonden omdat fruit alleen in de zomer en nazomer verkrijgbaar was. Om de omzetfluctuaties die hier het gevolg van waren af te vlakken, zocht&nbsp;Otto Frank andere producten. Die&nbsp;vond&nbsp;hij&nbsp;in <strong>1938</strong> bij&nbsp;Pectacon, handelsonderneming in specerijen en conserveermiddelen, dat hij vlak na oprichting overnam&nbsp;van Johannes Kleiman en Antonius Dunselman.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Oprichting</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>1 juni 1938</strong>: Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., een bedrijf voor handel en fabricatie van chemische producten en levensmiddelen, werd&nbsp;opgericht door Jo Kleiman en Ton&nbsp;Dunselman bij notaris E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> Al op <strong>21 oktober 1938</strong> nam&nbsp;Otto Frank de aandelen over van de oprichters.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Grondstoffen importeerde&nbsp;Pectacon uit Hongarije en Belgi&euml;; naar Belgi&euml; vond&nbsp;ook afzet plaats.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In het jaarverslag van <strong>1939</strong> maakte&nbsp;Opekta melding van de samenwerking met Pectacon. De handel van Pectacon was, in tegenstelling tot die van Opekta, voornamelijk in de wintermaanden geconcentreerd. Opekta hoopte het volgende jaar van de samenwerking te kunnen profiteren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Omvang en aard van de handel</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>mei &#39;41</strong> registreerde&nbsp;Pectacon een beeldmerk met daarbij de toelichting:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Soort der waren: kruiden en specerijen en vervangingsmiddelen voor kruiden en specerijen; chemische producten en smaakstoffen (aroma&#39;s) voor het aromatiseeren en/of conserveeren van voedings- en genotmiddelen en dranken; pharmaceutische producten, medicijnen, chemische producten voor medische en hygi&euml;nische doeleinden; drogerijen; graan- en meelproducten; zetmeel en zetmeelproducten; zoetstoffen; reuk- en smaakessences; thee, koffie, cacao, honing en vervangingsstoffen voor deze waren; sappen, bouillon en extracten van vleesch, visch, week- en schaaldieren, planten, zaden en vruchten in vloeibaren-, vasten- en pastavorm; kleurstoffen voor voedings- en genotmiddelen en dranken; soepen en soeppreparaten; gist en gistpreparaten, rijsmiddelen, bakkerijcr&ecirc;mes, bakpoeders; puddingpoeders, saus- en juspreparaten, geconserveerde plantendeelen (zooals gember, angelique, sucade); mout, moutextract en andere moutproducten, voedings- en genotmiddelen en dranken, die in hoofdzaak bestaan uit mout, moutextract of moutproducten; di&euml;tische voedingsmiddelen, vitaminepreparaten; pectine, bindmiddelen; poets-, polijst-, schuur- en reinigingsmiddelen.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qes54\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Pectacon deed&nbsp;onder meer zaken met makelaar in specerijen Van Jinnelt. In <strong>september </strong>en<strong> oktober &#39;39</strong> kwamen via deze zakenpartner de volgende goederen binnen:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>10 balen witte Batavia Muntok peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>4 balen Ambon nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>27/2 (?) kisten Siauw nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>5 balen Java nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 balen Lampong peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>10 balen Menado nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>3 kisten Banda foeliegruis.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 balen Cassia Lignea (kaneel).</li>\r\n\t<li>10 balen zwarte Lampong peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>37 balen Siauw nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>Ca. 1 ton witte Muntok peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 balen Jamaica piment.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 balen Java nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Sommige van deze goederen verkocht&nbsp;het bedrijf meteen door. Andere werden eerst verwerkt. In deze periode leverde&nbsp;Pectacon aan de kruideniersketen SPAR:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>110 x 1 kg witte peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>225&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; zwarte peper.</li>\r\n\t<li>149&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; gemalen kaneel.</li>\r\n\t<li>25&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; gemalen nootmuskaat.</li>\r\n\t<li>12&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; gemalen piment.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>januari &#39;41</strong> kwam er nog eens 1000 kg Marokkaanse koriander.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>oktober &#39;41</strong> verkocht Pectacon aan worstkruidenhandel EFWEKA:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>20 kg kruidnagelaroma, f 2,- p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg peperaroma, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>50 kg nootmuskaataroma, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg nootmuskaatemulsie, f 8,50 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>200 kg citroenzuur, f 1,30 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>450 kg boorzuurschubben, f 0,36 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>245 kg soeparoma, f 2,05 p/kg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Hier waren al de eerste surrogaatproducten in opkomst.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In eerste instantie profiteerde&nbsp;het bedrijf van de&nbsp;hervorming van de Nederlandse voedselvoorziening. De reductie van de veestapel stimuleerde&nbsp;de vleesverwerkende industrie, waarvoor Pectacon kruidenmengels produceerde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> In tegenstelling tot Opekta vonden er voor dit bedrijf wel productieactiviteiten plaats in het pand. Daarvoor schafte Pectacon <strong>begin 1941</strong>&nbsp;bij&nbsp;Peppink twee specerijmolens aan, die het bij de &#39;arisering&#39; weer doorverkocht aan Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op&nbsp;<strong>25 maart 1942</strong>&nbsp;ging&nbsp;de tenaamstelling van de vergunning over op Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>september&nbsp;1941</strong>&nbsp;had&nbsp;het bedrijf al meer dan 22.000 gulden aan onverdeelde winsten op de balans staan. Dat was&nbsp;elf&nbsp;maal zoveel als het ingelegde aandelenkapitaal van <strong>eind 1938</strong>. Kortom, tot aan de liquidatie was&nbsp;Pectacon een uitermate winstgevende onderneming.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Arisering</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>22 oktober 1940:</strong> afkondiging <em>Verordnung &uuml;ber die Anmeldung von Unternehmen</em> (VO 189/40), gepubliceerd <strong>26 oktober 1940</strong>. Deze verordening verplichtte Joodse eigenaren hun bedrijven aan te melden. Het was de eerste stap in de zogenaamde <em>Wirtschaftsentjudung</em>&nbsp;(bedrijfseconomische &#39;arisering&#39;).</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>23 oktober 1940:</strong> omdat Otto Frank directeur was&nbsp;van Pectacon en om bij gedwongen arisering een alternatief achter de hand te hebben&nbsp;werd&nbsp;La Synth&egrave;se opgericht&nbsp;met Kugler als directeur en Jan Gies als commissaris. Op <strong>8 mei 1941</strong> nam&nbsp;deze firma de naam N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies &amp; Co&nbsp;aan. De doelstelling en de werkzaamheden waren gelijk aan die van Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"09dde\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Volgens eigen opgave werd op de aandeelhoudersvergadering van&nbsp;<strong>13&nbsp;februari 1941</strong> besloten de&nbsp;zich nog in portefeuille bevindende aandelen terwaarde van fl. 8.000 te plaatsen. Op <strong>4 april 1941</strong>&nbsp;stortten de oprichters Kleiman en Dunselman hiertoe respectievelijk fl. 5.000 en fl. 3.000.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-5\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Als gevolg hiervan zakte Otto&#39;s aandeel in het aandelenkapitaal naar 20 procent.&nbsp;Dat betekende dat zijn aandeel daarmee&nbsp;onder de cruciale grens van 25 procent kwam, die gold als criterium van een &#39;Joodse&#39; onderneming en zodoende voor aanmelding bij de <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>.&nbsp;</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Op <strong>4 april 1941 </strong>werden nieuwe interimbewijzen voor de nieuw uitgegeven aandelen verstrekt.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>12 september 1941:</strong> K.O.M. Wolters werd&nbsp;op grond van paragraaf 7 van de&nbsp;<em>Verordening tot verwijdering van joden uit het bedrijfsleven</em>&nbsp;tot bewindvoerder van Pectacon aangesteld, met de opdracht het bedrijf te liquideren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kleiman en Otto gingen naar Wolters&rsquo; kantoor om de zaak te bespreken. Wolters ging&nbsp;akkoord met Kleimans voorstel om zelf in&nbsp;acht tot&nbsp;tien dagen tot liquidatie over te gaan. Daardoor hadden Kleiman en Otto de mogelijkheid machines en voorraden door te sluizen naar Gies &amp; Co., toen nog in Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Ze verkochten vrijwel&nbsp;alles met verlies aan Gies &amp; Co. Alleen op de kantoorinventaris&nbsp;werd&nbsp;winst gemaakt; die verkochten ze aan Wolters zelf.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-6\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Het gemaakte verlies tijdens de liquidatie bedroeg 14.000 gulden.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Het saldo na liquidatie bedroeg 18.000 gulden. Kleiman kreeg&nbsp;5.000 gulden en Dunselman 3.000 gulden. De resterende 10.000 gulden werd&nbsp;na aftrek van 2.300 gulden voor de <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>, gestort bij de bank Lippmann-Rosenthal-Sarphatistraat. Gies &amp; Co. verhuisde&nbsp;naar Prinsengracht 263; Pectacon was tijdens de liquidatiefase&nbsp;gevestigd op&nbsp;Rokin 6, Wolters&rsquo; kantoor (het Peek &amp; Cloppenburg-gebouw op de Dam in Amsterdam).<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> De verdeling van de liquidatiewaarde ging overigens in tegen het voorstel van Wolters. Die had namelijk voorgesteld het resterende saldo naar rato van het aandelenbezit te verdelen, d.w.z.&nbsp;50 procent naar Kleiman, 30 procent naar Dunselman en de resterende 20 procent&nbsp;naar&nbsp;Lippmann, Rosenthal &amp; co Sarphatistraat, ten gunste van Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-7\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp; In praktijk ontvingen Kleiman en Dunselman alleen hun inleg uit <strong>april 1941</strong> retour, zonder winstdeling.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Toen Otto Frank uit Auschwitz terugkwam werd&nbsp;Pectacon nieuw leven ingeblazen.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Rechtsherstel</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>Na <strong>mei 1945</strong> behoorde&nbsp;Pectacon tot de bedrijven die ingevolge de besluiten van de Londense regering ambtshalve in het Handelsregister kunnen worden heringeschreven.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>augustus 1945</strong>&nbsp;was Pectacon nog een &#39;lege huls&#39;, een bedrijf zonder kapitaal&nbsp;Otto wilde met het bedrijf echter onder meer een anti-diarreemiddel, een anti-schimmelmiddel en een schoonmaakmiddel produceren, alle drie op pectine gebaseerd. Dit nog steeds vanuit de gedachte om de seizoensfluctuaties van de Opekta-omzet te ondervangen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>november 1945</strong> stonden&nbsp;Otto Frank en Jo Kleiman&nbsp;als directeur&nbsp;vermeld. Enig procuratiehouder was&nbsp;Victor Kugler, met algemene volmacht: &#39;Z<em>oals deze ook aan de directeur volgens de statuten is toegekend.&#39;&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Otto schreef in <strong>juni 1947</strong> dat hij het zakelijk moeilijk had. Hij wilde iets in textiel en kunstzijde doen, maar de gevestigde bedrijven duldden geen nieuwkomers. Hij beperkte zich toen&nbsp;maar tot&nbsp;chemicali&euml;n en levensmiddelen, de kernproducten van Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>Februari 1951:</strong> Kugler en Otto Frank stonden niet meer voor Pectacon in het Handelsregister. Kleiman was&nbsp;enig directeur en Jeanne Kwakernaak secretaresse met algemene volmacht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>januari 1952</strong>&nbsp;was&nbsp;Ton Dunselman nog altijd commissaris.<sup data-footnote-id=\"egeux\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In<strong>&nbsp;januari 1954&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;bezat Otto Frank voor fl.&nbsp;2.000 gulden aandelen in Pectacon (en fl. 20.000 gulden aandelen Opekta en fl.&nbsp;9.000 gulden aandelen in Gies &amp; Co).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In<strong> maart 1955&nbsp;</strong><strong> </strong>betaalde&nbsp;Pectacon J. Dikker provisie over februari, waarover omzetbelasting betaald werd.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li><strong>Januari&nbsp; 1959:</strong> Na het overlijden van Kleiman werd&nbsp;J. Dikker directeur van Pectacon. Hij legde&nbsp;contacten met&nbsp;ijs- (o.a. Davino, De Hoop, Mari&euml;ndaal) en chocoladefabrikanten (o.a. Verkade, Rademakers). Ook legde&nbsp;hij contacten met bedrijven in puddingproductie en bakkerijgrondstoffen.</li>\r\n\t<li><strong>April 1959: </strong>Toen in&nbsp;1959 onderhandelingen gevoerd werden die leidden tot de overname van Opekta&nbsp;door&nbsp;Opekta-Keulen,&nbsp;werd&nbsp;Pectacon buiten deze aandelentransactie gehouden.&nbsp;Volgens mw. Kwakernaak wilde &#39;Keulen&#39;, naast Opekta, ook graag Pectacon overnemen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Een zoon van Joop Hofhuis wilde in <strong>1959 </strong>Opekta kopen, maar viste achter het net. Jaren later kwam&nbsp;hij Kleimans opvolger, J. Dikker, bij Pectacon tegen en nam&nbsp;het bedrijf vervolgens alsnog over. <sup data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;Dit was rond <strong>1977</strong>. In een interview met Dineke Stam, d.d. 10 december 1997, zei Hofhuis dat hij Pectacon &ldquo;20 jaar geleden&rdquo; kocht.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup>&nbsp;Pectacon bestond voort als Hofhuis F.I.A. Pectacon BV, met als KvK-nummer 31019094.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nWanneer en hoe Otto zijn Pectacon-aandelen van de hand deed, is op dit moment bij gebrek aan bronnen niet te zeggen.<br />\r\n<br />\r\n<em>Adressen</em>:<strong>&nbsp;</strong>Singel 400, Amsterdam;&nbsp;Prinsengracht 263, Amsterdam;&nbsp;Rokin 6 (kantoor Wolters), Amsterdam.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938. De kosten van de oprichting bedroegen fl. 245,40. Passeren van de akte: fl. 125,--. Registratierechten: fl. 50,--. Publicatie Staatscourant fl. 40,40. Honorarium Dunselman fl. 30,-- (rekening Dunselman, 10 juni 1938).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20nod\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-4\">d</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-5\">e</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-6\">f</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-7\">g</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Facsimile afdruk Pectacons registratie bij Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle 27 november 1940 in: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 13.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: Opekta jaarverslag 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qes54\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis, Hilversum:&nbsp;Bewijs van Registratie (bij Van der Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Merkenbureau), 26 mei 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_001: &#39;Biblioraftus&#39; met doorslagen van rekeningen firma M.P. van Jinnelt. Alle bovenstaande transacties staan hierin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>G.M.T. Trienekens, <em>Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940-1945</em>, Utrecht: Matrijs, 1985.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"09dde\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij (Archief Opekta), toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 3.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag (NL-HaNA), Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging (CABR), inv. nr. 76428: Schrijven Secretaris-generaal Handel, Nijverheid en Scheepvaart aan Kamer van Koophandel, 29 september 1941.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"stmej\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, CABR, inv. nr. 76428: Getuigenverklaringen Otto Frank en Kleiman inzake Wolters&rsquo; naoorlogse strafzaak.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, Archief Opekta: toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), ref. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_085: Otto Frank aan Joseph Spronz, 17 juni 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Afschrift Handelsregsiter, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"egeux\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis:&nbsp;Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 januari 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 005_A_Kleiman_I_05.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_021, 17 maart 1955. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_075A: W. Kwakernaak aan Otto Frank, 8 april 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis: Verslag interview met F. Hofhuis jr., afgenomen door Yt Stoker op 13 maart 2002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telefonische informatie Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, 18 oktober 2008.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Opekta&#39;s pectin business was seasonal, as fruit was only available in the summer and late summer. To smooth out the sales fluctuations that resulted from this, Otto Frank looked for other products. He found these in <strong>1938</strong> at Pectacon, a trading company in spices and preservatives, which he took over from Johannes Kleiman and Antonius Dunselman shortly after its foundation.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Founding</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong><strong>1 June 1938</strong>: </strong>Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V., a company for trading and manufacturing chemical products and foodstuffs, was founded by Jo Kleiman and Ton Dunselman before notary E.J.M. Luykx.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> As early as <strong>21 October 1938</strong>, Otto Frank took over the shares from the founders.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Pectacon imported raw materials from Hungary and Belgium; sales were also made to Belgium.<sup data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nIn its <strong>1939 </strong>annual report, Opekta noted its cooperation with Pectacon. Pectacon&#39;s trade, unlike Opekta&#39;s, was mainly concentrated in the winter months. Opekta hoped to benefit from the cooperation the following year.<sup data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Volume and nature of trade</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>May &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon registered a logo with the explanation:</p>\r\n\r\n<blockquote>&#39;Type of goods: herbs and spices and substitutes for herbs and spices; chemicals and flavourings (aromas) for flavouring and/or preserving food and beverages; pharmaceuticals, medicines, chemicals for medical and hygienic purposes; drying agents; cereal and flour products; starches and starch products; sweeteners; odouriferous substances and flavourings; tea, coffee, cocoa, honey and substitutes for these products; juices, broths and extracts of meat, fish, molluscs and crustaceans, plants, seeds and fruits in liquid, solid or paste form food or beverage colours; soups and soup preparations; yeast and yeast substitutes, raising agents, baking creams, baking powders; custard powders, sauce or gravy preparations, preserved vegetables (for example, ginger, angelica, sucade) malt, malt extract and other malt products, food preparations and beverages consisting essentially of malt, malt extract or malt products; dietetic foodstuffs, vitamin preparations; pectin, binders; polishing, scouring and cleaning preparations.&#39;<sup data-footnote-id=\"qes54\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup></blockquote>\r\n\r\n<p>Pectacon&nbsp;did business with spice broker Van Jinnelt, among other parties. In <strong>September </strong>and <strong>October &#39;39</strong>, the following goods arrived through this business partner:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of white Batavia Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>4 bales of Ambon nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>27/2 (?) crates of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>5 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of Menado nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>3 crates of Banda mace.</li>\r\n\t<li>2 bales of Cassia Lignea (cinnamon).</li>\r\n\t<li>10 bales of black Lampong pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>37 bales of Siauw nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>About 1 tonne of white Muntok pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Jamaica allspice.</li>\r\n\t<li>6 bales of Java nutmeg.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Some of these goods the company sold on immediately. Others were processed first. During this period, Pectacon supplied grocery chain SPAR:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>110 x 1 kg white pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>225 &quot; black pepper.</li>\r\n\t<li>149 &quot; ground cinnamon.</li>\r\n\t<li>25 &quot; ground nutmeg.</li>\r\n\t<li>12 &quot; ground allspice.</li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Another 1,000 kg of Moroccan coriander arrived in <strong>January &#39;41</strong>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>October &#39;41</strong>, Pectacon sold to sausage seasoning business EFWEKA:</p>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>20 kg clove flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2&nbsp;p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg pepper flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>50 kg nutmeg flavouring, idem.</li>\r\n\t<li>15 kg nutmeg emulsion, NLG&nbsp;8.50 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>200 kg citric acid, NLG&nbsp;1.30 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>450 kg boric acid scales, NLG&nbsp;0.36 p/kg.</li>\r\n\t<li>245 kg of soup flavouring, NLG&nbsp;2.05 p/kg.<sup data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>Here we see&nbsp;the first surrogate products already emerging.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Initially, the company benefitted from the reform of the Dutch food supply. The reduction in livestock boosted the meat processing industry, for which Pectacon produced spice mixes.<sup data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup> Unlike Opekta, production activities for this company took place on the premises. To this end, Pectacon purchased two spice mills from Peppink in <strong>early 1941</strong>, which it resold to Gies &amp; Co when it was &#39;aryanised&#39;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>25 March 1942</strong>, the ascription of the licence passed to Gies &amp; Co.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-3\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>By <strong>September 1941</strong>, the company already had more than 22,000 guilders in undistributed profits on its balance sheet. That was eleven times as much as the paid-in share capital at the <strong>end of 1938</strong>. In short, until its liquidation, Pectacon was an extremely profitable company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-4\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Aryanisation</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>22 October 1940</strong>: promulgation of&nbsp;<em>Verordnung &uuml;ber die Anmeldung von Unternehmen</em> (VO 189/40), published <strong>26 October 1940</strong>. This regulation required Jewish owners to register their businesses. It was the first step in the so-called <em>Wirtschaftsentjudung</em> (business &#39;aryanisation&#39;).</p>\r\n\r\n<p><strong>23 October 1940</strong>: because Otto Frank was managing director of Pectacon and to have an alternative in the wings in case of forced aryanisation, La Synth&egrave;se was founded with Kugler as managing director and Jan Gies as supervisory director. On <strong>8 May 1941</strong>, this firm adopted the name N.V. Handelsvereniging Gies &amp; Co. Its objective and operations were similar to those of Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"09dde\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>According to its own statement, it was decided at the shareholders&#39; meeting on <strong>13 February 1941</strong> to place the shares still in the portfolio worth NLG 8,000. On<strong> 4 April 1941</strong>, the founders Kleiman and Dunselman paid NLG 5,000 and NLG 3,000 respectively in this context.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-5\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> As a result, Otto&#39;s share in the share capital dropped to 20 per cent. This meant that his share thus fell below the crucial limit of 25 per cent, which was the criterion for a &#39;Jewish&#39; company and thus for registration with the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>New interim certificates for the newly issued shares were issued on <strong>4 April 1941</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\"><a href=\"#footnote-9\" id=\"footnote-marker-9-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[9]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>On <strong>12 September 1941</strong>: K.O.M. Wolters was appointed administrator of Pectacon under section 7 of the <em>Ordinance for the Removal of Jews from Business</em>, with instructions to liquidate the company.<sup data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\"><a href=\"#footnote-10\" id=\"footnote-marker-10-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[10]</a></sup> Kleiman and Otto went to Wolters&#39; office to discuss the matter. Wolters agreed to Kleiman&#39;s proposal to initiate liquidation&nbsp;himself within eight to 10 days. This allowed Kleiman and Otto to channel machinery and stock to Gies &amp; Co, then still in Hilversum.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> They sold almost everything at a loss to Gies &amp; Co. Only the office inventory made a profit; they sold it to Wolters himself.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-6\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> The loss made during the liquidation was 14,000 guilders.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>The balance after liquidation was 18,000 guilders. Kleiman received 5,000 guilders and Dunselman 3,000 guilders. The remaining 10,000 guilders, after deducting 2,300 guilders for the <em>Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle</em>, was deposited at the bank Lippmann-Rosenthal-Sarphatistraat. Gies &amp; Co. moved to Prinsengracht 263; Pectacon was located at Rokin 6, Wolters&#39; office (the Peek &amp; Cloppenburg building on Dam Square in Amsterdam) during the liquidation phase.<sup data-footnote-id=\"stmej\"><a href=\"#footnote-11\" id=\"footnote-marker-11-2\" rel=\"footnote\">[11]</a></sup> Moreover, the distribution of the liquidation value went against Wolters&#39; proposal. The latter had in fact proposed to divide the remaining balance in proportion to share ownership, i.e. 50 per cent to Kleiman, 30 per cent to Dunselman and the remaining 20 per cent to Lippmann, Rosenthal &amp; co Sarphatistraat, in favour of Otto Frank.<sup data-footnote-id=\"20nod\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-7\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> In practice, Kleiman and Dunselman only received their <strong>April 1941 </strong>deposit back, with no profit sharing.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>When Otto Frank returned from Auschwitz, Pectacon was revived.</p>\r\n\r\n<h1><strong>Restorative justice</strong></h1>\r\n\r\n<ul>\r\n\t<li>After <strong>May 1945</strong>, Pectacon was among the companies that could be ex officio re-registered in the Commercial Register pursuant to the London government&#39;s decisions.<sup data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\"><a href=\"#footnote-12\" id=\"footnote-marker-12-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[12]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>August 1945</strong>, Pectacon was still an &#39;empty shell&#39;, a company without capital. However, Otto wanted the company to produce, among other things, an anti-diarrhoeal agent, an anti-fungal agent and a cleaning agent, all three based on pectin. This was still based on the idea of overcoming seasonal fluctuations in Opekta sales.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\"><a href=\"#footnote-13\" id=\"footnote-marker-13-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[13]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>November 1945</strong>, Otto Frank and Jo Kleiman were listed as directors. Sole proxy was Victor Kugler, with general power of attorney: &#39;<em>As also granted to the director according to the articles of association&#39; .&nbsp;</em><sup data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\"><a href=\"#footnote-14\" id=\"footnote-marker-14-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[14]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>Otto wrote in <strong>June 1947</strong> that he was struggling in business. He wanted to do something in textiles and artificial silk, but the established businesses did not tolerate newcomers. He then restricted himself to chemicals and foodstuffs, Pectacon&#39;s core products.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\"><a href=\"#footnote-15\" id=\"footnote-marker-15-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[15]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>February 1951</strong>: Kugler and Otto Frank were no longer listed for Pectacon in the Trade Register. Kleiman was sole director and Jeanne Kwakernaak secretary with general power of attorney.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\"><a href=\"#footnote-16\" id=\"footnote-marker-16-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[16]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1952</strong>, Ton Dunselman was still a supervisory director.<sup data-footnote-id=\"egeux\"><a href=\"#footnote-17\" id=\"footnote-marker-17-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[17]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1954</strong>, Otto Frank owned NLG&nbsp;2,000 worth of shares in Pectacon (and NLG&nbsp;20,000 worth of Opekta shares and NLG&nbsp;9,000 worth of shares in Gies &amp; Co).<sup data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\"><a href=\"#footnote-18\" id=\"footnote-marker-18-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[18]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>March 1955</strong>, Pectacon paid J. Dikker commission for February, on which turnover tax was paid.<sup data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\"><a href=\"#footnote-19\" id=\"footnote-marker-19-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[19]</a></sup></li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>January 1959</strong>: After Kleiman&#39;s death, J. Dikker became director of Pectacon. He established contacts with manufacturers of ice cream (including Davino, De Hoop, Mari&euml;ndaal) and chocolate (including Verkade, Rademakers). He also established contacts with companies in pudding production and bakery ingredients.</li>\r\n\t<li>In <strong>April 1959</strong>: When negotiations were held in <strong>1959 </strong>leading to Opekta&#39;s takeover by Opekta-Keulen, Pectacon was left out of this share transaction. According to Ms Kwakernaak, besides Opekta, &#39;Cologne&#39; was also keen to take over Pectacon.<sup data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\"><a href=\"#footnote-20\" id=\"footnote-marker-20-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[20]</a></sup></li>\r\n</ul>\r\n\r\n<p>A son of Joop Hofhuis wanted to buy Opekta in <strong>1959</strong>, but missed out. Years later, he met Kleiman&#39;s successor, J. Dikker, at Pectacon and subsequently took over the company after all. <sup data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\"><a href=\"#footnote-21\" id=\"footnote-marker-21-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[21]</a></sup> This was around <strong>1977</strong>. In an interview with Dineke Stam, dated <strong>10 December 1997</strong>, Hofhuis said he bought Pectacon &quot;20 years ago&quot;.<sup data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\"><a href=\"#footnote-22\" id=\"footnote-marker-22-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[22]</a></sup> Pectacon continued to exist as Hofhuis F.I.A. Pectacon BV, with the Chamber of Commerce number 31019094.<sup data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\"><a href=\"#footnote-23\" id=\"footnote-marker-23-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[23]</a></sup><br />\r\n<br />\r\nWhen and how Otto disposed of his Pectacon shares is unclear at the moment, in the absence of sources.<br />\r\n<br />\r\n<em>Addresses</em>: Singel 400, Amsterdam; Prinsengracht 263, Amsterdam; Rokin 6 (Wolters office), Amsterdam.</p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2><strong>Footnotes</strong></h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kkk0s\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Bekendmaking over &quot;Handelsmaatschappij Pectacon N.V.&quot;, te Amsterdam, <em>Nederlandsche Staatscourant</em>, 6 oktober 1938. De kosten van de oprichting bedroegen fl. 245,40. Passeren van de akte: fl. 125,--. Registratierechten: fl. 50,--. Publicatie Staatscourant fl. 40,40. Honorarium Dunselman fl. 30,-- (rekening Dunselman, 10 juni 1938).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"20nod\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-2\">b</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-3\">c</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-4\">d</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-5\">e</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-6\">f</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-7\">g</a> </sup><cite>NIOD Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies, toegang 094f, Collectie dossiers afkomstig uit de archieven van de Omnia-Treuhandgesellschaft m.b.H., de Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Zweigniederlassung Den Haag) en de Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle, Inv.nr. 5951, Bestallungsurkunde, p.2.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"oujpg\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Facsimile afdruk Pectacons registratie bij Wirtschaftspr&uuml;fstelle 27 november 1940 in: Nederlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (samenst.), <em>De dagboeken van Anne Frank</em>, 5e, verb. en uitgebr. druk, Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 2001, p. 13.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"8yeue\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting (AFS), Anne Frank Collectie (AFC), reg. code A_Opekta_I_004: Opekta jaarverslag 1939.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"qes54\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis, Hilversum:&nbsp;Bewijs van Registratie (bij Van der Graaf &amp; Co&#39;s Merkenbureau), 26 mei 1941.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0h6cq\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_001: &#39;Biblioraftus&#39; met doorslagen van rekeningen firma M.P. van Jinnelt. Alle bovenstaande transacties staan hierin.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"w79xy\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>G.M.T. Trienekens, <em>Tussen ons volk en de honger : de voedselvoorziening, 1940-1945</em>, Utrecht: Matrijs, 1985.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"09dde\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij (Archief Opekta), toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 3.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l3jyk\" id=\"footnote-9\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-9-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"kz31o\" id=\"footnote-10\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-10-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Nationaal Archief, Den Haag (NL-HaNA), Centraal Archief Bijzondere Rechtspleging (CABR), inv. nr. 76428: Schrijven Secretaris-generaal Handel, Nijverheid en Scheepvaart aan Kamer van Koophandel, 29 september 1941.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"stmej\" id=\"footnote-11\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-1\">a</a>, <a href=\"#footnote-marker-11-2\">b</a> </sup><cite>NL-HaNA, CABR, inv. nr. 76428: Getuigenverklaringen Otto Frank en Kleiman inzake Wolters&rsquo; naoorlogse strafzaak.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"bvzrr\" id=\"footnote-12\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-12-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>NIOD, inv. nr. 292, Archief Opekta: toegang op het archief van N.V. Nederlandsche Opekta Mij: Inleiding op toegang Opekta-archief, p. 4.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l1b0b\" id=\"footnote-13\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-13-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, Otto Frank Archief (OFA), ref. code OFA_071: Otto Frank aan Erich Elias, 19 augustus 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ijwt1\" id=\"footnote-14\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-14-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 november 1945.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2td5y\" id=\"footnote-15\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-15-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_085: Otto Frank aan Joseph Spronz, 17 juni 1947.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ovkvi\" id=\"footnote-16\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-16-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis: Afschrift Handelsregsiter, 15 februari 1951.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"egeux\" id=\"footnote-17\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-17-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Priv&eacute;collectie Frans Hofhuis:&nbsp;Uittreksel Handelsregister, 15 januari 1952.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"57kjg\" id=\"footnote-18\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-18-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code 005_A_Kleiman_I_05.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"tjczs\" id=\"footnote-19\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-19-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code A_Opekta_I_021, 17 maart 1955. &nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"jlb0j\" id=\"footnote-20\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-20-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, AFC, reg. code OFA_075A: W. Kwakernaak aan Otto Frank, 8 april 1959.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"wc77f\" id=\"footnote-21\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-21-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis: Verslag interview met F. Hofhuis jr., afgenomen door Yt Stoker op 13 maart 2002.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"g1oyj\" id=\"footnote-22\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-22-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>AFS, Getuigenarchief, Hofhuis.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"lcgnz\" id=\"footnote-23\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-23-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Telefonische informatie Kamer van Koophandel Amsterdam, 18 oktober 2008.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Pectacon, trading company in spices and preservatives, was one of Otto Frank's enterprises.",
                            "summary_nl": "Pectacon, handelsonderneming in specerijen en conserveermiddelen, was een van de ondernemingen van Otto Frank.",
                            "summary_en": "Pectacon, trading company in spices and preservatives, was one of Otto Frank's enterprises.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124419,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124439,
                            "image": null,
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/682b32b1-3644-4f92-b5e4-bd2827cdd5d4/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "682b32b1-3644-4f92-b5e4-bd2827cdd5d4",
                            "name": "Pomosin Werke",
                            "name_nl": "Pomosin Werke",
                            "name_en": "Pomosin Werke",
                            "description": "<p>Frankfurt am Main was a centre for the soya processing industry in the <strong>early 1920s</strong>. Here there were three companies involved in soy milk production, and one of them was Pomosin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ssz1a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> This company was located at Schmickstra&szlig;e 45 in the city&#39;s <em>Osthafen</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fi18u\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Pomosin was owned by the Jewish Scheinberger family and made soy products as well as pectin and bakery ingredients, among other things.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7j684\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Chemist Robert Feix, nephew of the family and attached to the company, also wanted to open the domestic market for pectin and in <strong>1928</strong> started trading the gelling agent Opekta, which he developed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7ygk0\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Pomosin was the producer of this Opekta pectin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5zxmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> In the Netherlands, Pomosin was represented from <strong>1928</strong> by Frans van Angeren and Joop Hofhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2uixg\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Otto Frank&nbsp;took over the Dutch household market with his Opekta Mij. in <strong>1933</strong>. He undertook to source all pectin from Pomosin and pay a percentage for the licence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Feix and his aunt Emmy Scheinberger were stripped of the management of the Pomosin group during the Nazi era. Walter Fischer was appointed in their place. In previous years, there had already been many struggles for control and assets within the family.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s57te\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Two members of the Pomosin management, Joachim Rieke and Heinrich Sauerbrey, visited the Amsterdam Opekta office in spring <strong>1943</strong>. Kugler conducted the meeting&nbsp;because Kleiman was absent due to illness. One floor up, Otto Frank - in hiding - listened in. Three weeks later, on Saturday <strong>24 April 1943</strong>, these Pomosin representatives came to the office again for a meeting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hj5dv\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ssz1a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Joachim Drews, <em>Die &quot;Nazi-Bohne&quot;. Anbau, Verwendung und Auswirkung der Sojabohne im Deutschen Reich und S&uuml;dosteuropa (1933-1945)</em>, M&uuml;nster: Lit Verlag,&nbsp;2004,&nbsp;p. 41 (noot 74).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fi18u\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Institut f&uuml;r Stadtgeschichte, Frankfurt am Main,&nbsp;<em>Adressbuch </em>1924 (microfiches).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7j684\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stiching (AFS), afd. Collecties, interview Frans Hofhuis door Teresien da Silva, Amsterdam, 17 november 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7ygk0\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wikipedia: <a href=\"https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Feix\" target=\"_blank\">Robert Feix</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5zxmj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rudolf Ripa, <em>Die Pektinstoffe. Einf&uuml;hrung mit besonderem Hinblick auf die Obstkonserven-Industrie, </em>Braunschweig:&nbsp;Dr. Serger &amp; Hempel, 1937, p. 171.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2uixg\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Utrechts Archief, Utrecht, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Utrecht, Kamer van Koophandel en Fabrieken, toegang 4004, inv. nrs. 09, dossier 8857 en 13, dossier 12095.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s57te\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC, USA, External Assets Investigation OMGUS, toegang M1922, dossier Pomosin Werke GmbH, Fisher KG, p. 37-43.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hj5dv\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 1 and 27 April 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Frankfurt am Main was <strong>begin jaren twintig</strong> een centrum voor de sojaverwerkende industrie. Hier zaten drie ondernemingen die zich bezig hielden met de productie van sojamelk, en een daarvan was Pomosin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ssz1a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Dit bedrijf was gevestigd op de Schmickstra&szlig;e 45 in de <em>Osthafen</em>&nbsp;van&nbsp;de stad.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fi18u\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;Pomosin was eigendom van de Joodse familie Scheinberger en maakte naast sojaproducten ook onder meer pectine en bakkerijgrondstoffen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7j684\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> De scheikundige Robert&nbsp;Feix, neef van de familie en aan het bedrijf verbonden, wilde ook de huishoudelijke markt voor pectine openen en begon in <strong>1928</strong> de handel in het door hem ontwikkelde geleermiddel Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"4y0oz\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup>&nbsp;Pomosin was de producent van deze Opekta-pectine.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5zxmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup>&nbsp;In Nederland werd Pomosin vanaf <strong>1928</strong> vertegenwoordigd door Frans van Angeren en Joop Hofhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2uixg\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup>&nbsp;Otto Franks nam in <strong>1933</strong> met zijn Opekta Mij. de Nederlandse huishoudelijke markt over. Hij verplichtte zich alle pectine van Pomosin te betrekken en een percentage voor de licentie te betalen.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Aan Feix en zijn tante Emmy Scheinberger werd tijdens de nazi-tijd het beheer over het Pomosin-concern ontnomen. In hun plaats trad Walter Fischer&nbsp;naar voren. In voorgaande jaren was er binnen de familie al veel strijd geweest om zeggenschap en vermogen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s57te\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Twee leden van de Pomosin-directie, Joachim Rieke en Heinrich Sauerbrey,&nbsp;bezochten in het voorjaar van <strong>1943</strong> het Amsterdamse Opekta-kantoor. Kugler voerde&nbsp;de bespreking omdat Kleiman wegens ziekte afwezig was. Een verdieping hoger luisterde de ondergedoken Otto Frank mee. Drie weken later, op zaterdag&nbsp;<strong>24 april 1943</strong>, kwamen deze vertegenwoordigers van Pomosin opnieuw naar kantoor voor een bespreking.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hj5dv\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ssz1a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Joachim Drews, <em>Die &quot;Nazi-Bohne&quot;. Anbau, Verwendung und Auswirkung der Sojabohne im Deutschen Reich und S&uuml;dosteuropa (1933-1945)</em>, M&uuml;nster: Lit Verlag,&nbsp;2004,&nbsp;p. 41 (noot 74).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fi18u\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Institut f&uuml;r Stadtgeschichte, Frankfurt am Main,&nbsp;<em>Adressbuch </em>1924 (microfiches).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7j684\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stiching (AFS), afd. Collecties, interview Frans Hofhuis door Teresien da Silva, Amsterdam, 17 november 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"4y0oz\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wikipedia: <a href=\"https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Feix\" target=\"_blank\">Robert Feix</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5zxmj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rudolf Ripa, <em>Die Pektinstoffe. Einf&uuml;hrung mit besonderem Hinblick auf die Obstkonserven-Industrie, </em>Braunschweig:&nbsp;Dr. Serger &amp; Hempel, 1937, p. 171.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2uixg\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Utrechts Archief, Utrecht, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Utrecht, Kamer van Koophandel en Fabrieken, toegang 4004, inv. nrs. 09, dossier 8857 en 13, dossier 12095.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s57te\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC, USA, External Assets Investigation OMGUS, toegang M1922, dossier Pomosin Werke GmbH, Fisher KG, p. 37-43.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hj5dv\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Dagboek&nbsp;B, 1 en 27 april 1943, in: <em>Verzameld werk</em>, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2013.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Frankfurt am Main was a centre for the soya processing industry in the <strong>early 1920s</strong>. Here there were three companies involved in soy milk production, and one of them was Pomosin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ssz1a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> This company was located at Schmickstra&szlig;e 45 in the city&#39;s <em>Osthafen</em>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fi18u\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Pomosin was owned by the Jewish Scheinberger family and made soy products as well as pectin and bakery ingredients, among other things.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7j684\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup> Chemist Robert Feix, nephew of the family and attached to the company, also wanted to open the domestic market for pectin and in <strong>1928</strong> started trading the gelling agent Opekta, which he developed.<sup data-footnote-id=\"7ygk0\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup> Pomosin was the producer of this Opekta pectin.<sup data-footnote-id=\"5zxmj\"><a href=\"#footnote-5\" id=\"footnote-marker-5-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[5]</a></sup> In the Netherlands, Pomosin was represented from <strong>1928</strong> by Frans van Angeren and Joop Hofhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"2uixg\"><a href=\"#footnote-6\" id=\"footnote-marker-6-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[6]</a></sup> Otto Frank&nbsp;took over the Dutch household market with his Opekta Mij. in <strong>1933</strong>. He undertook to source all pectin from Pomosin and pay a percentage for the licence.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Feix and his aunt Emmy Scheinberger were stripped of the management of the Pomosin group during the Nazi era. Walter Fischer was appointed in their place. In previous years, there had already been many struggles for control and assets within the family.<sup data-footnote-id=\"s57te\"><a href=\"#footnote-7\" id=\"footnote-marker-7-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[7]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Two members of the Pomosin management, Joachim Rieke and Heinrich Sauerbrey, visited the Amsterdam Opekta office in spring <strong>1943</strong>. Kugler conducted the meeting&nbsp;because Kleiman was absent due to illness. One floor up, Otto Frank - in hiding - listened in. Three weeks later, on Saturday <strong>24 April 1943</strong>, these Pomosin representatives came to the office again for a meeting.<sup data-footnote-id=\"hj5dv\"><a href=\"#footnote-8\" id=\"footnote-marker-8-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[8]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ssz1a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Joachim Drews, <em>Die &quot;Nazi-Bohne&quot;. Anbau, Verwendung und Auswirkung der Sojabohne im Deutschen Reich und S&uuml;dosteuropa (1933-1945)</em>, M&uuml;nster: Lit Verlag,&nbsp;2004,&nbsp;p. 41 (noot 74).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fi18u\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Institut f&uuml;r Stadtgeschichte, Frankfurt am Main,&nbsp;<em>Adressbuch </em>1924 (microfiches).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7j684\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stiching (AFS), afd. Collecties, interview Frans Hofhuis door Teresien da Silva, Amsterdam, 17 november 2011.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"7ygk0\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Wikipedia: <a href=\"https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Feix\" target=\"_blank\">Robert Feix</a>.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"5zxmj\" id=\"footnote-5\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-5-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Rudolf Ripa, <em>Die Pektinstoffe. Einf&uuml;hrung mit besonderem Hinblick auf die Obstkonserven-Industrie, </em>Braunschweig:&nbsp;Dr. Serger &amp; Hempel, 1937, p. 171.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"2uixg\" id=\"footnote-6\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-6-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Het Utrechts Archief, Utrecht, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Utrecht, Kamer van Koophandel en Fabrieken, toegang 4004, inv. nrs. 09, dossier 8857 en 13, dossier 12095.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"s57te\" id=\"footnote-7\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-7-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC, USA, External Assets Investigation OMGUS, toegang M1922, dossier Pomosin Werke GmbH, Fisher KG, p. 37-43.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"hj5dv\" id=\"footnote-8\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-8-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank, Diary Version B, 1 and 27 April 1943, in: <em>The Collected Works</em>, transl. from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, London [etc.]: Bloomsbury Continuum, 2019.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Pomosin is known as a producer of pectin.",
                            "summary_nl": "Pomosin is bekend geworden als producent van pectine.",
                            "summary_en": "Pomosin is known as a producer of pectin.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124419,
                            "files": []
                        },
                        {
                            "id": 396124616,
                            "image": {
                                "id": 896,
                                "uuid": "ac160611-2c49-4e00-a5fb-8c2b1f38bf81",
                                "name": "A_Opekta_III_004",
                                "title": "Foto van medewerkers van Opekta Miep Gies, Isa Cauvern, Henk van Beusekom, Hetty Levie en Victor Kugler op het bordes van het kantoor aan de Singel 400, Amsterdam, 1935-1937",
                                "alt": "Vervaardiger onbekend. Fotocollectie: Anne Frank Stichting, Amsterdam",
                                "url": "https://images.memorix.nl/anf/thumb/1920x1080/01cd478c-9fad-9004-919a-0f61346ceb2a.jpg",
                                "path": null,
                                "filetype": "image",
                                "description": "Otto Frank richt in 1933 de Nederlandse tak van Opekta op, een van oorsprong Duits bedrijf dat zich richt op de import van pectine voor Nederlandse huishoudens. Pectine is een middel dat vruchten en gelei sneller laat geleren tot jam, en via advertenties, recepten in kranten en presentaties op beurzen wordt het product vanaf1933 aangeboden aan de detailhandel. In 1938 neemt Otto Frank het bedrijf Pectacon over van Johannes Kleiman en Ton Dunselman, een bedrijf dat handelt in specerijen en conserveermiddelen. Vanaf respectievelijk 1933 en 1937 werken Miep Gies en Bep Voskuijl voor het bedrijf. Vanwege de gedwongen arisering van het Joodse bedrijfsleven in 1941 gaat op 25 maart 1942 de tenaamstelling van de vergunning van Pectacon over op het bedrijf Gies & Co., waar Jan Gies de commissaris is en Viktor Kugler optreedt als directeur. Aanvankelijk profiteert Opekta net als veel andere Nederlandse bedrijven van de hervorming van de Nederlandse voedselvoorziening. Later in de oorlog en na het einde van de Tweede Wereldoorlog wordt de import van pectine moeilijker. In 1959 neemt de Keulse vestiging van Opekta de Amsterdamse tak over, later wordt het bedrijf overgenomen door Dr. Oetker. De Anne Frank Stichting beheert van Opekta objecten uit de periode van 1935 tot en met 1955. Het betreft verpakkingsmateriaal voor pectine en andere producten, voorwerpen die werden gebruikt om de pectine te produceren, zakelijke administratie en correspondentie, reclamemateriaal en foto's van het personeel. Dit object is een voorbeeld uit deze collectie.",
                                "author": "Collectie kan worden ingezet voor publiek.",
                                "copyright": "Status onduidelijk"
                            },
                            "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/onderwerpen/f997b534-3e67-4c27-b888-3680fa329ea2/",
                            "published": true,
                            "uuid": "f997b534-3e67-4c27-b888-3680fa329ea2",
                            "name": "Victor Kugler, work at Opekta",
                            "name_nl": "Victor Kugler werkzaam bij Opekta",
                            "name_en": "Victor Kugler, work at Opekta",
                            "description": "<p>Otto Frank visited Frans van Angeren&#39;s office <strong>in mid-July 1933</strong> in the company of his brother-in-law, Joop Hofhuis. There he met Victor Kugler, with whom he worked ever since.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a656r\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;At that time, Kugler worked for De Nederlansche Opekta Maatschappij until, in <strong>October 1940</strong>, he founded the company Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co. with Jan Gies, initially called La Synth&egrave;se.<sup data-footnote-id=\"azwmf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>A photograph has survived of Victor Kugler with four other Opekta employees on the pavement in front of the Singel 400 building, taken between <strong>1934 </strong>and <strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l5fub\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a656r\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach, Archief Ernst Schnabel: Victor Kugler aan Ernst Schnabel, 17 september 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"azwmf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l5fub\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Opekta_III_004: Foto van medewerkers van Opekta, staand op de stoep van Singel 400. De firma betrok dit perceel medio &rsquo;34 en Henk van Beusekom, die ook op de foto staat, verliet het bedrijf begin januari 1938.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_nl": "<p>Otto Frank bezocht <strong>half juli 1933</strong> het kantoor van Frans van Angeren in het gezelschap van diens zwager, Joop Hofhuis. Daar ontmoette hij Victor Kugler, met wie hij sindsdien samenwerkte.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a656r\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;Kugler werkte vervolgens voor de Nederlansche Opekta Maatschappij tot hij in <strong>oktober 1940</strong> met Jan Gies het bedrijf Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co. oprichtte, aanvankelijk genaamd La Synth&egrave;se.<sup data-footnote-id=\"azwmf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>Er is een foto bewaard gebleven van Victor Kugler met vier andere Opekta-employees op de stoep van het pand Singel 400. Deze is gemaakt tussen <strong>1934&nbsp;</strong>en <strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l5fub\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a656r\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach, Archief Ernst Schnabel: Victor Kugler aan Ernst Schnabel, 17 september 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"azwmf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l5fub\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Opekta_III_004: Foto van medewerkers van Opekta, staand op de stoep van Singel 400. De firma betrok dit perceel medio &rsquo;34 en Henk van Beusekom, die ook op de foto staat, verliet het bedrijf begin januari 1938.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "description_en": "<p>Otto Frank visited Frans van Angeren&#39;s office <strong>in mid-July 1933</strong> in the company of his brother-in-law, Joop Hofhuis. There he met Victor Kugler, with whom he worked ever since.<sup data-footnote-id=\"a656r\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;At that time, Kugler worked for De Nederlansche Opekta Maatschappij until, in <strong>October 1940</strong>, he founded the company Handelsvereeniging Gies &amp; Co. with Jan Gies, initially called La Synth&egrave;se.<sup data-footnote-id=\"azwmf\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>A photograph has survived of Victor Kugler with four other Opekta employees on the pavement in front of the Singel 400 building, taken between <strong>1934 </strong>and <strong>1937</strong>.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l5fub\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"a656r\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Deutsches Literaturarchiv, Marbach, Archief Ernst Schnabel: Victor Kugler aan Ernst Schnabel, 17 september 1957.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"azwmf\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Noord-Hollands Archief, Haarlem, Handelsregister Kamer van Koophandel Hilversum, inv. nr. 199, dossier 8859.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l5fub\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Anne Frank Stichting, Anne Frank Collectie, reg. code A_Opekta_III_004: Foto van medewerkers van Opekta, staand op de stoep van Singel 400. De firma betrok dit perceel medio &rsquo;34 en Henk van Beusekom, die ook op de foto staat, verliet het bedrijf begin januari 1938.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                            "summary": "Victor Kugler worked for De Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij.",
                            "summary_nl": "Victor Kugler werkte voor de Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij.",
                            "summary_en": "Victor Kugler worked for De Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij.",
                            "same_as": null,
                            "parent": 396124420,
                            "files": []
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                    "name_nl": "Opekta | Singel 400",
                    "name_en": "Opekta | Singel 400",
                    "uuid": "5c893854-c6f4-4ec1-8bc7-3f53d91174cc",
                    "content": "<p>The property previously housed the textile firm Hofhuis &amp; Janus. It was also the home address of Joop Hofhuis <strong>in the late 1920</strong>s,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0gizm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> and his brother-in-law owned it.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fbsaa\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> It therefore looks like Otto Frank was able to move to this location&nbsp;through his business network.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>From the <strong>summer of 1933</strong>, Opekta visited fairs and women&#39;s organisations across the country for years to demonstrate the product. In January <strong>1937</strong>, its own company kitchen served as a demonstration room. The second class of the Alkmaar household school visited the Singel on the 20th to learn the use of Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"72ns5\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>November of 1940</strong>, Opekta and Pectacon moved to Prinsengracht 263. A short time later, the paramilitary Resistance Division (WA) of the National Socialist Movement (NSB) occupied Singel 400 as a Unit House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ve9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0gizm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregisters, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422, gezinskaart J.A.W. Hofhuijs (een eerder gecorrigeerde verschrijving is bij de digitalering opnieuw overgenomen).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fbsaa\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"72ns5\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Huishoud- en industrieschool&rdquo;, <em>Alkmaarsche Courant</em>, 31 maart 1937, p. 2.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ve9r7\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2956, processen-verbaal inzake gevechten 10 en 11 februari 1941, verklaring P.B. Ruppert, d.d. 18 februari 1941; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 197.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_nl": "<p>In het pand was eerder de textielfirma Hofhuis &amp; Janus gevestigd. Ook was het <strong>eind jaren twintig</strong> het woonadres van Joop Hofhuis,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0gizm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> en zijn zwager was er eigenaar van.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fbsaa\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> Het ziet er dan ook naar uit dat&nbsp;Otto Frank zich hier via zijn zakelijk netwerk kon vestigen.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>Vanaf de <strong>zomer van 1933</strong> bezocht Opekta jarenlang in het hele land beurzen en vrouwenorganisaties om het product te demonstreren. In <strong>januari 1937</strong> diende de eigen bedrijfskeuken als demonstratielokaal. De tweede klas van de Alkmaarse huishoudschool kwam de 20e op het Singel langs om het gebruik van Opekta te leren.<sup data-footnote-id=\"72ns5\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>november van 1940</strong>&nbsp;vertrokken Opekta en Pectacon naar Prinsengracht 263. Korte tijd later had de paramilitaire Weerbaarheidsafdeling (WA) van de Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging (NSB) Singel 400 in gebruik als Vendelhuis.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ve9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0gizm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregisters, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422, gezinskaart J.A.W. Hofhuijs (een eerder gecorrigeerde verschrijving is bij de digitalering opnieuw overgenomen).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fbsaa\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"72ns5\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Huishoud- en industrieschool&rdquo;, <em>Alkmaarsche Courant</em>, 31 maart 1937, p. 2.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ve9r7\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2956, processen-verbaal inzake gevechten 10 en 11 februari 1941, verklaring P.B. Ruppert, d.d. 18 februari 1941; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 197.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "content_en": "<p>The property previously housed the textile firm Hofhuis &amp; Janus. It was also the home address of Joop Hofhuis <strong>in the late 1920</strong>s,<sup data-footnote-id=\"0gizm\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup> and his brother-in-law owned it.<sup data-footnote-id=\"fbsaa\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup> It therefore looks like Otto Frank was able to move to this location&nbsp;through his business network.</p>\r\n\r\n<p>From the <strong>summer of 1933</strong>, Opekta visited fairs and women&#39;s organisations across the country for years to demonstrate the product. In January <strong>1937</strong>, its own company kitchen served as a demonstration room. The second class of the Alkmaar household school visited the Singel on the 20th to learn the use of Opekta.<sup data-footnote-id=\"72ns5\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<p>In <strong>November of 1940</strong>, Opekta and Pectacon moved to Prinsengracht 263. A short time later, the paramilitary Resistance Division (WA) of the National Socialist Movement (NSB) occupied Singel 400 as a Unit House.<sup data-footnote-id=\"ve9r7\"><a href=\"#footnote-4\" id=\"footnote-marker-4-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[4]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"0gizm\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Dienst Bevolkingsregisters, Gezinskaarten, toegang 5422, gezinskaart J.A.W. Hofhuijs (een eerder gecorrigeerde verschrijving is bij de digitalering opnieuw overgenomen).</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"fbsaa\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"72ns5\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&ldquo;Huishoud- en industrieschool&rdquo;, <em>Alkmaarsche Courant</em>, 31 maart 1937, p. 2.&nbsp;</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"ve9r7\" id=\"footnote-4\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-4-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, inv. nr. 2956, processen-verbaal inzake gevechten 10 en 11 februari 1941, verklaring P.B. Ruppert, d.d. 18 februari 1941; Bianca Stigter, <em>Atlas van een bezette stad: Amsterdam 1940-1945</em>, Amsterdam: Atlas Contact, 2019, p. 197.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                    "position": "SRID=4326;POINT (4.88745 52.36892)",
                    "summary": "Singel 400 was the home of the Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij from late 1934 to late 1940.",
                    "summary_nl": "Singel 400 was van eind 1934 tot eind 1940 het onderkomen van de Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij.",
                    "summary_en": "Singel 400 was the home of the Nederlandsche Opekta Maatschappij from late 1934 to late 1940.",
                    "same_as": null,
                    "street": "Singel 400",
                    "zipcode": "",
                    "city": "Amsterdam",
                    "state": "Noord-Holland",
                    "land": "Nederland",
                    "location_events": [
                        248,
                        114
                    ]
                },
                "url": "https://research.annefrank.org/en/gebeurtenissen/8d855521-e228-4a1a-83f7-2ba215294b44/",
                "published": true,
                "uuid": "8d855521-e228-4a1a-83f7-2ba215294b44",
                "name": "Fire at Singel 400",
                "name_nl": "Brand op Singel 400",
                "name_en": "Fire at Singel 400",
                "content": "<p>Opekta used the ground floors of the building at Singel 400. Upstairs lived the artist&nbsp;Gerrit Jongert and his family. In April 1940, Jongert&#39;s little boy was playing with matches in an unguarded moment and started a fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l113a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The fire brigade rushed out with three fire engines and a ladder truck. Thirteen firemen used 4,500 litres of water from the Vecht river to put out the fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;In Jongert&#39;s home and studio, the panelling and some paintings were lost, but the ground floor only sustained water damage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"botib\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l113a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Brandweer en rechtsvoorgangers, toegang 635, inv. nr. 1239, dagboek van plaats gehad hebbende branden, 24 april 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"botib\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Brand in het atelier van een kunstschilder&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Utrechts Volksblad</em>, 25 april 1940, p. 10.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_nl": "<p>Opekta gebruikte de benedenverdiepingen&nbsp;van het gebouw aan Singel 400. Boven woonde de kunstschilder Gerrit Jongert&nbsp;met zijn gezin. In <strong>april 1940</strong> ontstond brand doordat het zoontje van Jongert in een onbewaakt moment met lucifers speelde.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l113a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;De brandweer rukte met drie motorspuiten en een ladderwagen uit. Dertien brandwachten gebruikten 4.500 liter Vechtwater voor het blussen.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;In de woning en het atelier van Jongert gingen de lambrizering en enkele doeken verloren, maar op de benedenverdieping was alleen waterschade.<sup data-footnote-id=\"botib\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l113a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Brandweer en rechtsvoorgangers, toegang 635, inv. nr. 1239, dagboek van plaats gehad hebbende branden, 24 april 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"botib\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Brand in het atelier van een kunstschilder&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Utrechts Volksblad</em>, 25 april 1940, p. 10.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "content_en": "<p>Opekta used the ground floors of the building at Singel 400. Upstairs lived the artist&nbsp;Gerrit Jongert and his family. In April 1940, Jongert&#39;s little boy was playing with matches in an unguarded moment and started a fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"l113a\"><a href=\"#footnote-1\" id=\"footnote-marker-1-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[1]</a></sup>&nbsp;The fire brigade rushed out with three fire engines and a ladder truck. Thirteen firemen used 4,500 litres of water from the Vecht river to put out the fire.<sup data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\"><a href=\"#footnote-2\" id=\"footnote-marker-2-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[2]</a></sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;In Jongert&#39;s home and studio, the panelling and some paintings were lost, but the ground floor only sustained water damage.<sup data-footnote-id=\"botib\"><a href=\"#footnote-3\" id=\"footnote-marker-3-1\" rel=\"footnote\">[3]</a></sup></p>\r\n\r\n<section class=\"footnotes\">\r\n<header>\r\n<h2>Footnotes</h2>\r\n</header>\r\n\r\n<ol>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"l113a\" id=\"footnote-1\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-1-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>Stadsarchief Amsterdam (SAA), Gemeentepolitie Amsterdam, toegang 5225, inv. nr. 7055, rapportenboek bureau Warmoesstraat, 24 april 1940, mut. 5.30 uur n.m.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"rpow7\" id=\"footnote-2\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-2-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>SAA, Brandweer en rechtsvoorgangers, toegang 635, inv. nr. 1239, dagboek van plaats gehad hebbende branden, 24 april 1940.</cite></li>\r\n\t<li data-footnote-id=\"botib\" id=\"footnote-3\"><sup><a href=\"#footnote-marker-3-1\">^</a> </sup><cite>&quot;Brand in het atelier van een kunstschilder&quot;,&nbsp;<em>Utrechts Volksblad</em>, 25 april 1940, p. 10.</cite></li>\r\n</ol>\r\n</section>",
                "date": "1940-04-24",
                "date_start": null,
                "date_end": null,
                "summary": "A playing child inadvertently caused a fire.",
                "summary_nl": "Een spelende kleuter veroorzaakte onbedoeld brand.",
                "summary_en": "A playing child inadvertently caused a fire.",
                "same_as": null,
                "subjects": [
                    396124430
                ],
                "persons": [
                    2087
                ],
                "files": []
            },
            "score": 2.0
        }
    ]
}